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DICTIONARY 

OF 


NATIONAL    BIOGRAPHY 


Abbadie Anne 


DICTIONARY 


OF 


NATIONAL    BIOGRAPHY 


EDITED   BY 


LESLIE    STEPHEN 


VOL.  I. 


Abbadie Anne 


MACMILLAN     AND     CO. 

LONDON  :  SMITH,  ELDER,  &  CO. 

1885 

.V 


pf\^ 


LIST    OF    WBITEES 


IN  THE  FIRST  VOLUMK. 


B.  A. .  • . .  Pbofbssob  Adamsok. 

S.  A Shkldon  Amos. 

A.  J.  A.  . .  Sis  Alxxandeb  John  Abbuthnot, 
JK.CS.I. 

T.  A.  A.  .  .  T.  A.  Abchbb. 

W.E.  A.  A.  W.  E.  A.  Axon. 

J.  E.  B.  . .  J.  E.  Bailkt,  F.S.A. 

G.  F.  B.  B.  G.  F.  BrssELL  Babkbb. 

T.  B Thomas  Batnb. 

E.  I.  B.     .  .  E.  IXOBESS  BSLL. 

G.  V.  B. . .  G.  Vkbb  Benson. 

G.  T.  B. . .  G.  T.  Bbttany. 

W.  G.  B.   .  The  Rev.  Pbofessob  Blaikib,  D.D. 

J.  B James  Bbittbn. 

A.  A.  B.  • .  Abthub  Aikin  Bbodbibb. 

B.  C.  B.  .  .  R.  C.  Bbowne. 
A.  H.  B.  .  A.  H.  Bullbn. 
T.  H.  C. . .  T.  Hall  Caine. 

H.  M.  C.  .  H.  Mannebs  Chichbsteb. 

A.  M.  C.    .  Mias  A.  M.  Clkbke. 
E.  M.  C.    .  Miss  E.  M.  Clkbke. 

D.  C.  .  / . .  The  late  Duttok  Ckx>K. 
T.  C Thompson  Coopbb,  F.SA. 

C.  H.  C. .  .  C.  H.  CooTK. 
J.  S.  C.  .  .  J.  S.  Cotton. 

W.  P.  C.    .  W.  P.  COUBTNET. 

M.  C The  Bet.  Pbofessob  Cbuohton. 

B.  E^  D. . .  Pbofessob  B.  K.  Douglas. 


T.  F.  T.  D. 
F  E 

A«    O.    Jlim    •    • 

W.  H.  F.  . 
E.  A.  F.  .  . 

V  •  vT.     .... 

R.  G 

J.  W.-G. .  . 
J.  T.  G.  . . 

.A.  vjr.    •  .  .  . 

E.  W.  G.  . 
A.  H.  G. .  . 
R.  E.  G.  .  . 

A.  B.  G.  .  . 

R.  H 

T.  F.  H.  .  . 
G.  J.  H. .  . 

w .  Xl.     .... 

W.H.   ... 

B.  D.  J.  .  . 
T    T 

.LaVa         aaaa 

C«  F.  K.  .  . 
X.  £i.  K..  .  . 

J.  8.  K...  .  . 

J.  K.  Li,    .  . 

H.  V.  L.  . . 
S.  li.  Ij.    .  . 


The  Rev.  T.  F.  Thiselton  Dter. 

Francis  Espinassb. 

A.  C.  Ewald. 

The  Hon.  and  Rev.  Canon  Fbe- 
mantle. 

Pbofessob  E.  A.  Fbeeman,  D.C.L. 

James  Gaibdner. 

Richard  Gabnett,  LL.D. 

J.  Westbt-Gibson,  LL.D. 

J.  T.  Gilbebt,  F.S.A. 

The  Rev.  Alexander  Gordon. 

E.  W.  GossE. 

A.  H.  Grant. 
R.  E.  Gbaves. 

The  Rev.  A.  B.  Gbosabt,  LL.D. 
Robert  Harbison. 
T.  F.  Hendbbson. 
Geobub  Jacob  Holtoakb. 
Miss  Jennett  Humphreys. 
The  Rev.  William  Hunt. 

B.  I).  Jackson. 
Thomas  Johnstone. 

C.  F.  Keaby. 
T.  E.  Kebbel. 
J.  S.  Keltie. 

J.  K.  Lauohton. 
Henri  van  Laun. 
S.  L.  Lee. 


VI 


List  of  Writers. 


S.  J.  L.      .  S.  J.  Low. 

H.  R.  L. . .  The  Rbv.  H.  R.  Luard,  D.D. 

O.  P.  M. . .  G.  P.  Macdonkll. 

J.  M-L.  .  .  .   JOHK  HaCDONBLL. 

M.  M.  . .  .  MsEAB  Mackat,  LL.D. 

T.  M Sib  Thbodobb  Mabtin,  K.C.B. 

J.  M James  Mew. 

A.  M Abthxjr  Milleb. 

<;.  M W.  Cosmo  Monkhousb. 

N.  M Norman  Moore,  M.D. 

J.  B.  M.  . .  J.  Bass  Muixinoer. 

J.  H.  O.  .  .  The  Rev.  Canon  Ovkbton. 

J.  B.  P.  .  .  J.  Balfour  Paul. 

J.  F.  P.   .  .  J.  F.  Paywe,  M.D. 

N.  P The  Rev.  Nichc^s  Pocock. 

£.  R Ebnbst  Radi>x>rd. 

J.  M.  R. .  .  J.  M.  RiGG. 


Gr.  F.  R.  .  .   G.  F.  RODWELL. 

J.  H.  R. . .  J.  H.  Round. 
L.  S-T.  . . .  Lewis  Sergeant. 
E.  S.  .    . .  Edward  Smith. 
W.  B.  S.  .  .  W.  Barclay  Squire. 
C.  E.  8.  . .  Miss  Stephen. 

L.  S Lbslie  Stephen. 

H.  M.  S. .  .  H.  M.  Stephens. 
H.  R.  T.  .  .  H.  R.  Tedder. 
E.  M.  T. . .  E.  Maunde  Thompson. 
W.  H.  T.  .  W.  H.  Tregellas. 

E.  V The  Rev.  Canon  Venables. 

A.  W.  W.  .  Profbssob  a.  W.  Ward,  LL.D. 
G.  F.  W. .  .  G.  F.  Warner. 
fl.  T.  W.  .  H.  Trueman  Wood. 
W.  W.  ...  Warwick  Wroth. 


V 


DICTIONARY 


OF 


NATIONAL    BIOGRAPHY 


Abbadie 


Abbadie 


ABBADIE,  JACQUES  (or  JAMES), 
D.D.(1654  ?-1727),dean  of  Killaloe,  preacher, 
and  christian  apolo^st,  was  bom  at  Nay, 
near  Pan,  probably  in  1654,  although  1657 
and  1658  have  been  given.  There  is  some 
colour  for  the  assertion  of  Mr.  Smiles  that 
he  was '  the  scion  of  a  distinguished  Beamese 
family ;'  although  it  is  probable  that  the 
poverty  of  his  parents  would  have  excluded 
him  from  a  learned  career  if  some  of  the 
leading  protestants  of  the  district  had  not 
charged  themselves  with  the  expenses  of 
his  education.  This  was  commenced  under 
M.  Jean  de  la  Placette,  the  minister  of  Nay, 
and  prosecuted  successively  at  Puylaurens, 
Saumur,  and  Sedan,  where,  as  is  generally 
said,  he  took  the  decree  of  D.D.  at  seventeen 
years  of  age.  An  obituanr  notice,  however, 
which  appeared  in  the  'Daily  Oourant'  for 
5  Oct.  172/ ,  says :  *  He  was  not  above  twentjr- 
two  when  he  undertook  of  himself  his  admi- 
rable treatise  on  the  "  Truth  of  the  Christian 
KeUgion."  A  few  years  later  he  took,  with 
vast  applause,  his  degree  of  doctor  in  divi- 
nity in  the  university  of  Sedan,  and  about 
the  same  year  he  was  sent  for  by  his  electoral 
highness,  Frederick  William,  elector  of  Bran- 
denbiuTflr,  to  be  minister  of  the  French  church 
at  Berfin.'  The  electoral  summons  found 
Abbadie  at  Paris,  whither  he  had  repaired  to 
study  the  masters  of  protestant  eloquence, 
and  it  was  conveyed  through  the  Count 
d'Espense,  who  had  been  commissioned  by 
his  master  to  make  the  selection. 

The  conffiegation  of  refugees,  small  enough 
at  first  to  be  accommodated  in  an  apartment 
of  the  Count  d'Espense's  residence,  was  aug- 
mented gradually  by  the  zeal  of  the  preacher, 
and  by  the  increased  emigration  to  Branden- 
bunr.  caused  by  the  revocation  of  the  edict 
of  Nantes  in  1685.  The  elector  ordered  the 
ancient  chapel  of  his  palace  to  be  prepared 

TOL.  I. 


for  the  congregation,  and  the  services  were 
frequentljr  attended  by  the  younger  members 
of  his  family.  Abbadie's  arrival  in  Berlin  has 
been  variously  assigned  to  the  years  1680 
and  1681.  During  seven  or  eight  years  he 
used  his  increasing  favour  with  the  elector 
to  relieve  the  distress  of  the  refugees  from 
France,  and  especially  from  his  native  pro- 
vince of  Beam. 

Among  the  earliest  literary  ventures  of 
Abbadie  w^ere  four  'Sermons  sur  divers 
Textes  de  TEcriture,*  4to,  Leyde,  1680 ;  '  In- 
flexions sur  la  Pr6sence  r6elle  du  Corps  de 
J6su8-Christ  dans  I'Eucharistie,'  12mo,  La 
Haye,  1685 ;  and  two  highly  adulatory  ad- 
dresses on  persons  in  high  stations,  entitled 
respectively  *Pan6gyrique  de  Monseigneur 
TElecteur  de  Brandebourg,'  1684,  4to  and 
8vo,  Berlin  and  Rotterdam ;  and  *  Pan6gy- 
riaue  de  Marie  Stuart,  Heine  d'Angleterre, 
d'Ecosse,  de  France,  et  dlrlande,  de^orieuse 
et  immortelle  m6moire,  d6c6d6e  h  Kensing- 
ton le  28  d6cembre  1694,'  8vo,  Amsterdam, 
1695,  also  published  in  England  as  'A Pane- 
gyric on  our  late  Sovereign  Lady,'  4to,  Lon- 
aon,  1695.  These  four  productions,  with  other 
occasional  sermons,  were  in  1760  repub- 
lished collectively,  in  three  8vo  volumes,  at 
Amsterdam,  and  preceded  by  an  '  Essai  his- 
torijue  sur  la  Vieet  les  Ouvrages  de  M.  Ab- 
badie.' The  i)amphlet  on  the  Eucharist  was 
also  renrinted  at  Toulouse,  in  1835,  under 
the  title  of  *  Quatre  Lettres  sur  la  Trans- 
substantiation,'  and  appeared  in  an  English 
translation,  by  Mr.  John  W.  Hamersley,  as 
the  'Chemical  Change  in  the  Eucharisty'^ito, 
London,  1867. 

Abbadie's  residence  at  Berlin  was  varied 
by  several  visits  which  he  paid  to  Hol- 
land in  1684,  1686,  and  1688,  chiefly  for 
the  purpose  of  superintending  the  printing 
of  several  of  his  works.    One  of  the  most 


jT-     ■ 


Abbadie 


Abbadie 


important  of  them  he  had  already  contem-  ' 

Slated  at  Paris ;  it  bore  the  title  of  *  Trait6 
e  la  V6rit6  de  la  Religion  chr6tienne/  2  vols. 
8vo,  Rotterdam,  1684.  The  book  went  through 
a  vast  number  of  editions  and  was  translated 
into  several  languages,  an  English  version, 
by  Henry  Lussan,  appearing  in  1694.    Com- 
pleted by  a  third  volume,  the  *Trait6  de  la 
I)ivinit6  de  Notre  Seigneur  J6sus-0hrist,'  it 
appeared  at  Rotterdam,  1689,  seventh  edition,  ; 
Amsterdam,  1729.     An  English  translation, 
entitled  *  A  Sovereign  Antidote  against  ^Vrian  ; 
Poyson,'  12mo,  appeared  in  London,  1719,  and 
ag^in  'revised, corrected,  and, in  a  few  places,  ' 
abridged,  by  Abraham  Booth,'  under  the  title  ; 
of  *  The  Deity  of  Jesus  Christ  essential  to  the  ' 
Christian  Religion,*  8vo,  London,  1777.    The 
entire  apology  for  Christianity  formed  by  the 
three  volumes  of  the  *  Trait6,'  which  com- 
bated severally  the  heresies  of  atheism,  deism, 
and  Sociniamsm,  was  received  with  unani- 
mous praise  by  protestants  and  catholics. 
Abbadie  continued  to  occupy  his  pastorate  at 
Berlin  until  the  death  of  tne  great  elector, 
which  took  place  29  April  1688.    He  then 
accepted  the  invitation  of  Marshal  Schom- 
berff  to  accompany  him  to  Holland  and  Eng-  '■ 
land,  and  in  the  autumn  of  1689  he  went  to 
Ireland  with  the  marshal.    It  was  in  the 
Irish  camp  that  Abbadie  commenced  one  of 
his  most  successful  works,  which  was  pub- 
lished at  Rotterdam  in  1692,  as '  L'Art  ae  se 
connoitre  soi-meme;  ou,  La  Recherche  des 
Sources  de  la  Morale,'  8vo,  and  went  through 
many  editions  and  amplifications.     Transla^ 
tions  of  this  work  into  other  languages  in- 
clude a  popular  English  version  by  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Woodcock,  *  The  Art  of  Knowing 
One-self,'  12mo,  Oxford,  1694. 

After  the  battle  of  the  Boyne,  Abbadie 
repaired  to  London,  where  he  was  presently 
appointed  minister  of  the  French  church  in 
the  Savoy,  which  had  been  founded  about 
the  year  1641.  Abbadie  subs^uently  pub- 
lished a  revised  version  of  the  French  trans- 
lation of  the  English  litur^  used  at  this 
church,  with  an  epistle  dedicatory  to  King 
George  I.  Abbadie's  sermons  have  been  vari- 
ously judged.  He  was  often  .appointed  to 
deliver  occasional  discourses,  both  m  London 
and  Dublin,  but  his  want  of  facility  in  Eng- 
lish prevented  his  preferment  in  England, 
and  also  excluded  him  from  the  deanery  of 
St.  Patrick's,  Dublin,  to  which  William  lU 
wished  to  promote  him.  Abbadie's  health 
suffered  from  devotion  to  his  duties  in 
the  Savoy,  and  from  the  climate  of  this 
country.  He  therefore  settled  in  Ireland, 
and  in  1699  the  deanery  of  Killaloe  was  con- 
ferred upon  him  by  the  king,  whoee  special 
&your  he  had  attracted  by  a  spirited  Vindi- 


cation of  the  Revolution  of  1688,  *  Defense 
de  la  Nation  Britannique,'  12mo,  La  Haye, 
1693,  written  in  answer  to  Bayle's  *  Avis 
important  aux  R6fugi6s,'  1690,  and  by  the 
funeral  oration  on  Queen  Mary  (Cotton, 
Fasti  Ecclesice  Hibemicce^  i.  412;  Dwteb, 
Diocese  of  Killaloe,  8vo,  Dublin,  1878).  Ab- 
badie had  also  written,  at  the  request  of  the 
king, '  Histoire  de  la  demiere  Conspiration 
d'Angleterre,'  8vo,  London,  1696,  which  was 
reprinted  in  Holland  and  translated  into 
English,  and  for  which  the  Earl  of  Portland 
and  Secretary  Sir  William  Trumbull  placed 
original  documents  at  the  author's  disposal. 
It  was  this  work,  now  extremely  scarce, 
that  chiefly  helped  Abbadie's  preferment. 
After  its  production,  *  his  majesty  sent  him 
to  Ireland,  with  an  order  to  the  lords  jus- 
tices to  confer  upon  him  some  difi;iiity  in 
the  church,  which  order  was  complied  with 
by  his  promotion  to  the  deanery  of  fcllalow  * 
(Daily  Courant,  5  Oct.  1727). 

The  remainder  of  Abbadie's  life  was 
spent  in  writing,  preaching,  and  in  the  per- 
formance— not  too  sedulous,  for  he  was  fre- 
quently absent  from  his  benefice — of  the  or- 
ainary  duties  of  his  office,  varied  by  visits  to 
England  and  to  Holland,  where  most  of  his 
booKs  were  printed.  Amongst  his  productions^ 
of  this  period  the  principal  was  entitled  '  La 
V6rit6  de  la  Religion  Cnr6tienne  R6form6e,* 
2  vols.  8vo,  Rotterdam,  1717,  second  edition 
1718,  a  controversial  treatise  which  in  its  four 
parts  attacks  the  characteristic  doctrines  of 
the  Romish  church ;  it  was  translated  into 
English,  for  the  use  of  the  Roman  catholics  of 
his  diocese  of  Dromore,  by  Dr.  Halph  Lam- 
bert, afterwards  bishop  of  Meath.  The  work 
was  completed  in  1723  in  *  Le  Triomphe  de 
la  Provictence  et  de  la  Religion ;  ou,  I'Ouver- 
ture  des  sept  Seaux  par  le  Fils  de  Dieu,  ou 
I'on  trouvera  la  premidre  partie  de  I'Apoca- 
lypse  clairement  expliqu6e  par  ce  qu'il  y  a 
de  plus  connu  dans  I'llistoire  et  de  moins 
contests  dans  la  Parole  de  Dieu.  Avec  une 
nouvelle  et  tr^s-sensible  D6monstration  de 
la  V6rit6  de  la  Religion  Chr6tienne,'  4  vols. 
12mo,  Amsterdam.  Abbadie  visited  Hol- 
land to  see  *  La  V^rit6 '  through  the  press ; 
and  afterwards  stayed  more  than  three  years 
at  Amsterdam,  1720-23,  during  the  prepara- 
tion of  *  Le  Triomphe '  and  other  works. 
He  returned  to  Ireland  in  1723.  Abbadie's 
income  as  dean  of  Killaloe  was  so  small  that 
he  could  not  afford  a  literarv  amanuensis ; 
and  Dr.  Boulter,  archbishop  of  Armagh,  hav- 
ing appealed  in  vain  to  Lord  Carteret,  the 
lord  lieutenant,  on  Abbadie's  behalf,  gave  him 
a  letter  of  introduction  to  Dr.  Edmund  Gib- 
son, bishop  of  London,  and  Abbadie  left  Ire- 
land. He  established  himself  at  Marylebone, 


Abbot  3  Abbot 

iRrbere  be  devoted  much  time  and  care  to  the  Dorsetshire  from  the  year  1 100.  when  Richard 

revision  of  his  printed  works  for  a  complete  Abbot  was  high  sheritf  <ft  the  county :  bat 

•edition  in  four  volumes,  in  which  were  also  the  immediate  ancestors  of  the  Speaker  had 

to  be  included  two  unpublished  treatises,  resided  for  some  generations  at  Snaftesburv. 

'  Xouvelle  Manieie  de  prouver  ITmmortalit6  Charles  was  sent  to  Westminster  in  March 

de  TAme,*  and  '  Notes  sur  le  Commentaire  1763,  before  he  was  six  years  old,  and  at  the 

philoeophique  de  M.  Bayle.'    Relying  upon  age  of  thirteen  was  admitted  *  into  college.' 

a  remarkable   memory,  he   put   off  writmg  In  1775  he  was  elected  to  Christ  Church, 

until  copy  was  demanded  by  the  printer,  where  he  went  into  residence  in  January  1776. 

These  two  treatises  were  thus  unfinished.  He  won  the  college  prize  for  Latin  verse  in  hia 

and  no  trace  of  them  could   be  found  after  first  year,  and  in  his  sectind  the  chancellor's 

his  death.     Ue  died  at  his  lodging  at  Mary-  prize)  the  subject  being  *Petrus  Magnus;' 

lebone  on  Mondav,  25  Sept.  1727,  in  the  74th  and  so  highly  were  such  performances  valued 

jear  of  his  age  (Haify  Cuurant,  5  Oct.  1727;  at  that  time,  that  the  Empress  Catharine,  to 

I}aify  F&Btf  6  Oct.  17'27 ;  Historical  jReffistery  whom  the  verses  had  been  presented,  sent 

1727).  him  a  gold  medal.     At  tliis  time  the  well- 

[Xiceron's  Mimoires  pour  servir  A  raistoire  ^own  scholar,  Markham,  was  dean  of  Christ 

des  Hommes  illiiKtreii  dans  la  IWpnbliqne  ties  Church ;   and  for  five  successive  years  the 

Lettres,  vol.  xxxiii. ;  Etsai  historiqne,  prefixed  chancellor  s  prize  was  carried  off  bv  Christ- 

to  Sermons  et  Panegyriqnes,  1760 ;  Bum's  Hi»-  Church  men,  among  them  being  Abbot,  Lord 

torj  of  the  FrenchTwalloon,  Dutch,  and  other  Wellesley,  and  Lonl  Grenville.     On  leaving 

Foreign  Protetitant  Refugees  settled  in  England,  Oxford  in  the  summer  of  1 778,  Abbot  spent  a 

8vo,  £ondon,  1846 ;  MM.  Haag's  La  France  Pro-  year  in  Switzerland  in  the  studv  of  the  civil 

testante;  Illaire's  Etude  sur  Jacques  Abbadie  law,  and  in  the  year  following  took  chambers 

consider*  comme  PrWiaiteur,  8to    Strasburg.  }„  Lincoln's  Inn,  and  began  to  keep  terms  at 

1858;  Weisss  History  of  the  French  Protestant  the  Middle  Temple 

Refugees,  1854 ;  AgneVs  Protestant  Exiles  from        j^  ^y^^  Abbot  was  elected  Vinerian  scho^ 

France  in  the  reign  of  Lonis  XIV.  2nd  edinon.  j^^   ^^  ^^^  university  of  Oxford,  and  five 

'         '•'  '  *      I  vears  afterwards  Vinerian  fellow,  appoint- 

ABBOT,  CHARLES 
aometime  fellow  of  N( 
his  M.A.  degree 

and  D.D.  in  1802.     He  was  vicar  of  Oakley  upon  transferrinfr  his  attentions  to  the  ejuitv 

Kavnes  and  Goldington,  Bedfordshire,  an'd  courts,  he  found  it  necessarv  to  resign  his  fel- 

<;haplain  to  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale.    In  lowship  and  reside  in  London.   He  was  now 

1798  he  published  a  *  Flora  Bedfordiensis,'  and  earning  by  his  profession  about  1 ,500/.  a  vear ; 

in  1807  a  volume  of  sermons  entitled  *  Paro-  but  the  work  of  the  bar  was  t(x>  hard  for  him  : 

chial  Divinity.*     He  also  wrote  a  *  Monodv  *  a  life  of  unceasing  and  ungrateful  toil,*  he 

on  the  Death  of  Horatio,  Lord  Nelson,*  in  calls  it,  *from  daybreak  to  midnight.'    Ac- 

1805.     His  herbarium,  prepared  bv  his  wife,  cordingly  in  1794  he  accepted  the  office  of 

iapreservedatTurvey  Abbey;  it  is" contained  clerk  of  the  rules  in  the  court  of  King's 

infivefolio  volumes,  but  its  value  for  critical  Bench,  a  place  worth  2,700/.  a  year.    He 

purposes  is  but  smalL     He  became  a  fellow  discharged  his  duty  energetically  for  seven 

of  the  Linnean  Society  in  1793,  and  died  at  years,  collecting  and  endorsing  old  records 

Bedford,  October  1817.  which  had  been  left  to  moulder  in  garrets, 

[Gent.  Mag.  1817,  ii.  378 ;  Journal  of  Botany.    ??.^  T^^^'I!^  ^T,  ^^*  ^"'•.  ^^^  "*^  f  A^^ 

1881  n  401  J  B.        Kings  Bench.     At  the  expiration  of  this 

*  *^*      *■'  *  I  period  the  Duke  of  I>e<Mis,  who  had  been  his 

ABBOT,  CHARLES,  first  Barox  Col-  ,  schoolfellow  at  Westminster,  offered  him  the 
CHESTER  (1757-1829),  speaker  of  the  House  borough  of  Helston  in  Cornwall.  Abbot 
of  Commons,  1802-1817,  was  bom  14  Oct.  |  accepted  the  ofler,  and  took  his  seat  in  the 
1767,  at  Abmgdon,  Berkshire.  His  father,  ,  House  of  Commons  in  the  autumn  of  1795. 
the  Rev.  John  Abbot,  D.D.,  was  a  fellow  of  l  Having  turned  his  attention  to  theintroduc- 
Balliol  College,  Oxford,  and  rector  of  All  |  tion  of  practical  improvements  in  legislation, 
Saints,  Colchester.  His  mother  was  Sarah,  in  his  first  session  he  obtained  a  committee 
danghter  of  Mr.  Jonathan  Farr,  citizen  of  to  inquire  into  the  manner  of  dealing  with 
London.  Dr.  Abbot  died  in  1760,  and  his  expiring  laws.  Its  report  established  the 
widow  subsequently  became  the  wife  of ,  practice  of  making  complete  annual  tables 
Jeremy  Bentham,  £00.,  father  by  a  former  of  the  temporary  laws  of  the  United  King- 
marriage  of  the  weU-known  writer  on  juris-  dom,  so  tnat  none,  as  had  formerly  hap- 
pradenoe.    The  Abbots  had  been  settled  in  ,  pened,  should  expire  unobserved.    In  1797 

b2 


Abbot 


Abbot 


he  brought  before  parliament  a  plan  for  the 
due  promulgation  of  the  statutes  in  all  public 
officeB  and  courts  of  justice,  including  magis- 
trates* courts,  by  furnishing  them  with  a  copy 
of  all  acts  of  parliament  as  soon  as  printed ; 
thus  enabling  them  to  see  readily  the  state  of 
the  law  which  they  had  to  administer,  instead 
of  being  obliged  to  refer  to  private  collections 
of  acts.  He  was  also  '  exceedingly  desirous 
to  have  introduced  a  more  improved  style 
and  diction  in  all  public  acts,  but  the  matter 
was  full  of  difficulties,  and,  though  exhorted 
by  all,  he  was  helped  by  none.'  The  project 
therefore  fell  to  the  ground  {Memoir), 

In  1797  a  finance  committee  was  appointed 
by  Pitt,  of  which  Abbot  was  the  chairman ; 
and  for  two  years  he  gave  his  undivided  at- 
tention to  it.  The  committee  made  thirty- 
six  reports,  of  which  many  were  drawn  up 
by  Abbot  himself;  and  one  of  the  most  bene- 
ficial results  of  his  investigations  was  a 
bill  for  charging  public  accountants  with 
the  payment  of  interest.  In  the  year  1800 
he  obtained  a  committee  to  inquire  into  the 
condition  of  the  national  records.  And  in 
December  of  the  same  year  he  introduced 
the  first  Census  Act  for  ascertaining  the 
population  of  Great  Britain. 

Abbot  had  always  lived  on  terms  of  great 
intimacy  with  Addington,  and  on  the  latter 
becoming  prime  minister  in  February  1801, 
the  member  for  Helston  was  selected  to  fill 
the  post  of  chief  secretary  for  Ireland.  The 
office  of  secretary  of  state  for  Ireland,  which 
was  then  held  by  Lord  Castlereagh,  was  at 
the  time  abolished,  and  to  do  the  work  of  the 
office  a  secretary  to  the  lord  lieutenant,  and 
a  keeper  of  the  priv-j  seal  for  Ireland,  a  sine- 
cure office  which  might  be  held  for  life,  were 
appointed.  The  latter  post  was  added  to 
Abbot's  secretaryship  to  compensate  him  for 
the  loss  of  his  situation  in  the  King's  Bench. 
He  arrived  in  Ireland  in  July  1801,  and  in  the 
following  October  received  the  tidings  of  the 
peace  of  Amiens,  which  liberated  tne  Irish 
government  from  its  gravest  anxieties.  The 
remainder  of  his  term  of  office  was  devoted 
to  those  official  and  departmental  reforms 
for  which  he  was  so  eminently  qualified; 
but  on  the  death  of  Ijord  Clare,  the  Irish 
lord  chancellor,  in  January  1802,  Sir  John 
Mitford,  the  successoi:  of  Addington  in  the 
speakership,  received  the  great  seal,  and 
Abbot  was  recalled  from  Dublin  to  occupy 
the  vacant  chair.  His  diary  and  correspond- 
ence whilst  in  Ireland  may  still  be  reaa  with 
great  profit. 

Abbot  was  elected  to  the  speakership  on 
11  Feb.  1802.  He  paid,  he  says,  to  his  nre- 
decessor  1,060/.  for  tne  state  coach  which  nad 
been  buUt  in  1701, 1,000/.  for  wine,  and  500/. 


for  furniture.  At  the  general  election  or 
1802  the  new  speaker  was  returned  for 
Woodstock,  a  seat  which  he  held  till  1806^ 
when,  on  the  dissolution  of  parliament  b^ 
Lord  Grenville,  he  was  returned  for  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford.  His  tenure  of  office  was 
far  from  uneventful.  It  fell  to  his  lot  to  give 
the  casting  vote  on  Mr.  WTiitbread's  resolu- 
tions impugning  the  conduct  of  Lord  Melville 
as  treasurer  of  the  navy,  amid  a  scene  long 
remembered  as  one  of  the  most  striking  that 
have  ever  been  witnessed  within  the  walls  of 
the  House  of  Commons.  Mr.  Pitt  had  moved 
the  previous  question,  and  on  the  division  the 
numbers  were  216  on  each  side.  Abbot  turned 
as  white  as  a  sheet,  says  an  eye-witness,  and 

Eaused  for  at  least  ten  minutes,  after  which 
e  explained  very  briefly  his  reasons  for 
voting  in  favour  of  the  question  being  put, 
which  was  accordingly  put  and  carried,  to 
the  intense  grief  of  Mr.  Pitt,  who  pulled  his 
cocked  hat  over  his  face  to  hide  the  tears- 
which  trickled  down  his  cheeks. 

Two  important  controversies,  touching  the 
duty  and  authority  of  the  speaker,  occurred 
during  Abbot's  speakership.    The  earlier  of 
the  two  arose  on  tne  resistance  by  Sir  Francis 
Burdett  to  the  execution  of  the  speaker's  war- 
rant for  committing  him  to  the  Tower  in  the 
year  1810.    Sir  Francis  denied  the  legality 
of  the  warrant,  and  refused  to  surrender  to- 
it;  whereupon  the  question  arose  whether 
the  sergeant-at-arms  was  empowered  by  Mr. 
Abbot's  warrant  to  break  open  the  doors  of 
his  house.    The  attorney-general.  Sir  Vicary 
Gibbs,  gave  a  very  gruarded  opinion;  but 
one,  nevertheless,  on  wliich  the   sergeant 
felt  justified  in  acting :  he  forced  Burdett's 
doors,  and  the  prisoner  was  conveyed  to  the 
Tower,  where  he  remained  till  the  prorogation^ 
set  him  free.    He  at  once  brought  an  action 
against  both  the  speaker  and  the  sergeant  in 
the  court  of  Kin^s  Bench,  when  judgment 
was  given  for  the  defendants.    The  question 
was  carried  by  writ  of  error  to  the  Exchequer 
Chamber,  and  afterwards  to  the  House  of 
Lords,  but  in  each  case  with  the  same  result. 
The  second  of  the  two  questions  raised 
during  Abbot's  tenure  of  office  was  the  right 
of  the  speaker  to  include  in  his  address  to  the 
sovereign  on  the  prorogation  of  parliament 
a  reference  to  measures  to  which  the  house 
had  not  given  its  consent.    In  his  address  to 
the  prince  regent  in  July  1813,  Abbot  had 
introduced  some  remarks  on  the  bill  for  the 
removal  of  Roman  catholic  disabilities  which 
had  been  defeated  in  committee.    Mr.  Grant 
said  in  the  debate,  *  What  it  is  not  lawful 
for  the  king  to  notice,  it  is  not  lawful  for  the 
speaker  to  express.'    Lord  Morpeth  moved, 
6n  22  April  1814,  that  the  address  of  the? 


Abbot 


Abbot 


speaker  on  the  occasion  referred  to  should  not 
be  drawn  into  a  precedent.  The  motion  was 
-defeated  hy  a  large  majority,  hut,  according 
to  Sir  Erskine  May,  the  correctness  of  the 
doctrine  upheld  by  the  opposition  has  since 
been  recognised  in  practice,  and  the  speaker 
in  addressing  her  majesty  adverts  only  to  the 
most  important  measures  which  have  received 
the  sanction  of  parliament  during  the  session. 

Seventy  years  ago  the  office  of  speaker  was 
more  laborious  than  it  is  now,  and  in  1816 
Abbot's  health  gave  way,  and  he  was  obliged 
to  send  in  his  resignation.  He  retired  with 
a  peera^,  and  selected  the  title  of  Colchester; 
be  received  a  pension  of  4,000/.  a  year  for 
iiimself,  and  3,000/.  for  his  immediate  suc- 
cessor. 

Abbot  is  certainly  to  be  classed  among  the 
most  distinguished  men  who  liave  ever  occu- 
pied the  chair.  Perceval  vainly  urged  him 
to  become  secretary  of  state  in  1809.  "VMiit- 
bread  said  that  he  was  superior  to  any  other 
.speaker  he  had  ever  known.  He  was  formally 
thanked  by  the  House  of  Commons  in  1808 
for  his  upright,  able,  and  impartial  conduct ; 
and  both  IJord  Liverpool  and  Lord  Castle- 
Teagh  spoke  of  him  on  his  retirement  in  terms 

X'ficant  of  the  general  high  opinion  in 
b  his  qualities  were  held.  His  short 
speeches  recorded  in  the  Journals  of  tlie 
House  of  Commons,  thanking  admirals  and 
generals  for  their  exploits  during  the  ereat 
war,  are  models  of  dignified  panegyric.  These 
jspeeches  were  collected  into  one  volume  by 
Sir.  John  Hickman,  Lord  Colchester's  secre- 
tary, and  published  in  1829. 

Abbot's  services  as  an  ex-officio  trustee  of 
the  British  Museum  had  been  so  valuable 
that  on  his  retirement  from  office  the  number 
of  trustees  was  increased  in  order  that  he 
might  be  elected.  The  appointment  of  days 
for  the  free  admission  of  the  public,  the  open- 
ing of  the  library  for  the  accommodation  of 
students,  and  the  purchase  of  almost  all  the 
collections  that  were  added  to  it  between  the 
years  1802  and  1817,  are  due  to  his  sugges- 
tions. 

The  five  years  immediately  following  his 
retirement  from  the  speakership  were  de- 
TOted  to  the  restoration  of  his  health ;  and 
frpom  1819  to  1822  he  travelled  through  the 
greater  part  of  France  and  Italy,  returning 
to  England  just  before  the  reconstruction  of 
the  ministry  consequent  on  the  death  of 
Lord  Londonderry.  During  the  next  seven 
years  he  continued  to  take  an  active  part  in 
politics.  He  was  a  tory  of  the  Siomouth 
rather  than  the  Pitt  schooL  He  was  strongly 
opposed  to  the  admission  of  the  Roman  ca- 
tholics to  parliament ;  and  he  has  left  us  a 
•-very  full  account  of  the  political  negotiations 


of  1827,  adopting  the  strong  anti-Canning 
view  which  aistinsruished  all  that  section  of 
the  tories.  On  6  Feb.  1829  he  made  his  last 
speech  in  the  House  of  I^ords.  He  was  then 
far  from  well;  in  the  following  month  he 
became  seriously  ill.  He  lingered  on  throuffh 
April,  and  died  rather  suddenly  on  7  May,  m 
the  72nd  year  of  his  age. 

Shortly  after  his  acceptance  of  the  speak- 
ership, Abbot  purchased  the  estate  of  Kid- 
brooke,  in  Sussex,  which  was  his  country 
retreat  for  the  remainder  of  his  life.  Here 
he  amused  himself  with  planting  and  gar- 
dening", with  drilling  volunteers,  and  dis- 
char^ng  the  duties  of  a  magistrate.  He  had 
married,  in  Dec.  1796,  Miss  Elizabeth  Gibbes, 
eldest  daughter  of  Sir  Philip  Gibbes,  and 
was  succeeded  at  his  death  by  his  eldest 
son  Charles,  who  was  postmaster-general  in 
1858,  and,  dving  in  1867,  was  succeeded  by 
the  present  Lord  Colchester,  the  third  peer. 

Lord  Colchester's  Diary  and  Correspond- 
ence were  published  by  his  son  in  1861  ; 
they  extend  over  a  period  of  thirty-four  years, 
from  1795  to  1829,  and  are  among  the  most 
valuable  collections  of  the  kind.  The  me- 
moir by  the  editor  is  the  principal  source 
of  information.  A  selection  from  Abbot's 
speeches  on  the  Roman  catholic  questio4 
appeared  in  1828,  and  the  collection  of  his 
addresses  to  military  and  naval  commanders, 
which  have  iK'en  already  referred  to,  was 
published  in  1829. 

[Diary  aud  Correspondence  of  Lord  Colchester, 
by  the  second  Lord  Colchester,  3  vols.  1861  ;  Life 
of  Mr.  Perceval,  by  Spencer  Waljiole,  1874  ;  Man- 
ning's Lives  of  the  Speakers;  Annual  Rt^gister, 
1820.]  T.  E.  K 

ABBOT,  GEORGE  (1562-1633),  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  was  bom  at  Guildford 
on  29  Oct.  1562.  His  father,  Maurice  Abbot, 
was  a  clothworker  of  the  town ;  his  mother's 
maiden  name  was  Alice  March  or  Marsh; 
their  cottage,  the  birthplace  of  the  archbishop, 
was  *  by  the  river  s  side,  near  to  the  bridge  on 
the  north  side  in  St.  Nicolas*  parish,*  and, 
after  serving  for  some  years  in  the  seven- 
teenth and  eighteenth  centuries  as  an  ale- 
house with  the  sign  of  *  The  Three  Mariners,* 
remained  standing  until  1864  (Mukrat*8 
Surrey  f  p.  74).  Abbot's  parents  were  staunch 
protestants;  they  had  first  'embraced  the 
truth  of  the  Gospel  in  Kin^  Edward's  days, 
and  were  persecuted  for  it  m  Queen  Mary's 
reign  (by  Dr.  Story  of  infamous  memory), 
and  notwithstanding  all  troubles  and  moles- 
tations continued  constant  in  the  profession 
of  the  truth  till  their  death,'  wnich  took 
place  witliin  ten  days  of  each  other  in 
September  1606.    George  was  their  second 


Abbot  6  Abbot 

aon ;  their  eldest  was  Robert,  bishop  of  Salis-  in  bishops  a  superintending  pastorate  and  no 
bury;  their  sixth  and  youngest  son,  Maurice,  separate  order  of  the  ministry.  He  always 
became  an  eminent  London  merchant  (FuL-  forcibly  advocated  reasonable  obedience  to 
LEB^s  Abel  RedimvuSj  p.  639).  Singiilarly  sue-  |  the  crown  and  all  duly  constituted  authority, 
cessful  as  were  the  careers  of  this  *  happy    but  whenever  the  demands  of  loyalty  con- 


temion  of  brothers,*  it  was  on  George  alone 
that  the  hopes  of  his  family  were  Irom  the 
first  unmistakably  set.  Before  his  birth  his 
mother  had  a  curious  dream,  long  remem- 


flicted  with  his  sense  of  duty  he  did  not 
hesitate  to  act  in  accordance  with  the  latter. 
Abbot's  vehement  support  of  the  puritan 
position  soon  attracted  the  admiration  of 


bered  in  his  native  t-own,  prognosticating  a  '  Thomas  Sackville,  Lord  Buckhurst,  *  a  special 
great  career  for  him,  and  news  of  the  vision  '  maintainer  of  the  true  religion,'  who  became 
brought  Hhe  best  inhabitants  of  Guildford. . .  chancellor  of  the  university  in  1591,  and 
to  the  christening  of  the  child*  (Aubrey,  ;  appointed  Abbot  his  private  chaplain  soon 
-Mwce/Zantie*,  ed.  1857,  p.  58).  Abbot  received  afterwards.  Five  years  later  Oxford  con- 
his  early  education  at  the  free  grammar  school  '  firmed  this  mark  of  esteem.  On  6  Sept.  1597, 
at  Guildford,  and  was  *  there  bred  up  a  '  at  the  comparatively  early  age  of  thirty-five, 
scholar*  (t^t^.).  When  sixteen  years  ola  he  Abbot  was  elected  master  of  University 
entered  Balliol  College,  Oxford,  in  1582  took  College.  According  to  Clarendon's  unfriendly 
the  degree  of  B.A.,  and  became  a  probationer  judgment.  University  was  at  the  time  *  one 
fellow  of  his  college  on  29  Nov.  1583.  In  of  the  poorest  collets  in  Oxford,'  and  the 
1585  he  proceeded  M.A.,  and  at  the  same  I  '  learning  sufficient  fnr  that  province  *  small 
time  took  holy  orders.  During  eight  sue-  {History y  i.  126,  ed.  1849).  But  of  Abbot's 
ceeding  years  Abbot  devoted  hunself  to  the  own  learning  there  can  be  no  genuine  doubt, 
study  of  theolog}',and  to  tutorial  work  in  the  and  the  appointment  gave  him  many  oppor- 
university.  In  1593  he  received  the  degree  tunities  of  exhibiting  its  quality  with  enect. 
of  B.D.,  and  four  years  later  that  of  D.D.  ;  It  was  quickly  followed  by  his  nomination 
Abbot  rapidly  won  an  academical  reputa-  to  the  deanery  of  Winchester,  in  which  he 
tion  as  a  powerful  preacher  and  efficient  was  installed  on  6  March  1599-1600,  and 
lecturer.  His  sermons  at  St.  Mary's  drew  ,  before  the  year  was  out  Abbot  was  chosen 
large  congregations.  In  1594  he  began  a  |  vice-chancellor  of  the  university.  To  Lord 
course  of  lectures  on  the  book  of  Jonah,  con-  '  Buckhurst,  who  succeeded  Lord  Biirghley  as 
tinned  at  inter\als  for  many  years  *  both  ,  lord  high  treasurer  in  1599,  Abbot  ascribed 
winter  and  summer  on  Thursdav  mornings  allthesepreferments,  and  he  did  not  delay  the 
early,'  and  in  1597,  presumably  wiien  he  took  '  expression  of  his  gratitude.  W^riting  to  him 
the  degree  of  D.D.,  he  read  publicly  in  the  '  on  10  Oct.  1600,  Abbot  spoke  of  his  *  desire 
theological  school  at  Oxford  six  theses,  which  to  let  men  understand  with  how  honorable 
were  published  in  the  following  year.  The  a  regard  your  lordship  hath  been  pleased 
book  was  entitled  *  Quaestiones  sex  totidem  '  now  for  diverse  yeares  to  looke  upon  me,  and 
prselectionibus  in  Schola  Theologica  C)xoniro  !  of  your  lordship's  owne  disposition  at  every 

fro  forma  habitis  discussoe  et  disceptatie  anno  first  occasion  so  to  think  on  my  preferment, 
597,  in  quibus  e  sacra  Scriptura  et  Patribus,  ;  as  I  had  no  reason  in  my  conceit  to  looke  for 
quid  statuendum  sit  definitur,'  and  it  was  ,  or  in  any  way  expect '  (Dedication  to  Jmiah, 
aeemed  worthy  by  Abraham  Scultetus  of '  1600).  In  1603  and  in  1605  he  was  twice 
republication  at  Frankfort  in  1616.  In  this  reappointed  to  the  vice-chancellorship. 
TOiume,  as  in  all  his  published  works.  Abbot's  |  Abbot  put  all  his  energy  into  his  rapidly 
theological  position  was  forcibly  enunciated.  I  increasing  work  at  Oxford.  Although  a 
He  had  inherited  /rom  his  parents  a  strong  strict  disciplinarian  his  pupils  remembered 
affection  for  the  reformed  faith ;  Oxford,  as  him  with  affection  in  after  life.  W^ith  a 
he  knew  it  in  his  undergraduate  days,  was  ^very  towardly  one '  of  them.  Sir  Dudley 
a  puritan  stronghold,  and  its  tutors  were  ~ 
steeped  in  the  theology  of  Calvin  and  St. 
Augustine.  It  was  thus  that  Abbot  became 
*  stitfly  principled '  in  puritan  doctrines,  and 
his  views,  cast  in  a  dangerously  narrow 
mould,  took  from  his  habitually  gloomy  and 
morose  temperament  a  fanatical  colouring. 
A  natural  norror  of  disorder  distinguish^ 
him  &om  the  extreme  section  of  the  puritans, 
and  made  the  separatists  detestable  to  him. 
In  questions  of  church  government  he  was 
content  to  stand  by  episcopacy,  but  he  saw 


Digg^s,  he  remained  on  terms  of  the  closest 
intimacy  until  his  death.  *  He  calleth  me 
father,'  wrote  Abbot  in  1627,  *and  I  term 
his  wife  my  daughter.  His  eldest  son  is  my 
godson,  and  their  children  are  in  love  ac- 
counted my  grandchildren.'  Another  of  his 
pupils,  Sir  George  Savile,  who  married  a 
sister  of  Sir  Thomas  Wentworth,  afterwards 
Earl  of  Strafford,  left  his  son  on  his  death  ta 
Abbot's  guardianship.  In  1699  he  wrote  for 
his  pupils  a  useful  geographical  treatise — '  a 
briefe  aescription  of  the  whole  world' — which 


Abbot 


Abbot 


included  an  account  of  America,  and  was 
repeatedly  reprinted,  a  fifth  edition  appearing 
in  1664.  About  the  same  time  he  concluded 
his  lectures  on  Jonah,  which  received  very 
^neral  commendation,  and  he  published  them 
in  London  in  1600  with  a  dedication  to  Lord 
Buckhurst ;  in  1613  they  reached  a  second 
edition.  Their  occasional  digressions  into 
topics  of  general  interest,  like  the  prospects 
ot  ]frote8tantism  in  France,  explain  much  of 
their  popularity.  (A  reprint  of  the  work 
appeared  in  1845,  edited,  with  a  life  of  the 
author,  by  Grace  Webster.)  Throughout 
the  university  Abbot  at  the  same  time  kept 
strict  order  as  vice-chancellor.  He  caused  a 
number  of  religious  pictures,  which  he  re- 
garded as  incentives  to  idolatr}',  to  be  burnt 
in  the  market-place  of  the  town,  and  on 
27  April  1601  he  reported  to  the  chancellor 
how  he  had  arrested  one  Abraham  Colfe,  B.  A., 
of  Christ  Church,  *  for  publicly  in  the  hall 
nii|.lcing  a  verv  offensive  declsuration  in  the 
cause  of  the  late  Earl  of  Essex.'  But  in 
his  official  capacity  Abbot  was  also  sum- 
moned to  take  part  in  the  theological  con- 
troversies raging  outside  the  university.  The 
citizens  of  London,  who  were  mainly  puritan 
in  feeling,  were  in  1600  at  feud  with  liichard 
Bancroft,  their  bishop,  and  Abbot  with  the 
vice-chancellor  of  Cambridge  was  called  on  to 
arbitrate  in  the  dispute.  Its  origin  was  com- 
paratively simple.  A  crucifix  that  had  long 
atXKxi  in  Cheapside  had  fallen  down,  and  the 
bishop  had  oniered  its  re-erection.  To  this  the 
citizens  had  demurred,  and  Abbot's  opinion 
on  the  matter  was  invited.  He  unhesitatingly 
condemned  the  renovation  of  the  crucinx ; 

*  if,'  he  said,  *  a  monument  was  required  in 
Cheapeide,  let  an  obelisk  be  set  up  there.' 
But,  with  his  characteristic  hatred  of  unruli- 
ness,  he  discouraged  the  citizens  from  taking 
the  law  into  their  own  hands  {Letter  to  the 
Citizens  of  Ixmdon,  1600).  In  the  result 
Abbot's  advice  was  rejected,  and  a  plain  ; 
stone  cross  took  the  place  of  the  crucifix. 
But  his  remarks,  which  threw  him  into  disfa- 
vour with  Bancroft,  attracted  much  attention. 
*The  cross  in  Cheap  is  going  up,'  wrote 
Chamberlain  to  Carleton  (3  Feb.    1600-1), 

*  for  all  your  vice-chancellor  of  Oxford  and 
some  other  odd  divines  have  set  down  their 
censure  against  it '  (Chamberlain's  Letters^ 
Camd.  Soc.,  p.  102).  And  in  1602,  when 
Abbot  preached  in  London  at  the  Temple 
Church,  one  of  hi?  hearers  testified  to  nis 
assured  reputation  by  entering  notes  of  the 
sermon  in  his  diaiy  (Manninoiiam's  Diary y 
Camd.  Soc.,  pp.  126-7). 

At  Oxford,  as  in  London,  Abbot  was  not 
long  able  to  maintain  his  cherished  opinions 
un<mallenged.    Before  the  close  of  tne  six- 


teenth century  there  were  signs  of  change 
in  the  religious  atmosphere  of  the  university,* 
but  Abbot's  conservative  tone  of  mind  did 
not  enable  him  readily  to  grasp  their  signi- 
ficance. John  Buckeridge,  the  chief  tutor 
of  St.  John^s,  had  begun  to  brandish  *  the 
sword  of  Scripturt* '  against  the  puritans,  and 
his  pupil  and  later  colleague,  W  illiam  Laud, 
eagerly  followed  in  his  footsteps.  When 
Abbot  was  vice-chancellor  in  1603,  Laud  was 
proctor,  and  a  collision  between  the  two 
theologians  was  inevitable.  In  a  divinity 
lecture  delivered  at  St.  John's  College  in  the 
precedinfj  year  Laud  had  asserted  the  per- 
petual visibility  of  the  *  church  of  Christ 
derived  from  the  apostles  and  the  church  of 
Home, continued  in  that  church  (and  in  others 
of  the  east  and  south)  to  the  lieformation.* 
This  was  an  admission  of  the  beneficial  in- 
fluence of  the  papacy,  apiinst  which  Abbot 
rebelled.  According  to  I  leylin,  Laud's  friend 
and  biographer.  Abbot  from  that  time  *  con- 
ceived a  strong  grud^  against  [the  preacher], 
which  no  tract  of  time  could  either  abolish 
or  diminish,'  and  certain  it  is  that  in  1603  he 
at  once  sharply  reproved  him  and  drew  up  a 
summary  of  his  own  views  on  this  subject. 
It  was  Abbot's  endeavour  to  show,  by  aid 
of  much  curious  learning,  how  *the  noble 
worthies  of  the  christian  world,' among  whom 
he  onlv  numbered  opponents  of  the  papacy 
like  "VValdo,  Wycline,  Huss,  and  Luther, 
*  after  they  had  finished  their  course,  de- 
livered the  lamp  of  their  doctrine  from  one 
to  another.'  The  pamphlet  was  widely  cir^ 
culated  in  manuscript,  and  was  unfortunately 
published  by  an  anonymous  admirer  in  1624, 
when  Laud  was  in  a  position  to  use  it  to  the 
injury  of  Abbot's  reputation  with  the  king 
and  the  Duke  of  BucKingham  (Laud's  Diary y 
in  his  WorkSy  iii.  146).  It  appeared,  how- 
ever, without  Abbot's  name,  but  with  his 
arms — three  pears  impaled  with  the  arms  of 
the  see  of  Canterbury — engraved  on  the  title- 
page.  This  is  probably  the  work  of  Abbot's 
popularly  called  in  error  *  Look  beyond 
Luther*  (II.  Savage,  Ballioferyugy  p.  114). 
But  the  early  quarrels  with  Laud  did  not 
cease  here.  In  1606,  when  Dr.  Henry  Airay, 
provost  of  Queen's  and  a  friend  of  Abbot  s, 
was  vice-chancellor.  Laud  was  openly  repri- 
manded for  a  sermon  preached  at  St.  Mary's, 
*■  as  containing  in  it  sundry  scandalous  and 
popish  passages.'  And  Abbot,  according  to 
Laud's  sympathisers,  brought  all  his  influence 
to  bear  to  the  injury  of  the  oflender.  *  He 
so  violently  persecuted  the  poor  man,  and  so 
openly  branded  him  for  a  papist,  or  at  least 
very  popishly  inclined,  that  it  was  often 
made  an  heresy  (as  I  have  heard  from  his 
own  mouth)  for  any  one  to  be  seen  in  his 


Abbot 


8 


Abbot 


company,  and  a  misprision  of  heresy  to  give 
him  a  civil  salutation  as  he  walked  the 
streets '  (Hbylin,  ed.  1668,  p.  64). 

Laud  was  not  the  only  champion  of  dis- 
sentient views  that  Ahbot  thought  it  neces- 
sary to  attack  at  the  time.  ^  A  certain  auda- 
cious person  who  termeth  himself  Doctour 
Hill,*  a  seminary  priest,  had  represented  in  a 
book  printed  at  Antwerp  that  popery  was 

*  the  true  faith  of  Christ,  and  that  England 
was  ^  a  sinke  of  wickednesse  beyond  all  the 
nations  of  the  earth  *  (see  Foley,  RecordSy 
vi.  192).  The  volume  was  a  new  version  of 
Richard  Bristow^s  *  Motives  inducing  to  the 
Catholike  faith,*  *a  book  of  great  vogue  with 
the  papists*  (Stbypb,   AnnaUj  II.  i.  498). 

*  At  the  intreaty  of  others,'  Abbot  spent  a 
year  and  a  half  (1603-4)  in  preparing  a  re- 
futation of  Bristow's  and  Hill  s  logic,  and 
late  in  1604  he  published  at  Oxford,  with  a 
dedication  to  Lord  Buckhurst,  who  had  just 
been  created  Earl  of  Dorset,  a  fiercely  worded 
pamphlet,  'unmasking'  Dr.  Hill,  and  showing 
ten  of  his  reasons  *  to  be  very  weake,  and 
upon  examination  most  insufficient  for  the 
purpose.*  An  eloquent  eulogy  on  the  reipn 
of  Queen  Elizabeth  is  to  l^  found  in  its 
pages,  and  a  justifiable  attack  upon  Cardinal 
Allen's  writings.  A  continuation  of  the  work 
was  partly  written,  but  was  never  sent  to 
press.  The  heated  temper  in  which  Abbot 
conducted  controversial  discussion  did  not 
always  commend  itself  to  the  undergraduates, 
and  when  holding  the  office  of  vice-chancellor 
for  the  third  time  in  1605,  he  had  to  commit 
one  hundred  and  forty  of  them  to  prison  for 
disrespectfully  sitting  *  with  their  hats  on  *  in 
his  presence  at  St.  Mary's  Church  (Nichols, 
Progresses,  i.  559 J. 

In  1604  Abbot  s  scholarship  had  been  put 
to  a  more  dignified  employment.  Early  in 
that  year  a  new  translation  of  the  Bible  had 
been  resolved  on  at  the  Hampton  Court  con- 
ference, and  Abbot,  with  seven  other  Oxford 
graduates,  was  entrusted  with  the  respon- 
sible task  of  revising  the  older  translations 
of  the  four  gospels,  the  Acts,  and  the  Apoca- 
lypse. But  these  labours  did  not  withdraw 
him  from  polemical  literature  or  public  af- 
fairs. In  1606,  Abbot,  as  dean  of  Win- 
chester, attended  convocation.  The  assem- 
bly was  engaged  in  examining  a  work  by 
Dr.  Overall,  *  concerning  the  government  of 
God's  catholic  church  and  the  kingdoms  of 
the  whole  world.*  The  book  \'igorously  advo- 
cated the  doctrine  of  non-resistance  to  de facto 
rulers;  it  confirmed  its  conclusion  by  a  misty 
interpretation  of  Old  Testament  history,  and 
was  imagined  to  strike  a  crushing  blow  at 
the  political  theories  of  the  Roman  catholics. 
Conyocation  by  a  unanimous  vote  expressed  its 


high  approval  of  the  volume,  but  James  I  was 
dissatisfied  with  this  result :  he  feared  that 
Overall*s  doctrine  would  confirm  eveiy  suc- 
cessful usurper  in  undisturbed  possession  of 
the  throne.  Abbot  had  doubtless  taken  an 
active  part  in  the  discussion,  and  he  had  al- 
ready come  into  personal  relations  with  the 
king ;  once,  in  1603,  he  had  carried  to  him 
at  Woodstock  the  congratulations  of  the 
university  on  his  accession ;  and  again,  in 
1605,  he  had  been  much  in  his  company 
when  the  king  had  been  entertained  at  Ox- 
ford by  the  chancellor,  the  Earl  of  Dorset, 
and  had  honoured  with  his  presence  several 
formal  theological  debates  over  which  Abbot 
had  presided.  Upon  Abbot,  therefore,  James 
conferred  the  distinction  of  addressing  him 
a  letter,  partly  written  in  his  own  hand, 
stating  his  views  on  the  action  of  convoca- 
tion. *  Good  Dr.  Abbot,*  the  king  began,  *  I 
cannot  abstain  to  give  you  my  judgment  of 
your  proceedings  in  your  convocation,  as 
you  call  it.'  And  he  proceeded  to  point  out 
that  he  himself  was  no  mere  de  facto  ruler, 
but  owed  his  throne  to  the  highest  claims  of 
hereditary  right.  The  letter  marked  a  dis- 
tinct stage  in  the  growth  of  Abbot's  reputa- 
tion. 

In  1608  his  patron,  the  Earl  of  Dorset, 
died,  and  on  20  May  Abbot  preached 
the  sermon  at  his  funeral  in  Westminster 
Abbey;  it  was  published  soon  afterwards 
at  the  earnest  solicitations  *■  of  diners  of 
speciall  qualitie  and  note,*  with  a  dedication 
to  Cicely,  the  widowed  countess.  But  Ab- 
bot immediately  found  a  new  and  equally 
influential  patron.  He  became  chaplain  to 
the  Earl  of  Dunbar,  lord  high  treasurer  of 
Scotland,  who,  as  Sir  George  Hume,  had  be- 
come the  intimate  friend  of  James  I  before  his 
accession  to  the  English  throne,  and  while 
in  attendance  upon  him  Abbot  performed 
several  important  political  ser\'ices.  Lord 
Dunbar  had  for  some  years  devoted  himself 
to  the  re-establishment  of  episcopacy  in  Scot- 
land, a  project  in  which  the  king  was  deeply 
interested,  and  he  had  so  far  succeeded  sls  to 
have  obtained  an  act  of  parliament  for  the 
creation  of  a  number  of  bishops,  but  the  part 
they  were  to  play  in  the  presbyterian  system 
of  government,  which  was  to  remain,  as  far 
as  possible,  undisturbed,  was  not  yet  satis- 
factorily settled.  In  July  1608,  a  general 
assembly  was  summoned  at  Linlithgow,  to 
give  thorough  eff*ect  to  the  episcopal  reforms, 
and  Abbot,  with  Dr.  Higgins,  was  ordered  to 
accompany  Lord  Dunbar  to  put  the  claims 
of  episcopacy  before  the  Scotch  ministers. 
Abbot  was  well  received  at  Linlithgow. 
'  The  English  doctors,*  says  Calderwood,  the 
historian  of  the  Scotch  church, '  seemed  to 


Abbot                   9  Abbot 

liave  no  other  direction  but  to  persuade  the  cbired  to  be  *  so  immaculate  and  unspotted 

Scots  there  was  no  substantial  difference  in  from  the  world  .  .  .  that  even  malice  itself 

religion  betwixt  the  two  lealms,  but  only  in  could  never  find  true  blemish  in  it/    In  suc- 

things  indifferent  concerning  government  and  ce^ive  passagvs  he  was  compared  to  David, 

ixiemomes^  {Hist,  of  Kirk  of  Scotland,  "puh--  Solomon,    Josias,   Constantine    the    Great, 

lishedbytheWodrowSoCyVi.  735).   A  letter  Moses,  Hezekiah,  and  Theodosius;  but  ex- 

iromSootland  reached  James, describing  with  travagant    adulation    was    the    recognised 

enthusiasm  the  effect  of  Abbotts  preaching  homage  that  loyal  subjects,  and  especially 

iOrig.  Letters  on  Eccles.  Affairs,  Bannatyne  the  clergy,  paid  their  sovereif^  at  the  time. 

Club,  L   146).     It  is  true  that   the  Scotch  and  the  warning  tones  in  which  Abbot  here 

episcopate  was  not  ultimately  restored  till  addressed   disturbers  of   the   public    peace 

1610,  but  Abbot's  conciliatory-  tone  did  much  honestly  expressed  the  value  he  himself  set 

to  prepare  the  way,  and  he  Limself  put  the  upon  orderly  behaviour  and  respect  for  au- 

fiiushing  touch  to  the  work  in  that  year  by  thority. 

presiding  at  the  consecration  of  the  bishops  It  was  thus  that  Abbot,  whose  theological 

of  Glasgow,  Brechin,  and  Galloway  (Cal-  attainments  had  already  attracted  James*s 

DERWOOD,  vii.  150).  notice,  established  a  claim  on  his  gratitude, 

This  was  only  one  of  the  services  that  and  Lord  Dunbar's  influence  with  the  king 

Abbot  rendered  James  on  his  visit  to  Scot-  insured  that  his  reward  should  not  be  long 

land.     While    at  Edinburgh,   the  trial   of  delayed.     On  27  May  1609,  within  a  few 

George  Sprot,  a  notary  of  Eyemouth,  charged  months  of  his  return  from  Scotland,  Abbot 

with  conspiring  in  1600  to  murder  the  king,  was  appointed  bishop  of  Coventrs*  and  Lich- 

took  place,  and  the  man  was  condemned  and  field,  and  his  enthronement  took  place  on 

executed  before  Abbot  left  the  city.     Abbot  29  Dec.  following.  He  had,  however,  scarcely 

carefully  watched  the  proceedings,  and  at-  visited  his  diocese  when  he  was  translated 

tended  oprot  on  the  scaffold.     Tne  plot  in  to  a  higher  dignity,  the  bishopric  of  London, 

which  the  convict  had  taken  part  was  Known  and  he  was  enthroned  at  St.  Paurs  on  12  Feb. 

as  the  Gowrie  plot,  and  its  chief  authors,  the  1609-10.     But   this  preferment   was   little 

Earl  of  Gowrie  and  his  friends,  were  alleged  more  permanent.     In  August  1610  Abbot 

to  have  invited  James,  in  1600,  to  a  house  consecrated  a  new  churchyard  presented  to 

at  Perth,  and  to  have  locked  him  in  a  room  St.  Bride's  parish  by  his  old  benefactor's  son, 

with  a  rufl&an  who  had  been  hired  to  kill  the  Earl  of  Dorset.     In  October  he  conse- 

him.    James  escaped ;  the  earl  and  his  friends  crated  the  Scotch  bishops.     At  Oxford  he 

were  slain  by  the  royal  attendants,  and  an  helped  to  establish  Pembroke  College  out  of 

order  was  issued  to  the  ministers  of  religion  the  old  foundation  of  Broadgates  Hall,  and 

throughout  Scotland  to  hold  thanksgiving  throughout  the  year  his  letters  to  the  Earl 
servicesfortheking'ssalvation;  these  services  I  of  Salisbury  show  that  he  was  repressing 

had  been  introduced  at  a  later  date  into  Eng-  with  a  strong  hand  throughout  his  diocese 

land,  andcontinued  throughout  James's  reig^.  any  manifestut  ions  of  sympathy  with  Koman 


But  the  Scotch  ministers  had  resisted  them. 
An  act  of  parliament  had  been  necessary  t  o  en- 
force the  order ;  doubts  as  to  the  real  circum- 


Catholicism.  Tlie  poet,  John  Davies  of 
Hereford,  who  claimed  an  acquaintance  with 
him  in  earlier  years,  congratulated  him  on 


stances  of  the  alleged  plot  were  still  abroad  j  his  promotion  in  a  sonnet  (Appendix  to  tlie 
at  the  time  of  Sprors  execution,  and  they  con-  '  Scourt/e  of  Folly).   On  20  Nov.  1610,  Richard 


tinned  to  imperil  friendly  relations  between 
James  and  his  Scotch  subjects.  Abbot  as- 
sumed the  responsibility  of  attempting  to 
remove  the  ground  of  disagreement,  lie  pub- 
lished the  notes  taken  by  the  judge  at  Sprot*s 

trial,  together  with  a  lengthy  account  of  the  |  as  to  Bancroft's  successor.     The  choice  wan 
'treasonable  device  betwixt  John,  Earl  of   generally  expected  to  fall  on  l^ancelot  An- 


Bancroft,  archbishop  of  Canterbur}',  diini, 
and  Abbot  preached  a  conventional  ser^ 
mon  in  his  praise  on  the  Sundav  following 
(25  Nov.).  The  two  religious  parties  through- 
out England  were  soon  anxiously  speculating 


Oowry,  and  Robert  Logane  of  Restalrig 
{commonly  called  Lesterig)  plotted  by  them 
for  the  cruel  murthering  of  our  most  gracious 


drewes,  "bishop  of  Ely.  Ablx)t  had  no  belief 
in  his  own  ciiances  of  promotion,  and  the 
death  of  Lord  Dunbar  on  30  Jan.  1610-11, 


sovereign.'    The  task  was  probably  under-  '  before  the  vacancy  was  filled,  seemed  to  ex- 


taken  at  the  suggestion  of  Lord  Dunbar. 
The  punphlet,  which  has  been  reprinted  in 
the  *  Haneian  Miscellany '  (ix.  560  et  se^.), 
was  penned  in  a  spirit  that,  from  a  modem 
point  of  view,  befitted  the  courtier  rather 
than  the  historian.      James's  life  was  de- 


clude  him  altogether  from  the  list  of  likely 
candidates.  But  James  had  already  con- 
sulted Dunbar ;  the  earl  had  unhesitatingly 
advanced  Abbot's  claim,  and  his  advice  had 
been  accepted.  On  25  Feb.  1610-11,  Sir 
Thomas  Lake,  clerk  to  the  signet,  informed 


Abbot 


lO 


Abbot 


Lord  Salisbury  that  the  kinff  had  chosen  the 
bishop  of  London  to  be  archbishop,  *  as  being 
an  able  man,  and  recommended  by  the  late 
Earl  of  Dunbar,  whose  memory  is  dear  to 
his  majesty/  Speed,  the  contemporary  his- 
torian, speaks  of  his  promotion  as  due  to  the 
'  embassage '  in  Scotland ;  and  Secretary 
Calvert  wrote  in  March  that  *  by  a  strong 
north  wind  coming  out  of  Scotland,  Abbot 
was  blown  over  the  Thames  to  Lambeth/ 
The  appointment  was  received  with  general 
astonishment  and  misgiving.  Abbot  himself 
was  wonderstruck.  *  Preferment  did  fly  upon 
him,*  says  Fuller,  *  without  his  expectation/ 
And  if  the  Anglican  party  were  depressed, 
the  puritans  were  content  to  conceal  their 
enthusiasm.  His  conduct  in  Scotland,  to 
which  his  promotion  was  ascribed  on  all 
hands,  had  not  raised  him  in  their  estimation. 
He  was  stated,  it  is  true,  to  be  *  of  a  more 
fatherljr  presence  than  those  who  might  have 
been  his  fathers  for  age  in  the  church  of 
England/  but  one  ground  of  his  unfitness 
was  urged  on  many  sides.  *  He  was  never 
incumbent  in  any  living  with  cure  of  souls ;  * 
he  had  not  experienced  the  sufferings  of  the 
lower  clergy,  and  it  was  feared  that  his  want 
of  practical  training  would  prevent  him  from 
sympathising  with  their  trials  and  difficulties. 
Ilis  one-sided  tone  of  thought  was  more 
likely  to  render  him  inadequate  for  the  post. 
The  threatened  disruption  in  the  churcn  of 
England,  to  which  no  one  who  mixed  in 
public  affairs  could  at  the  time  close  his  eyes, 
surrounded  the  primacy  with  dangers  which 
a  statesman's  conciliatory  spirit  alone  could 
meet  with  effect ;  and  of  tnat  spirit  Abbot 
had  shown  no  certain  sign. 

On  4  March  1610-11  Abbot  was  formally 
nominated  to  the  see  of  Canterbury,  and  on 
9  April  was*  very  honorably  installed  at  Lam- 
beth' (NiCH0L8,iVt>^rc«*^*,  ii.  424  w. ;  Lb  Neve, 
Fasti;  seeHawlinson  MS.  at  Oxford, C.  155, 
No.  54).  On  30  April  he  took  his  seat  in  the 
high  commission  court,  and  on  23  June  was 
sworn  at  Greenwich  of  the  privy  council.  At 
first  gloomy  forebodings  seemed  unfounded. 
At  court  he  met  with  a  good  reception.  The 
king  treated  him  with  cordiality ;  the  queen, 
who  could  have  had  no  aftection  for  his  re- 
ligious views,  was 'graciously  pleased  to  give 
hmi  more  credit  than  ordinary,  which  .  .  .  she 
continued  to  the  time  of  her  death.'  Henry, 
Prince  of  Wales,  regarded  him  with  tne 
veneration  that  all   who,  like  himself,  ap- 

S roved  his  theology  acknowledged  to  be  his 
ue.  Nor  was  he  without  friends  among  the 
officers  of  state.  The  Earl  of  Salisbury,  lord 
high  treasurer,  lord  chancellor  EUesmere, 
and  Sir  Ralph  Winwood,  who  became  in 
later  years  secretary  of  state,  sympathised 


with  his  opinions,  and  a  lavish  hospitality 
at  Lambeth,  which  James  I  strongly  recom- 
mended him  to  maintain,  secured  him  the 
favour  of  man^  *  lords  spiritual  and  tem- 
poral, divers  pri>'y  councillors  and  men  of 
highest  rank.'  But  enemies  of  Abbot  were 
also  to  be  found  among  the  king's  council- 
lors. Sir  llobert  Carr,  the  king^  favourite, 
afterwards  Viscount  Rochester  and  Earl  of 
Somerset,  viewed  his  stem  integrity  with 
suspicion.  Men  like  the  Earl  of  Northamp- 
ton, once  Lord  Hennr  Howard,  a  secret 
papist  and  pensioner  of  Spain,  did  not  hide 
their  disappointment  at  his  elevation.  Simi- 
larly the  bench  of  bishops  was  not  without 
malevolent  spectators  of  his  recent  sue- 
cesses ;  and  among  the  judges  with  whom 
he  was  brought  into  close  contact.  Abbot 
found  it  impossible  to  keep  on  friendly  terms 
with  Sir  Edward  Coke. 

Abbot  flung  himself  with  vigour  into  the 
various  duties  of  his  office,  but  his  early 
actions  showed  much  want  of  tact  and  pre- 
vision. He  saw  that  the  Calvinist  theology 
was  losing  its  hold  on  the  upper  classes  of 
society,  and  that  Arminianism  was  taking  its 
place ;  but,  with  characteristic  narrowness  of 
i-iew,  he  charged  the  newer  doctrines  with 
either  Roman  catholic  or  sceptical  tendencies. 
To  destroy  them  utterly  by  means  of  the  high 
commission  court  and  of  the  other  arbitrary 
tribunals  in  which  he  took  his  seat  was  his 
immediate  aim.  *  Sentences  of  correction,' 
says  Hacket,  the  biographer  of  Williams,  *  or 
rather  of  destruction,  have  their  epocha  in  the 
predominance  of  Abbot  in  that  [the  com- 
mission] court.'  From  the  catholics  bitter 
cries  at  once  rose.  Recusants'  fines  were 
unceasingly  inflicted,  and  defaulters  for  pay- 
ment imprisoned.  *  They  mav  expect,*  wrote 
the  Earl  of  Northampton  oi  some  catholic 
prisoners  in  1612,  *  little  mercy  when  the 
metropolitan  is  mediator.'  On  10  June  1615 
he  summoned  a  prebendary  of  Christ  Churchy 
Oxford,  to  appear  before  tne  king  on  a  charge 
of  coquetting  with  popery  because  he  had 
complained  of  the  prevalence  of  puritanism^ 
and  had  failed  to  denounce  its  antithesis 
with  fitting  severity  or  frequency.  In  1613 
he  came  into  open  collision  with  the  Spanish 
ambassador.  He  imprisoned  in  his  own 
palace  a  lady,  Donna  Luisa  de  Carvajal,  an 
enthusiastic  benefactress  of  the  Enghsh  ca- 
tholic college  of  Flanders,  who  was  stajring 
at  the  Spanish  embassy,  and  appeal  had  to  be 
made  to  James  to  obtain  her  release.  He 
employed  spies  in  all  parts  of  England,  and 
he  did  not  fear  to  attack  men  in  the  highest 
stations.  He  obtained  full  information  of  the 
relations  existing  between  the  Earl  of  North- 
ampton, the  lora  privy  seal,  and  Spain,  and 


Abbot 


II 


Abbot 


boldly  challenged  him  to  deny  his  belief  in 
papftl  doctrines  at  the  council  board  in  1612. 
At  the  same  time  the  earl  was  trying  to 
suppress  dama^n^  reports  about  himselfby  a 
suit  of  defamation  mthe  Star  Chamber  against 
seyeral  persons  who  publicly  called  him  a 
papist,  and  Abbot  is  said  to  haye  produced 
in  open  court  a  letter  from  Northampton  to 
Cardinal  Bellarmine,  in  which  he  declared  that 
his  'heart  stood  with  the  papists ; '  the  death 
of  the  earl,  which  took  place  in  1614,  has  been 
somewhat  erroneously  attributed  by  a  few 
writers  to  the  shock  of  this  disclosure.  Nor 
was  Abbot  willing  to  see  the  authority  of 
the  high  commission  court  in  the  smallest 
degree  abridged.  In  1611  a  Sir  William 
Chauncy  had  been  charged  with  adultery 
before  that  tribunal,  and  had,  on  disobeying 
its  order  to  proyide  a  maintenance  for  his 
wife,  been  sent  to  prison.  Chauncy  had 
appealed  to  the  lord  cnief  justice  of  the  com- 
mon pleas  against  the  high  commission  court's 
judgment,  which  Coke  asserted  to  be  ille^l. 
Abbot  tried  in  yain  to  change  Coke's  opinion, 
and  although  the  king  finally  settled  the 
point  in  the  archbishop's  fayour,  Coke  treated 
Abbot's  protest  with  irritating  indifference. 
In  1616  Abbot  was  one  of  the  commissioners 
appointed  to  report  on  Coke's  opinion  as  to 
the  interpretation  of  the  pramunire  statutes, 
and  declared  against  it.  Abbot  was  similarly 
anxious  to  enforce  the  utmost  rigours  that 
the  law  allowed  him  in  cases  of  alleged 
Bcepticism,  and  in  this  procedure  likewise 
Coke  attempted  to  thwart  him.  In  1611 
two  'blasphemous  heretics,'  as  he  called 
them,  Bartholomew  Legate  and  Edward 
Wightman,  were  brought  before  his  court. 
Abbot  was  from  the  first  resolved  that  no 
mercy  should  be  shown  them.  Their  offence 
was  mainly  Arianism,  and  on  21  Jan.  1611-2 
he  wrote  to  lord  chancellor  Ellesmere  that  a 
commission  of  three  or  four  judges  ought  to 
deal  with  them  as  capital  offenders,  and  that 
the  king  was  anxious  to  see  '  these  evil  per- 
sons'  receive  at  once  *the  recompenses  of 
their  pride  and  impiety.'  He  advised  care 
in  a  later  letter  (22  Jan.)  in  the  choice  of  the 
judges,  and  urged  that  those  should  be  se- 
lected who  '  make  no  doubt  that  the  law  is 
clear  to  bum  them.'  Coke  was  thus,  he 
advised,  to  be  excluded  from  the  tribunal,  for 
he  was  known  to  disagree  with  the  arch- 
bishop's interpretation  of  the  old  statutes 
affecting  heresy  (Egerton  Papers,  Camd.  Soc. 
pp.  44^-8).  Ana  Abbot  was  finally  tri- 
umphant. Early  in  1QI4  Legate  was  burnt 
at  Smithfield,  and  Wightfaian  at  Burton- 
npon-Trent.  In  another  case  of  a  political 
complexion  he  approved  the  use  of  torture.  A 
Somersetshire  clergyman,  Edmund  Peacham, 


was  charged,  in  1614,  with  libelling  the  king* 
in  a  written  sermon  which  had  never  been 
preached.  Abbot  was  at  the  time  receiving 
reports  of  catholic  conspiracies,  to  which  he 
always  lent  a  willing  ear.  When,  therefore, 
Pencham  was  brought  before  the  privy  council 
in  his  presence,  and  persisted  in  denying  the 
allegea  offence,  Aboot  readily  assented  to 
the  proposal  that  he  should  be  put  to  the 
'manacles.'  Bacon  has  been  charged  with 
taking  a  very  active  part  in  the  persecution 
of  Peacham,  but  Abbot  must  oe  credited 
with  equal  responsibility  (Spedding,  Life  qf 
Baccuy  v.  91). 

Abbot,  however,  did  not  confine  his  atten- 
tion to  propagating  his  views  at  home.  lie 
persuaded  James  I  to  use  all  his  influence 
against  Roman  Catholicism  and  against 
heresies  in  every  country  of  Europe.  He 
sought  information  as  to  the  state  of  religion 
abroad  from  the  English  ambassadors,  and 
with  Sir  Dudley  Carleton,  the  ambassador 
first  at  Venice  and  afterv^'ards  in  Holland, 
he  maintained  a  lengthy  correspondence. 
In  Holland  he  jealously  watched  tne  rise  of 
Arminianism,  and  in  1612  he  excited  the 
king's  hostility  against  Conrad  Vorstius, 
recently  appointed  to  the  professorship  of 
theology  at  I-ieyden,  whose  views  were  said 
to  savour  of  Arianism  and  Arminianism. 
James,  in  fact,  applied  to  the  states  general 
for  the  dismissal  of  Vorstius,  and  the  request 
was  granted.  Grotius  came  over  to  England 
in  1613,  to  endeavour  to  soothe  James  s  ex- 
cited feelings  against  the  Arminian  party  of 
the  United  Provinces,  and  to  counteract 
Abbot's  influence,  which  was  agg^vating 
the  religious  differences  in  Holland  almost 
as  much  as  in  England.  But  Abbot  resented 
his  interference.  He  called  him  a  busybody, 
and  warned  the  secretarj-  of  state,  Sir  Halph 
Winwood,  of  his  ambition  and  indiscretion. 
'  You  must  take  heed  how  you  trust  Dr. 
Grotius  too  far,'  he  wrote  (1  June,  1613), 
and  he  reported  how  the  Dutch  envoy's  con- 
versation with  the  king  was  '  tedious  and 
full  of  tittle-tattle,'  and  how  he  compared 
the  *■  factious  contradictors '  of  his  own 
opinions  in  his  own  countrj-  to  'our  puritans  ^ 
in  England  (Winwood,  Memorials,  iii.  459- 
60) — a  comparison  that  was  little  likely 
to  reconcile  Abbot  to  his  presence  at  court. 
But  both  at  home  and  abroad  Abbot  looked 
forward  to  the  conversion  of  his  religious 
opponents,  and  he  treated  all  foreigners  who 
set  foot  in  this  country,  and  were  willing  to 
follow  his  religious  guidance,  with  much 
generosity.  In  his  lectures  on  Jonah  at 
Oxford  he  had  condemned  in  a  forcible  pas- 
sage the  inhospitable  reception  often  ac- 
corded to  foreigners  by  '  the  meaner  people  * 


Abbot 


12 


Abbot 


of  England,  and  their  groundless  suspicions 
of  'outlandish  folks/  He  had  bidden  his  : 
pupils  use  protestant  aliens  sls  brethren,  and 
such  was  his  own  invariable  practice  (Strtpe, 
Annals f  II.  i.  252).  In  1612  an  Italian  friar 
desirous  of  conversion  was  installed  in  his 
palace;  in  the  following  year  he  made  ar- 
rangements for  the  settlement  in  England  of 
Antonio  de  Dominis,  formerly  archbishop  of 
Spalato,  who  had  renounced  the  catholic 
faith.  Abbot  offered  Antonio,  through  Car- 
leton  (16  Dec.  1613),  *  a  private  life  in  a 
university  and  200/.  a  year,'  but  the  plan  was 
not  very  successful.  Ihe  prelate  arrived  and 
took  up  his  quarters  at  Lambeth,  but  he  was 
*  an  unquiet  man,  and  not  of  that  fair,  quiet, 
civil  carriage  as  would  give  him  content- 
ment '  (Goodman,  Court  of  James  7,  i.  339). 
He  obtained  the  deanery  of  Windsor  and  the 
mastership  of  the  Savoy,  but  was  still  dis- 
contented, and  a  refusal  of  the  reversion  to 
the  archbishopric  of  York  caused  him,  in 
1622,  to  turn  upon  his  benefactors.  He 
attacked  Abbot  severely,  and  reproached  him 
with  withholding  the  200/.  originally  pro- 
mised him ;  finally  he  announced  his  inten- 
tion of  returning  to  Rome,  and  thereupon 
Abbot  ordered  him,  with  the  king's  acqui- 
escence, to  leave  England  within  twenty  days 
and  return  at  his  peril  (21  March  1621-2).  ; 
Abbot  secured  his  loose  manuscripts,  in- 
•cluding  the  original  manuscript  of  Sarpi's 
history  of  the  council  of  Trent,  of  which  he 
had  long  been  anxious  to  obtain  possession, 
and  which  was  first  printed  at  London  under 
his  direction  in  1619  (cf.  his  letters  in  Lewis 
Attekbukt's  Some  Letters  relating  to  the 
Council  of  Trenty  1705).  With  Casaubon  Ab- 
bot remained  on  more  peaceable  terms.  He 
freq  uently  received  him  at  Lambeth,  and  stood 
with  James  I  sponsor  for  one  of  his  children 
on  4  Nov.  161 2  (  Cal  State  Papers) ;  he  aided 
with  his  influence  the  scholar's  endeavour  to  ■ 
convert  a  Jew  of  Oxford ;  he  read  over  Ca- 
saubon's  elaborate  criticism  on  Baronius,  and 
forbade  the  publication  of  a  pirated  version  of 
some  portions  of  the  work  (I^attison,  Life  of 
Casaubon,  pp.  410,  418,  429).  Abbot  often 
raised  funds  for  French  or  Dutch  protest- 
ants  in  distress,  and  educated  at  Oxford  at  ! 
his  own  expense  several  Greeks  and  other  \ 
foreigners.  In  1619,  he  had  the  satisfaction 
of  reconciling  the  Calvinists  of  Jersey  to  the 
church  of  England.  In  Ireland  Abbot  dis- 
couraged any  conciliatory  policy  towards 
the  catholics,  and  although  he  strongly  con- 
demned the  endeavours  of  the  Scotch  bishops 
to  resist  the  practices  of  the  English  church, 
he  maintained  a  personal  intimacy  with  many 
of  them.  On  7  July  1616  he  absolved  the 
Marquis  of  Huntley  at  Lambeth  from  the 


excommunication  recently  imposed  on  him 
by  the  Scotch  bishops  for  uis  suspected 
papistical  intrigues;  and  silenced  the  dis- 
content in  Scotland  that  his  reversal  of  this 
act  of  the  Scotch  episcopate  was  likely  to 
rouse  by  a  very  cleverly  worded  if  some- 
what casuistical  letter  (23  July)  to  the  gene- 
ral assembly  (Caldbbwood,  JSTw/ory,  vii.  218, 
226;  Letters  during  Reign  of  James  /,  Banna- 
tyne  Club,  ii.  471  et  seg.). 

In  matters  of  wider  political  significance 
Abbot  played  an  equally  prominent  part. 
His  religious  views  had  led  him  to  form  a 
definite  foreign  policy,  of  which  the  one  aim 
was  to  crush  S^pain  and  to  be  wary  of  France. 
The  marriages  of  James's  son  and  daughter, 
Henry  and  Elizabeth,  were  occupying  the 
ministers'  attention  when  Abbot  joined  their 
councils.  Proposals  had  been  made  as  early 
as  1607  for  a  marriage  between  the  Princess 
Elizabeth  and  the  Duke  of  Savoy,  brother- 
in-law  of  the  King  of  Spain,  and  in  1611  it 
was  suggested  that  Prmce  Henry  at  the 
same  time  should  marry  a  Spanish  princess. 
The  scheme  alarmed  Abbot ;  he  vehemently 
opposed  it  at  the  council  board,  but  his  op- 
position would  hardly  have  been  successful, 
though  Salisbury  discountenanced  the  al- 
liances, had  not  the  Spaniards  themselves 
raised  insuperable  objections  to  the  English 
terms.  But  Abbot  was  determined  that,  so 
far  as  he  could  help  it,  the  debates,  when 
they  dropped  in  1611,  should  not  be  reopened. 
The  protestant  Elector  Palatine  of  Germany 
had  offered  Elizabeth  his  hand  before  the 
Spanish  negotiations  closed,  and  on  this 
union  Abbot  set  his  heart.  Prince  Henry 
was  of  Abbot*s  opinion.  In  September 
1612  the  elector  palatine  came  over  to 
England,  and  Abbot  and  he  were  soon  on 
friendly  terms.  A  month  or  two  before,  a 
Spanisti  ambassador,  Zuuiga,  had  been  in 
England  to  propose  another  Spanish  suitor 
to  Elizabeth  in  the  person  of  the  king  of 
Spain  himself.  But  Abbot,  in  a  strongly 
worded  letter  to  the  king  (22  July),  haa 
shown  how  bribery  and  corruption  of  the 
courtiers  were,  according  to  his  secret  in- 
formation, the  instruments  on  which  Zuniga 
depended  for  the  success  of  his  mission  (cf. 
Strypb,  Amialsj  iv.  564).  It  was  by  such 
means  that  Abbot  cleared  the  path  of  the 
German  prince,  and  matters  made  satisfac- 
tory progress.  But  the  marriage  seemed 
likely  to  be  long  and  dangerouslv  delayed. 
At  the  close  of  October,  Prince  flenry  was 
taken  fatally  ill,  and  shortly  afterwards  died. 
Abbot,  *  like  a  grave  and  a  religious  church- 
man,' was  with  him  to  the  last,  and  certified 
that  he  died  in  the  true  faith ;  but  the  blow 
was  a  severe  one  for  his  prospects.    His  grief 


Abbot  13  Abbot 

verwhelmixig ;  at  the  funeral  in  West-  the  like/  but  he  was  anxious  that  '  no  poor 
er  Abbey  he  preached  the  sermon^  and  man  should  be  frrated  on '  (Goodkak,  Qmrt 
ndawere  almost  choked  by  his  tears  and  of  James  /,  ed.  Brewer,  ii.  157).  Abbot  him- 
dingpassion^showingthe  inward  sorrow  self  forwarded  to  James  a  basin  and  ewer 
heiut.'  But,  in  spite  of  her  brothers  that  sold  for  140/.  But  in  1615,  when  the 
athy  Abbot  endeavoured  to  push  on  the  king  had  still  large  debts  that  pressed  for 
lations  for  the  marriage  of  tne  princess,  payment.  Abbot  was  one  of  those  councillor 
^  Dec.  1612,  he  ceremonially  affianced  woo  strongly  urged  an  appeal  to  parliament, 
bd  the  elector  at  Wliitehall.  On  29  Jan.  though  he  did  not  discountenance  what  we 
8,  he  gave,  in  honour  of  the  approaching  should  hold  to  be  an  exertion  of  undue  influ- 
,  a  bimquet  at  Lambeth  to  tne  German  ence  on  the  constituencies  (Speddikg,  Bacon, 
t's  followers,  which  the  elector  '  took  so  v.  205).  Abbot  was  not,  however,  courtier 
r  that  when  thev  were  ready  to  sit  enough  to  retain  at  any  time  the  full  confidence 
,  himself  came,  though  he  were  never  of  the  king.  In  1613  he  twice  came  into  open 
dor  expected.'  The  entertainment  was  collision  with  him.  Inthe  first  place,  a  dispute 
y  of  *  the  giver  and  receiver/  and  the  arose  as  to  the  will  of  Thomas  Sutton,  who 
r  soon  returned  the  courtesy.  *  He  had  bequeathed  all  his  fortune  to  the  foundi^ 
1  all  the  coimcil  at  Essex  House,  where,  tion  of  the  Charterhouse  at  Smithfield,  and 
ard  of  the  entertainment  he  found  with  James  I  attempted  to  divert  the  money  to 
ehbishop,  he  showed  him  mure  kindness  his  own  uses.  But  Abbot  would  not  sano- 
izesses  than  to  all  the  rest  put  together.'  tion  the  proposed  malversation,  which  he 
;a  fortnight  later  (12  Feb.)  Abbot  mar-  attributed  to  the  judges,  and  James  had  to 
le  elector  and  the  princess  *  in  all  points  yield  to  the  archbishop's  representations.  A 
ling  to  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,'  more  serious  quarrel  m  the  same  vear  was 
ne  of  his  political  aims  was  thus,  he  occasioned  by  Abbot's  disregard  of  tlie  king's 
led,  attained.  But  James  I  did  not  wishes  in  the  matter  of  the  divorce  petitioned 
to  be  so  well  satisfied  with  the  event  for  by  the  Countess  of  Essex,  once  Lady 
bot  could  have  wished.  In  April  his  Frances  Howard.  The  ladv  insisted  on  the 
iter  and  son-in-law  left  England,  and  nullity  of  her  marriage  with  the  Earl  of 
lector  wrote  to  the  archbishop  from  Essex.  It  was  known  that  she  was  of  profli- 
rbury  that  the  king,  who  had  resented  gate  temperament,  and  was,  at  the  same  time 
quest  for  the  release  of  Lord  Grey,  a  as  she  was  petitioning  against  Essex,  arranging 
»J  prisoner  and  supporter  of  Arabella  for  her  remarriage  to  the  Earl  of  Somerset,  the 
t,  *did  not  use  him  like  a  son,  but  rather  king's  favourite.  Her  petition  was  referred 
youngling  or  childish  youth  not  to  be  to  a  commission,  consistmg  of  Abbot  as  presi- 
led '  (WiNWOOD,  Memorials^  iii.  454).  I  dent,  with  five  bishops  and  six  civil  lawyers, 
lector's  friendship  for  Abbot  was,  how-  The  king  was  strongly  in  t  he  countess's  favour, 
unimpaired.  Before  his  departure  he  andurged  Abbot  to  grant  her  suit.  But  Abbot 
ited  him  with  a  piece  of  plate  of  the  took  an  opposite  view.  The  countess  was  a 
ofl,000/.,althougn  he  made  no  presents  :  niece  of  the  Earl  of  Northampton,  his  bit- 
T  other  of  his  English  friends,  except  a  ,  terest  enemy  in  the  council  chamber,  and  he 

was  not  therefore  prejudiced  in  her  favour. 
There  was  very  scanty  evidence  to  prove  her 
charges  against  her  husband,  and  ^e  made 
admissions  in  cross-examination  which  prac- 
tically invalidated  all  her  testimony.  Abbot 
knew  the  Earl  of  Essex  to  be  *  a  religious 
nobleman,'  and  tried  hard  to  protect  him 
from  what  he  looked  upon  as  the  immoral 
persecution  of  his  wife  and  her  friends.  The 
king's  personal  inter\'ention  could  not  change 
his  opinion.  Some  days  before  the  final  hear- 
ing of  the  case,  he  begged  to  be  rid  of  the 
business.  He  was  staying  with  the  king  at 
Windsor,  and  he  *  fell  down  on  his  knees  twice 
or  thrice  to  entreat  his  majesty  that  he  might 
be  dispensed  with  from  being  on  the  commis- 
sion, which  he  would  esteem  a  greater  favour 
than  all  that  he  had  received  from  him  in 
being  raised  from  a  private  position,  and  in 
so  short  a  time,  to  the  highest  dignity.'    But 


imall  one  to  the  lord  chancellor  Elles- 


sreneral  home  politics,  Abbot  found  it 
It  to  steer  a  course  that  should  not 
dise  either  his  lovaltv  or  his  honesty* 
he  difficulty  grew  in  intensity  with 
year.  He  was  willing,  with  charao- 
c  generosity,  to  make  some  material 
ces  for  his  sovereign  in -his  financial 
Ities;  when  the  parliament  of  1614 
d  James  the  subsidies  of  which  he 
greatly  in  need,  Abbot  wrote  to  the 
)s  begging  them  to  testify  *  their  duty 
;heir  sovereign '  by  some  free-will  ofier- 
He  urged  every  bishop  to  *  send  unto 
ing  the  best  piece  of  plate  which  he 
nd  if  his  majesty  should  be  pleased  to 
;  of  this,'  he  promised  to  move  the 
as  and  others  of  the  '  abler  sort  of 
^  according  to  their  proportions  to  do 


Abbot 


14 


Abbot 


James  was  deaf  to  his  entreaty,  and  Abbot 
determined  to  act  justly  at  all  hazards.  He 
drew  up  an  elaborate  paper,  in  which  he 
pointed  out  the  evils  attending  facility  of 
divorce ;  he  declared  that  *  in  the  greatest 
breaches  between  man  and  wife,  reconcilia^ 
tion  is  the  best;  and  the  worthiest  pains 
that  can  be  spared  is  to  bring  that  about.' 
But  on  such  arguments  as  these,  and  on  the 
insufficiency  of  evidence.  Abbot,  with  strange 
per^'ersity,  did  not,  at  the  critical  moment, 
lay  any  decided  emphasis.  He  sent  to  the 
king  a  statement  01  his  views,  supported  by 
numberless  irrelevant  quotations  from  theo- 
logians of  the  reformation  era,  which  only 
served  to  exasperate  James.  The  king  replied 
in  a  letter,  of  which  the  first  words  ran :  *  I 
must  freely  confess  to  you  I  find  the  grounds 
of  your  opposition  so  weak  as  I  have  reason 
to  apprehend  that  the  prejudices  you  have  of 
the  persons  is  the  greatest  motive  in  breeding 
these  doubts  in  vou.'  Still  Abbot  did  not 
swerve,  and  when  he  was  called  upon  for  his 
judgment,  with  the  brevity  that  the  king  had 
einoined  on  him,  he  pronounced  for  the  va- 
lidity of  the  marriage.  But  the  majority  of 
the  commissioners — ^seven  out  of  twelve — 
took  an  opposite  view,  and  the  marriage  was 
finally  annulled.  Abbot's  loss  of  favour  at 
€Ourt  by  his  conduct  of  this  case  was  a 
general  topic  of  conversation  at  the  time, 
and  all  his  subsequent  misfortunes  were 
ascribed  by  one  contemporary  writer  to  his 
persistent  disregard  of  the  king's  wishes  in 
the  matter  (Wbldon,  Court  of  King  JameSy 

Printed  in  Secret  History  of  James  Fs  Court, 
81 1,  i.  388).  His  presence  at  the  marriage  of 
the  divorced  countess  and  the  Earl  of  Somerset 
in  1614  seems  therefore  inconsistent  with  his 
previous  attitude.  But  it  is  probable  that  he 
knew  that  the  davs  of  Somerset's  ascendency 
were  already  numbered,  and  that  this  know- 
ledge did  not  make  him  unwilling  to  conciliate 
the  king  by  his  presence  at  the  ceremony. 
According  to  Bacon's  account  of  the  mys- 
terious trial  of  Somerset  and  his  wife  for 
the  murder  of  Overbury,  papers  had  some 
time  previously  fallen  into  Abbot's  hands 
which  formed  the  basis  of  the  accusation 
(Spedding,  v.  288).  And  Abbot  was  about 
to  introduce  to  James's  notice  George  Villiers, 
who  rapidly  reconciled  the  king  to  Somerset's 
downfall. 

His  introduction  of  George  Villiers  to 
court  was  the  most  disastrous  step  that 
Abbot  ever  took.  It  is  true  that  Villiers  at 
the  time  (10  Dec.  1615)  s^led  the  archbishop 
his  father,  and  Abbot  declared  that  he  would 
repute  and  esteem  him  for  his  son,  but  the 
queen  prophesied  truly  when  she  told  the 
firchbisnop  'if  this    young  man  be  once 


brought  in,   the  first  persons  that  he  will 

flague  must  be  you  that  labour  for  him' 
Goodman,  Court  of  James  /,  ii.  160,  and 
RusHWOKTH,    Collections,  i.   456).      When 
Villiers  had  been  installed  as  the  king's  fi^ 
vourite,  the  question  of  the  Spanish  marriage 
once  again  came  to  the  surface,  and  Abbot 
found  that  the  views  against  which  his  whole 
soul  rebelled  had  in  Villiers  their  warmest 
advocate.    Very  st-eadily,  between  1617  and 
1622,  the  scheme  for  Cliarles's  marriage  with 
the  infanta  of  Spain  took  shape,  and  Abbot 
and  his  friends  left  no  stone  unturned  to 
thwart  its  progress.      To  create  war  with 
Spain  was  their  definite  object,  and  Abbot's 
aily,Winwood,  the  secretary  of  state,  who  was 
always  *  exceedingly  beholden,'  as  Ghambei^ 
lain  had  written  (9  Jan.  1612-13), '  to  that 
prelate  for  his  ^^ood  word  and  opinion,'  has 
been  charged  with  agitating  for  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh's  despatch  on  his  last  expedition  in 
the  hope  of  his  breaking  the  peace  with  Spun 
(Gakdiner,  History,  ed.  1884,  iii.  53).     But 
here,  at  any  rate,  Abbot  sufiered  the  bitter- 
est disappointment.    Raleigh  attacked  the 
Spaniaras  in  South  America,  but,  so  far  from 
England  supporting  his  acts,  he  was  charged 
before  six  English  commissioners,  of  whom, 
as  ill  fortune  would  have  it.  Abbot  was  one, 
and  proved  to  have  been  guilty  of  breaking 
his  promise  to  his  sovereign,  and  of  injuring 
the  subjects  of  the  Mng  of  Spain  (22  Oct 
1618).     His  execution,  on  a  sentence  passed 
upon  him  fifteen  years  before,  followed,  and 
Abbot  was  in  no  position  to  raise  a  protest. 
Winwood,  whose  complicity  in  Raleigh's 
aggressions  was  openly  suspected,  had  died 
27  Oct.  1617,  much  to  Abbot's  grief,  and  the 
archbishop  had  to  salve  his  conscience  for 
Raleigh's  death  by  attributing  it  to  his  'ques- 
tioning '  of  *■  God's  being  and  omnipotence, 
which  that  just  Judge  made  good  upon  him- 
self  in  over-humbling  his  estate,  but  last  of 
all  in  bringing  him  to  an  execution  by  law, 
where   he   died   a  religious  and    christian 
death '  {Abbot  to  Sir  Thomas  Roe,  19  Feb. 
1618-19).    And  meanwhile  the   affairs  of 
Abbot's  friend  in  Germany,  the  elector  pala- 
tine, were  intensifying  his  desire  of  a  war  not 
only  with  Spain  but  with  the  catholic  powers 
of  the  empire.    The  elector,  as  the  champion 
of  protestantism  on  the  continent,  had  been 
chosen  king  of  Bohemia,  and  the  emperor 
and  the  catholic  princes  of  Germany  were 
arrayed  against  him.    In  the  most  vi'^gorous 
letter  he  ever  penned,  Abbot  sketched  the 
policy  that  England,  as  he  thought,  should 
at  once  adopt.  Serious  illness  kept  him  from 
the  council  when  the  question  of  aiding  the 
king's  son-in-law  was  to  be  discussed ;  but  he 
wrote  (12  Sept.  1619)  to  Naunton,  the  king's 


Abbot                   15  Abbot 

eecretaiT :  *  I  liave  never  more  desired  to  be  building  is  still  standing,  and  ba$  undergone 

present  at  any  consultation.  I  am  satisfied  in  few  all erat ions.     Abbot's  birthday.  29  Oct., 

my  conjecture  tbat  the  cause  is  just."   There-  is  still  commemorated  ihoiv.  and  the  axrh- 

fore  he  urged  that  England  should  j<Hn  in  the  iHshop  for  the  time  being  is  the  visitor  of  the 

electors  war,  and  *  let  it  be  really  pTOsecuted.*  hospital.  A  brass  in  thv  chapt'l.  set  up  by  Ab- 

he  said,  'that  it  may  appear  to  the  world  bot  to  the  memory  of  his  father  and  mother, 

that  we  are  awake  when  God  in  this  sort  who  both  dird  in  1606.  is  a  testimony  to  his 

calleth  to  us.'    He  hoped  that  *  our  striking  filial  tenderness  which  wjis  one  of  the  few 

in  *  would  lead  aU  the  protestant  powers  of  traits  that  his  habitual  morosenessof  temper 

Europe  to  '  run  the  same  fortune.*  *  For  the  never  overeast. 

means  to  support  the  war/  he  concluded.  But   outside   Guildford    the   clouds  still 

'  providelHt  I>eu3  *  {Cabala^  ed.  1654,  i.  169).  gathered  about  him.     A  complication  of  dis- 

Creneroua  enthusiasm,  but  little  statesman-  orders  was  already  breaking  down  his  health, 

ship,  characterised  t his  utterance,  and  Abbot  Bacon,  wit h  whom  he  had  maint  ained  friendly 

suneredthehumiliation  of  seeing  his  proposals  relations,  was  disgraced,  and  Abbot  had  him- 

flung  on  one  side,  and  the  Spanish  marriage  self  moved  for  the  attendance  of  the  com- 

treaty  proceeded  with  uninterruptedly.  mons  to  hear  his  sentence  in  the  House  of 

On  eveiT side  Abbot  found  the  tide  against  Lords  [2  May  1621  >.  The  pride  of  Villiers 
him.  In  1618  the  king  published,  at  the  was  still  thwarting  all  his  chmshed  schemes, 
suggestion  of  Bishop  Morton,  *  the  declara-  and  Arminianism.  always  to  him  a  detestable 
tion  of  sports '  sanctioning  Sabbath  amuse-  heresy.  wa5  aeoiiiring  new  force  in  England, 
menta,  wnich  Abbot  regarded  as  imperiUing  The  synod  ofi>ort,  1618.  at  which  one  of 
the  religious  faith  of  the  people.  His  loyalty  his  own  chaplains  represented  him,  had 
could  not  prevail  upon  him  to  obey  the  decree  end<^  in  a  barren  expression  of  approval 
that  authorised  it  to  be  read  in  churches.  At  of  Calvinism,  and  little  attention  haa  been 
Croydon,  where  he  was  at  the  time,  he  for-  paid  in  England  to  Abbot's  injunctions  to 
bade  its  proclamation  in  the  parish  church :  Carleton  to  use  his  influence  against  the 
James  I  ignored  his  resistance,  but  Abbot's  spread  of  Arminianism  in  Holland,  or  to  his 
position  was  not  improved.  Other  misfor-  suggestion  that  the  hostility  of  the  Dutch 
tunes  accompanied  this  episode:  the  death  in  the  East  Indies,  which  was  causing  his 
(2  March  1617-18)  of  his  brother  Robert,  a  brother  Maurice  the  utmost  anxiety,  was 
theologian  of  his  own  school,  whom  he  had  prompted  by  the  .\rminian  followers  of  Bar- 
consecrated  to  the  bishopric  of  Salisbury,  naveldt  [see  Abbot,  Sir  Maubice].  But  a 
in  December  1615,  greatly  grieved  him,  aj-  curious  accident  in  16:?  1  brought  on  Abbot 
though  the  bishop  s  second  marriage  had  fresh  humiliations  which  cast  a  deep  shadow 
caused  a  temporary  estrangement  between  over  the  remainder  of  his  life.  In  the  summer 
the  brotheiB.  The  queen,  who  had  favoured  of  that  year  L#ord  Zouch,  with  whom  he  had 
Abbot  in  spite  of  her  opposite  religious  long  been  on  friendly  terms,  invited  him  to  a 
views,  died  on  the  same  date  in  the  vear  fol-  hunting  party  at  Bramshill  Park,  Hampshire, 
lowing;  and  although  the  archbiskop  had  Crossbows  were  used  in  the  sport,  and  on 
the  satisfaction  of  hearing  from  her  own  lips  '2-i  July  Abbot,  when  shooting  at  a  buck,  had 
on  her  death-bed  a  confession  of  adherence  the  misfortune  to  kill  one  Peter  Hawkins,  a 
to  the  protestant  faith,  he  lost  in  her  his  last  gamekeeper.  The  man  had  already  been 
influential  friend  at  court.  Abbot  preached  warned  to  keep  out  of  the  huntsmen's  way, 
the  sermon  at  her  funeral  at  Westminster  and  the  coroner's  jury  returned  a  verdict  of 
on  13  March  1618-19.  prr  infortunium  su<b  prftpri<e  culpet.     News 

Later  in  1619  Abbot  retired  for  a  few  days  of  the  accident  was  sent  to  the  king,  who  de- 
from  public  life  with  its  wearing  anxiety  to  clared  that  none  but  a  fool  or  a  knave  would 
confer  a  munificent  gift  upon  his  native  town,  think  the  worse*  of  a  man  for  such  an  occur- 
On  5  April  1619  the  first  stone  was  laid  in  his  rence,  and  that  the  like  had  often  nearly 
presence  of  ahospital 'for  the  maintenance  of  happened  to  himself.  The  archbishop  was 
a  master,  twelve  brethren,  and  eight  sisters,'  greatly  distressed  ;  he  prer^cribed  for  himself 
to  be  erected  at  his  expense  opposite  Trinitv  a  monthly  fast  on  Tuesilay,  the  day  of  the 
Church.  He  endowed  the  foundation  witb  misfortune,  and  settled  20L  a  vear  un  Haw- 
land  to  the  value  of  three  hundred  pounds,  kins's  widow,  *  which,'  in  ( >ldys  s  words, '  soon 
which  he  obtained  a  license  to  purchase  in  procured  her  another  husband*  (Biog.  Brit.), 
mortmain.  It  was  incoiporated  b^-  charter  But  others  would  not  allow  the  matter  to 
14  June  1622.  Booms  for  his  pnvate  use  be  lightly  passed  over.  At  the  moment  four 
and  a  chapel  were  attached  to  it,  and  he  often  '  bishops-elect  were  awaiting  consecration. 
retired  to  its  seclusion  when  he  was  oppressed  John  Williams  had  been  nominated  to  the  see 
by  the  heayy  weight  of  public  office.    The  i  of  Lincoln,  John  Davenant  to  that  of  Salis- 


Abbot 


i6 


Abbot 


bury,  Valentine  Gary  to  that  of  Exeter,  and 
William  Laud  to  that  of  St.  Davids ;  and 
in  August  Williams,  who  was  perhaps  per- 
sonally jealous  of  Abbot's  successful  career, 
and  feared  that  public  opinion  might  be 
against  him  if  he  took  any  other  course,  an- 
nounced that  he  should  refuse  to  be  conse- 
crated by  Abbot.  By  the  canon  law  he 
declared  that  homicide  in  a  prelate  made  him 
irregular  and  incapable  of  exercising  ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction ;  by  the  common  law  he 
forfeitea  his  estate ;  to  receive  consecration, 
therefore,  at  Abbot's  hands  would  be  sacrilege. 
Laud  on  this  occasion  acted  with  Williams. 
The  quarrel  between  him  and  Abbot,  which 
had  begun  at  Oxford  at  the  beginning  of  the 
century,  had  not  yet  terminated.  In  1610 
Abbot  had  used  all  his  influence  to  prevent 
Laud's  election  to  the  presidency  of  St.  John's 
College,  Oxford  (Laud's  Diary  in  Works^  iii. 
134).  In  1615,  at  the  suggestion  of  his  bro- 
ther, Dr.  Robert  Abbot,  master  of  Balliol,  he 
had  charged  Laud  before  the  king  with  libel- 
ling him  in  an  Oxford  sermon ;  Laud  attri- 
buted his  frequent  disappointment  of  high 
preferment  to  the  action  of  the  archbishop, 
and  he  now  seized  the  opportunity  of  reveng- 
ing himself  upon  his  old  persecutor.  The 
king  could  not  resist  a  petition  for  an  inquiry 
into  Abbot's  alleged  irreg^ularity,  and  a  com- 
mission was  nominated.  It  included  Williams, 
Laud,  and  Gary,  three  of  the  bishops-elect 
(Davenant,  the  only  one  of  them  on  good 
terms  with  Abbot,  being  excluded),  three 
bishops,  two  judges  of  the  common  pleas, 
the  dean  of  arches,  and  another.  The  opmion 
of  the  Sorbonne  and  other  foreign  universities 
was  at  the  same  time  invited.  Abbot  felt 
the  indignity  keenly.  His  unhappy  accident, 
as  he  wrote  (29  Aug.),  was  *■  a  bitter  potion, 
on  account  of  the  conflict  in  his  conscience 
for  what  sin  he  is  permitted  to  be  the  talk  of 
men  to  the  rejoicing  of  the  papist  and  the 
insulting  of  the  puritan.'  For  some  weeks 
he  withdrew  to  nis  hospital  at  Guildford. 
But  towards  the  end  of  September  he  was 
frequently  at  court  and  treated  by  the  king 
witn  marked  kindliness.  He  persisted  in 
preaching  occasionally  in  the  country,  *  for 
which  he  was  like  to  be  in  trouble '  (Yonoe's 
Diary,  Camd.  Soc.,  p.  43).  At  the  beginning 
of  October  the  commission  began  its  sittings. 
Abbot  desired  to  be  represented  by  counsel 
(13  Oct.  1621),  but  the  request  was  refused. 
His  irregularity  was,  however,  never  esta- 
blished in  England.  Hunting  was  not  allowed 
to  be  in  itself  a  recreation  inconsistent  with 
the  episcopate,  and  the  kinff  interpreted  in 
the  archbishop's  favour  the  halting  decision 
of  the  commission,  whose  members  were 
evenly  divided  as  to  the  scandal  caused  to 


the  church  by  the  homicide.  The  Sorbonne, 
whose  professors  thrice  discussed  the  quflfr* 
tion,  condemned  him  in  vain,  and  Spelman's 
learned  argument  to  the  same  effect  passed 
almost  unnoticed  (Reliquice  SpelTnannuB,  pp. 
111-120,  under  date  19  Oct.  1621).  It  wis 
nevertheless  thought  fitting  to  grant  Abbot 
a  formal  pardon  or  dispensation,  which  was 
duly  signed  by  James,  24  Dec.  1621.  But  a 
slur  had  been  cast  upon  Abbot's  reputation 
from  which  he  never  quite  recovered.  Three 
of  the  bishops-elect  still  refused  to  be  con- 
secrated by  him,  and  he,  in  deference  to  their 
views,  delegated  the  duty  to  the  bi^op  of 
London. 

Abbot  in  subsequent  years  pursued  his  old 
course  of  action  in  public  affairs  with  all  his 
previous  energy,  and  his  differences  with  the 
court  in  both  foreign  and  domestic  policy 
grew  rapidly  wider.  The  commons,  under 
the  guiaance  of  Abbot's  friend,  Sir  Dudley 
Digges,  came  to  regard  him  as  the  champion 
of  their  interests  against  Buckingham  and 
his  creatures,  and  Abbot,  in  desJing  with 
the  Spanish  marriage  treaty,  very  rightly 
interpreted  their  sentiments.  The  proposed 
visit  of  Gharles  and  Buckingham  to  Idfadiid 
he  opposed  to  the  uttermost,  and  when^  on 
16  July  1623,  the  council  was  invited  to  give 
its  consent  to  the  marriage  treaty,  Abbot 
alone  rose  and  showed  by  his  awkward  ques- 
tions his  contempt  for  the  arrangement.  He 
only  signed  the  articles  on  receiving  orders  to 
do  so  under  the  great  seal,  and  James  con- 
gratulated himself  on  his  compliance  even  on 
those  terms.  But  the  king  was  startled  to 
receive  early  in  the  following  Aupist  a  letter, 
signed  by  the  archbishop,  aeclaiming  anew 
with  unmeasured  vituperation  against  his 
toleration  of  popery,  his  indifference  to  par- 
liamentary government,  and  the  journey  of 
the  prince  to  Spain.  The  letter  was  clearly 
proved  to  be  a  forgery,  but  whether  it  was 
the  work  of  Abbot's  enemies  or  of  his  too 
enthusiastic  friends  has  never  been  known. 
A  fruitless  search  was  made  for  the  author. 
Abbot  was  very  backward  in  disavowing  its 
authorship ;  it  well  expressed  his  own  senti- 
ments, and  he  thus  incurred  some  of  its  re- 
sponsibility. But  the  letter  agreed  too  closely 
with  current  public  opinion  to  allow  the  go- 
vernment to  make  it  the  ground  of  any  open 
action,  and  the  ministers  contented  them- 
selves with  forbidding  its  circulation.  The 
events  of  the  following  months  gave  the 
anonymous  letter-writer  and  the  archbishop 
all  the  satisfaction  they  desired.  The  mar- 
riage negotiations  fell  through;  Bucking- 
ham's haughtiness  and  evil  temper  ruined 
the  scheme.  On  6  Oct.  1623  Prince  Gharles 
returned  to  England  after  having  resigned 


Abbot  17  Abbot 

L  to  ike  infuixa's  bAmL    Abboc*8  ioy  Montagu  to  hU  pniseiice.  and.  mikUr  i^prov- 

CMBded:  ke  met  the  prince  00  nis  ing  him,  bade  him  make  such  alterations  as 

n  LoBdoB  at  lAmbeth  Stairs,  and  would  leliere  him  of  all  »u5picion  of  Armi- 

ciMieted  in  his  own  bazge  to  York  nianism.      But   Montagu  appealed  against 

On  ±  ilarch  1^2^-4  he  took  part  in  Abbot's  reproof  to  the  king,  and  James  I 

■ce  beimiwtt  lords  and  commons  as  reveraed  the  archbishop's  judgment.     The 

iflaiioni  of  England  with  Spain.     A  writer,  however,  was  not  yet  satislied.     lie 

Her  he  proeeeded  to  Theobalds  to  in-  at  once  penned  a  fiercer  vindication  of  his 

le king  uiat  the  parliament  was  agreed  own  views^  entitled  *  Appello  Csesarem,'  and 

c  hoHMir  and  safinr  of  England  de-  the  king  caused  it  to  be  licensed  for  the  press 

i  a  hnach  with  Spain.   His  confident  by  Dr.  AMiite,  dean  of  Carlisle.    Abbot  was 

gciphoweTer.did  not  exactly  meet  with  not  informed  of  its  publication:  and  before 

eiCT  •  apprormL  and  Abbot  found  him-  he  could  protest  against  this  intrusion  on  the 

from  exerting  any  effective  influence  rights  ot  his  office  James  died,  and  Abboc 

'ml  Buckingham  was  at  the  same  time  had  to  defer  any  action  in  the  matter. 
ng  a  French  alliance,  which  was  little        The  death  of  James  was  not  £ivourable  to 

tofT  to  Abbot,  and  that  policy  was  the  archbishop.     He  was  not  present  at  his 

to  eompletioa  before  the  dose  of  the  deathbed,   nor  did   he  preach   the  funeral 

The  duke's  growing  pride  was  bearing  >ermon  :  the  last  offices  were  performed  by 

m  before  it.     Abfcot  was  at  times  so  Bishop  Williams.     The  new  king  was  in  the 

red'  bv  it  that  he  feU  sick,  and  had  to  hands  of  Buckingham,  and  was  the  friend  of 

tiimfleff  from  court  i  15  March  ld2^-4>.  ,  Laud.     Abbot  had,  it  is  true,  known  him 

•Iter  to  Carleton  \  IS  Aug.  16:^4)  he  from  his  boyhood ;    he  had   confirmed   or 

the  ^  rubs '  that  all  suffer  alike  '  who  *  bishopped '  him  in   1617,  when  his  ready 

stoop  to  that  saiL'  and  adds  that  sue-  answers  to  questions  on  religion  had  excited 

mnot  always  be  insured  by  subser-  the  archbishop's  admiration  1^ Nichols,  iVo- 

*  At  the  moment.*  Abbot  concluded,  «/rp««#,  ii.  6:M).      He  crowned  Charles  at 

e  duke'  stands  higher  than  ever,  and  Westminster,  but  it  was  soon  apparent  that 

It  tell  what  that  presages*  The  church  the  king  would    tolerate   no    independent 

the  last  few  vears  had  been  compara-  criticism  from  him  on  public  or  ecclesiastical 

peaeefuL  AbUx  was.  as  of  old.  cnari-  aflairs.    The  Hou^ie  of  Commons  appealed  to 

tiding  ^19  Sept.   1621   and  31  Jan.  him,  in  \&2o,  to  suppress  Montagu  s  second 

r)  Frnich  p^otestant  refugees.  *  extra-  book,  *  Appello  Csesarem.'  but  the  king  inter- 

y  sufferers  in  their  country's  calamity.*  vened  :   he  dissolved  paziiament.  and  left 

18  proceeding  with  his  former  vigour  Abbot  powerless.     In  the  <econd  parliament 

;  seminary  priests*     In  letters  to  the  of  the  reign.  Abbot,  in  spite  of  ill-health 

I  (12  Auf .  16±2 )  he  uTeed.  at   the  which  compelled  him  to  be  carried  into  the 

iesize,  and  in  accordance  with  his  old  house  and  to  speak  sitting,  would  not  remain 

Older,  'the  orderly  preaching  of  Christ  sOent.     He  was  pres^^nt  at  a  c<>nference  with 

dy  of  obedience  to  the  higher  powers,  the  commons  as  to  the   English  relatione 

a  christian  life,  and  not  that  ever\*  with  France,  in  which  he.  like  the  commons, 

oold  take  exorbitant  liberty  to  teack  showed  decided   sympathy  for  the  French 

e  listeth  to  the  disquiet  of  the  king,  protestants  :   and  his  connection  with   Sir 

,  and  eommonwealth.*    Count  Mans^  Dudley  Digges.  who  was  managing  Buckixur- 

i  behalf  of  the  elector  palatine,  was  ham's  impeachment,  brought  him  into  high 

:ed  in  1624  to  raise  an  army  in  Eng-  displeasure  at  court.    He  was  also  suspected 

id  the  archbishop  received  lum  on  lus  of  cloee  intimacy  with  Sir  Thomas  Went- 

in  London.    But  just  at  the  close  worth,  whose  nephew.  Savile.  was  his  ward. 

les's  reign  dismites  again  threatened  And  Abbot  made  no  endeavour  to  conciliate 

}  authority.     In  1624  he  refused  to  his  enemies.     In  the  foUo^'ing  year  Charle» 

n  Laud,  now  bishop  of  St.  David's,  to  was  in  great  need  of  money.     A  forced  loan 

h  onnmission  court.  At  the  same  time  had   been  proclaimed,   and   Dr.   Sibthorpe, 

thrown  into  collision  with  one  of.  the  vicar  of  Brackley.  had  jinrached  a  sermon 

pportera  of  Laud's  t  heology.   Richard  before  the  i  udges  at  the  N  ort  hampton  assizes, 
;%U  An  Essex  rector,  in  a  pamphlet  at-  ,  exalting  the  royal  prerogative  and  its  right 

Rome,  entitled  *  A  Gag  for  the  New  ;  of  arbitrary  taxation.   Buckingham  sugge?te«l 

*  had  struck  a  severe  blow  at  the  doc-  ■  that  it  should  be  printed,  and  it  was  for- 

>f  Geneva;  the  House  of  Commons  warded  to  Abb^/t  for  his  imprimatur,     Wil- 

oed  the  work,  and  petitioned  Abbot  ;  liam   Murray,  of   the    king's    bedchamber, 

ah  the  author.    The  archbishop  ap-  brought  the  *ennon  to  Lambeth.     .\bbr»t, 

id    the    matter    calmly,    snmmon^l  '  who  wa*  ill  in  bed.  read  it  and  raued  objec- 
I.                                   '  c 


Abbot 


i8 


Abbot 


tions  to  its  arguments.  It  sanctioned  a  loan 
for  which  there  was  neither  law  nor  custom 
in  England ;  it  praised  thepapists  and  showed 
little  sympathy  with  the  German  protestants. 
Murray  returned  a  day  or  two  later  with  a 
statement  on  the  part  of  the  kinff  that  Abbot's 
objections  were  groundless.  Abbot  asked  the 
attendance  of  LAud,  who,  he  believed,  had 

Srompted  the  king  to  befriend  Sibthorpe,  to 
iscuss  the  matter  with  him.  But,  although 
Laud  refused  to  come,  he  answered  Abbot's 
*  exceptions '  in  a  paper  which  Murray  read  to 
the  archbishop,  but  which  he  refused  to  leave 
with  him.  Finally  (3  May  1627)  Sibthorpe's 
sermon  was  taken  to  the  bishop  of  London, 
and  published  by  his  authority.  But  Abbot's 
want  of  compliance  with  the  court  policy  was 
not  to  go  unpunished.  Buckingham,  about 
to  start  on  nis  Rochelle  expedition,  could 
not  leave  Abbot  to  influence  the  council  in 
his  absence ;  and  he  it  was  apparently  who 
insisted  on  the  archbishop's  sequestration. 
On  5  July  1627  Lord  Conway,  secretary  of 
state,  went  to  Croydon,  whither  the  arch- 
bishop had  retired  during  his  recent  quarrel, 
and  ordered  him  to  witharaw  to  Canterbury. 
No  cause  was  assigned,  but  Abbot  was  soon 
afterwards  bidden  to  meddle  no  more  with 
the  high  commission  court,  and,  perceiving 
that  he  was  to  be  stripped  of  all  authority, 
he  removed,  towards  tne  end  of  Julv,  to 
a  private  house  that  he  owned  at  t'ord, 
near  Canterbury.  On  9  Oct.  following,  a 
commission  was  issued  to  five  bishops,  in- 
cluding Laud  and  other  well-known  enemies 
of  Abbot,  authorising  them  to  exercise  all 
archiepiscopal  powers  and  jurisdiction  in  the 
place  of  Abbot  (Rushwobth,  Collections,  i. 
431-3).  That  such  an  act  on  the  part  of 
Charles  was  signally  unlawful  admits  of  no 
question.  Fuller  attributes  it  to  his  *ob- 
noxiousness  for  that  casualty'  of  1621,  but 
there  is  no  ground  for  assigning  to  it  other 
causes  than  Abbot's  opposition  to  Bucking- 
ham's system  of  government,  and  Laud's 
personal  enmity. 

At  the  end  of  the  following  year  (1 1  Dec. 
1628)  Abbot  was  restored  to  favour.  He 
was  received  at  court  by  the  Archbishop  of 
York  and  the  Earl  of  Dorset,  the  son  of  his  old 
friend,  and  by  them  introduced  to  the  king, 
who  bade  him  attend  the  council  twice  a  week. 
But  his  authority  was  practically  at  an  end. 
Laud  had  become  bishop  of  London,  and  was 
alwavs  at  the  king's  side.  In  parliament, 
to  which  the  lords  had  demanded  that  he 
should  be  summoned  even  during  his  seques- 
tration, he  had  endeavoured  to  maintain  his 
independence.  In  April  1628  he  declared 
liimself  opposed  to  the  king's  claim  of  power 
to  commit  persons  to  prison  without  showing 


cause.  Throughout  the  session  he  begged 
the  lords  to  act  as  the  commons  desired,  and 
he  tried  to  bring  about  a  compromise  between 
the  lords  and  commons  in  their  disputes  over 
the  additional  clause  attached  by  tne  lords  to 
the  petition  of  right, '  saving  the  king's  just 
prerogative.' 

Abbot  lived  chieflv  in  retirement  after  his 
sequestration,  and  his  public  acts  during  the 
last  four  years  of  his  life  are  few.  On  24 
August  lo28  he  consecrated  Eichard  Mont- 
agu, with  whom  he  had  previouslv  come  into 
serious  collision,  bishop  of  Chichester,  and 
Laud's  presence  at  the  ceremony  showed  that 
all  doubts  as  to  his  inability  to  exercise  ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction  had  been  removed. 
In  1631  he  endeavoured  to  stay  a  controversy 
in  which.  Prynne  had  fiercely  attacked  thie 
practice  of  bowing  at  the  name  of  Jesus ;  but 
Laud  i^ored  Abbot's  authority,  and  caused 
a  book  m  favour  of  the  practice,  by  an  Oxford 
writer  named  Page,  to  be  licensed  after  Abbot 
had  announced  his  intention  of  suppressing 
it.  Nevertheless,  Abbot  was  constantly  in 
attendance  in  the  high  commission  court-, 
and  tried  to  enforce  conformity  in  the  church 
with  consistent  love  of  order.  Between 
October  1631  and  June  1632  he  refused  to 
allow  certain  London  parishes  to  place  seats 
above  the  communion  table;  he  struggled 
hard  in  matrimonial  cases  to  maintain  a  hiffh 
standard  of  morality,  and  he  punished  the 
separatists,  with  wliom  he  never  was  in 
sympathy.  *  You  do  show  yourselves,*  he 
said  to  a  number  of  them  brought  before  him 
in  June  1632, '  the  most  ungrateful  to  God, 
und  to  his  majestv  the  king,  and  to  us  the 
fathers  of  the  church.'  On  3  July  1633 
Abbot  again  emphatically  showed  tnat  the 
simple  forms  and  ceremonies  of  religions 
worship  were  no  matter  of  indifference  to 
him,  as  they  never  had  been  throughout  his 
life,  and  ba^e  the  parishioners  of  Cravford, 
Kent,  receive  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's 
Supper  on  their  knees  at  the  steps  ascending 
the  altar. 

Throughout  these  last  years  Abbot  was 
also  actively  watching  over  the  interests  of 
All  Souls  College,  ot  which  he  was  visitor 
f.r  officio.  The  office  had  never  been  a  sine- 
cure for  him.  He  had  consistently  endea- 
voured to  enforce  a  strict  disciplme  upon 
the  students,  although  not  always  with  suc- 
cess. In  1616  Dr.  Mocket,  the  warden,  a 
friend  of  Abbot's,  had  published  a  book,  en- 
titled *  Politia  Ecclesiie  Anglicanas,'  which 
claimed,  as  the  king  believed,  undue  authority 
for  the  primacy,  and  showed  a  want  of  respect 
for  some  of  the  thirty-nine  articles.  In  spte 
of  Abbot's  protest  the  book  was  burnt,  and 
Mocket  is  said  to  have  died  from  the  shock  of 


)  humiliktion.     The  act  injured   Abbot's 

.       f  tt  Oribrd,  and  he  was  iinnble  lo 

tvAmia  dUorders  al  All  Sini1«,  which  untised 
liim  increaati^  anxiety.  In  1633  he  eeyervlv 
reprinuiided  the  omixn  fat  allowing  ihe 
HludenU  ia  "spend  thi^ir  time  in  taverns  and 
alehouKs,  to  the  defamation  of  echulare  and 
•uuida]  of  jQur  house.'  In  16:%  be  nii.t- 
iiendiMl  a  fellow  for  iireguUr  conduct,  and  in 
]ti»3be  wrote  two  Utters  i'2  Jan.  and  26 
May)  fxpreuing  his  disapproval  of  the  ex- 
travtunni  expenditure  (if  the  autboritip«. 
Near^  fifty  years  later,  ArdibidUop  Santroft 
attempted  to  r&<nforce  Abbol'a  niles  (BuR- 
itows,  Wortkie*  <tfAH  thuU,  pu.  136  et  bgij.  ; 
MlKTIV,  Ardiim  of  All  Sotils  Collrgt,  pp. 
310-77). 

Dining  the  Wt  few  months  of  1635,  -Ab- 
bot's health,  whicli  had  been  for  a  long  time 
iipparentlv  bntaking,  seetneil  to  revive  ;  and 
a  friend  wrote  (30  Sept.  1632)  thai  '  if  any 
•ither  prelate  gape  after  hlK  benefice,  hie 
grace  perbap«  .  .  .  [may]  eat.  llie  goose 
which  shall  (TTBie  upon  his  ([rave"  (Hart.  MS. 
7000,  f.  181  ;  Fuller,  f^nrri  Sutory,  ed. 
Ttrewar,  vi.  44,  uole).  But  -Abbot's  death 
followed  within  the  year.  A  well-known 
ritory  recorded  of  liii^  last  years  shows  the 
bitter  trials  that  beset  him  to  the  end.  On 
liis  return  to  Cro\-don  shortly  before  hid 
death  he  was  incommoded  by  a  crowd  of 
women  who  surroiinded  his  coach,  and  on 
Ilia  complainin([  of  their  presence,  the  shout 
was  raised :  '  Ye  had  best  shoot  an  arrow  at 
II*.'  The  archbishop  died  at  Croydon,  4  Aug. 
^liSS,  aged  sevenlv-one.  He  was  buried,  as 
1i>-  dewred,  in  Trinity  Church,  Guildford,  and 
bin  brother.  Sir  ^laiirice  Abbot,  erect«l  in 
1635  an  elaborate  inanument  to  his  memory, 
which  is  still  etandins.  By  his  will  he  left 
legacies  to  the  poor  of  Lambeth  and  Croydon 
nnd  to  his  servanls.  Besides  arranging  for 
the  endowment  of  his  hospital,  lie  provided 
100/.  to  be  lent  to  poor  tradesmKO  of  Guild- 
ford, and  urged  the  mayor  to  set  up  some 
manufacture  in  the  town  'to  find  work  for 
the  younger  sort  of  people : '  a  room  in  the 
hos^tal  nt  oAsigned  as  a  '  workhouse '  for 
the  purpose.  His  friend,  Sir  Dudley  Uigges, 
wa$  not  forgotten,  and  to  the  Princess  Eliioi- 
beth,  whose  marriage  be  had  brought  about, 
and  whose  husband  he  had  befriended  in 
vain,  be  hflijiieathed  2001.    The  residue  of  his 

Cropwty  he  left  to  his  nephews  and  surt'iving 
rothers,  Maurice  and  John.  The  greater 
]>art  of  his  library  he  gave  to  bis  successor 
at  Lambeth,  and  it  practically  formed  the 
nucleus  of  that  great  collection;  some  por> 
lion  was  at  the  same  time  reserved  for  the 
I-  hapt  erho  II  »e«  of  Wi  nchester  and  Canterbury. 
.\nianghis  books  were  found  a  large  number 


of  popish  tracts  that  liehadM-ijiieiilralijd,and 
the  Spanish  ambassador  demanded  their  sur- 
render to  their  owners  at  the  close  iif  1633 
(Cal.  Clarendon  Papers,  i.  40).  But  it  waa 
n<il  only  at  bis  death  that  .\bbot  gave  proof 
of  his  generosity.  He  liud  been  t  lirunghout 
his  life  a  benefactor  of  (Jxford,  London,  and 
Canterburv,  as  well  as  of  Guildford.  In  IttlO 
he  subscribed  lOW.  to  the  library  of  Balliol 
and  to  the  reiNur  of  the  college  buildingB. 
He  contributed  largely  to  the  new  foundation 
of  Pembroke,  which  was  establislietl  finally 
in  16:!4,  and  the  first  master  wrote  to  the 
arcbbisliop  to  express  the  society's  apprecia- 
tion (if  his  benevolence.  He  also  iwnt  100/. 
to  assist  in  the  rebuilding  of  the  Uxford 
schools,  and  another  lOOJ.  somewhat  later 
(163;i)  to  aid  the  library  of  Uuiversitj  Col- 
lege. .\1  Canterbury  lie  built  a  '  fair  con- 
duit,' which  he  had  determined  to  give  to 
the  town,  but  a  quarrel  as  to  his  Jurisdiction 
in  the  city  changed  hispurpose.  To  I^ndon 
he  ^ve  300/.,  in  1633,  towarxls  the  repair  of 
St.  Paul's  and  the  removal  of  licggnrs,  and 
he  wax  always  ready  to  assist  private  pen<ons 
in  distress. 

It  was  inevitable  that  very  vuriuiis  esti- 
mates should  be  held  of  Abbot's  character  in 
the  seventeenth  centur\'.  Whitclocho  wrote 
that  he  left  behind  him  'the  memory  of  a 
pious,  learned,  and  moderate  prelate'  [Memo' 
ritilf,  IP, ed.  1732;  cf.  Mat.  £,nff  PartiatHtnt, 
p.  S3,  ed.  1854).  Clarendon  attributes  to  him 
the  downfall  of  the  church  in  the  L'ivil  wars, 
and  charges  him  with  fostering  religious  fac- 
tions and  indifference  to  ecclesiastical  disci- 
pline {HUtoty,  i.  134,  ed.  1849).  Fuller 
describes  him  as  a  grave  man  in  his  conver- 
sation and  OB  unblamable  in  his  life,  but 
unduly  severe  to  the  clergy  in  the  high  com- 
mission court  (Churek  Slatory,  ed.  Brewer, 
vi.  46).  ether  writers  of  Ihe  time  attribute 
to  him  'remissness  in  visitation,'  a  cliorae 
depending  mainly  on  Laud's  account  of  the 
carelessness  of  his  last  report  of  the  condition 
of  his  diocese.  He  proved  himself,  however, 
conscientious  enougli  at  other  times  in  the 
discharge  of  the  duties  of  his  office,  to  show 
that  the  accusation  can  only  apply  to  bis 
lost  days,  when  he  was  broken  in  health 
and  spirit.  Uf  his  narrowness  of  view  and 
unconciliatory  tone  of  niind  we  have  already 
spoken.  His  occasional  connivance  at  cruet- 
ties  that  in  our  eyes  admit  of  no  defence  put 
these  characteristics  in  a  very  repulsive 
lijiht ;  but  his  resistance  of  unjust  authority, 
his  consistency  of  purpose,  and  his  charitahlH 
instincts  must  he  set  in  the  opposite  balance. 

Besides  the  works  already  enumerated, 
Abbot  is  credited  with  having  written  the 
account  of  the  persecution  of  the  pro^estants 
C2 


Abbot  20  Abbot 

in  the  Valteline, which  appears  in  the  seventh  386,  and  Dr.  White  Kennefs  biographical  notes 

edition  of  Foxe*8  '  Acts  and   Monuments/  on  Abbot  in  Lansdowne  MS.  984,  are  of  very 

1631-2,  and  the  *  Judgment  on  Bowing  at  little  value.    The  Domestic  State  Papm  from 

the  Name  of  Jesus/  published  at  Hamburg  ^^^  to  1633  are  full  of  references  to  his  public 

in  1632.   He  is  also  said  to  have  shared  with  and  private  life,  and  contain  a  vast  number  of 

Sir  Henry  SavUe  the  expense  of  republish-  ^fj^"*"*    T"**  ^S?  ""^  ,^^*"?""^^^" 

ing  in  1618  BradwardinVs  'Cause  of  God  Athen»Oxonienses;  Sti^s Annals j^mw^ 

.^:«o4^  ♦!.*»  -p^i.^.^o  ♦     Ai>v^f  A^^.,^  u:^  Memorials;  Rvmers  Fosdera;  Hackets  Life  of 

against  the  Pelaguuw      Abbot  drew  up  bio-  wiUiams ;  an/ the  publications  of  the  Camden, 

graphical  accounts  (1)  of  his  connect  ion  with  Abbotrford,  and  Ban\iatyne  Societies  concerning 

the  Essex  drvorw  case,  prmted  m  the  '  State  the  reign  of  Jamea  I  throw  occasional  light  on 

Trials    (u.  806-62)  ;  (2)  of  his  accident  m  Abbot's  life ;  Nichols's  Progresses  is  very  useful 

Bramshill  Park,  printed,  with  other  docu-  for  his  relations  with  the  court.    It  is  important 

ments  on  the  subject,  in  ^  Reliquise  Spelman-  to  compare  the  views  taken  of  him  in  Clarendon's 

niffi '  and  in  the  ^  State  Trials    (ii.  1165-9) ;  History,  in  Fuller's  Church  ^story,  and  in  Neal's 

these  papers,  although  written  in  the  third  History  of  the  Puritans.]  S.  L.  L. 

person,  mav  be  confidentlv  attributed  to!  .^«.rv«.  a^^^«a^t^/,^wv«  ,^j^x  -.•  - 
tis  pTn  («;pies  of  them  in*  manuscript  are  ABBOT,  GEORGE  (1603-1^48),  religious 
among  the  Tanner  MSS.  at  Oxford);  and  ^ter,  has  been  persistently  mistaken  for 
(3)  of  his  sequestration,  printed  in  Rush-  other  George  Abbots.  He  is  invariably 
worth's  *  Historical  CoUections '  (i.  434  et  described  as  a  der^an,  which  he  never 
«w.),  and  reprinted  bv  ^^Ir.  Arber  (1882)  in  Yf?^  *"d^  f®^  P\^^l  Maunce  (or  Morns) 
his  'English  Gamer,*'  iv.  536-76.  Several  Abbot,  who  had  indeed  a  son  Georoe,  but  not 
of  his  letters  remain  in  manuscript  at  the  this  George.  Similarly,  in  the  bibbopaphn 
Bodleian  among  the  Tanner  MSS.  ^  authonties,  he  is  erroneously  designated 

Abbot's  portrait  was  several  times  painted,  nephew  of  G^rge  (Abbot),  archbishop  of 
and  engravings  after  Vandergucht  and  Hou-  p^"^^J^*>V^.  5®  ^*»  ^V?  diiferent  famfly 
braken  are  often  met  with.  A  portrait  was  J^^f  both  Sir  Maunce  Abbot  and  the  arch- 
engraved  in  1616  by  Simon  Pass,  in  oval,  ^^^^If-  This  George  Abbot  was  son  or  grand- 
with  a  view  of  Lambeth  in  the  background,  ^^— *^^^  "^^^  ^Jp*^  which— of  Sir  Thomas 
and  eight  Latin  lines  beneath  (Evans,  Cat.  Abbot,kmght,of  Easington,  EastYorfal^ 
of  Engraved  Portraits,  i.  1,  ii.  1).  A  half-  ,  *»^  Y**  bom  there  in  16^-4,  his  mother  (or 
length  portrait,  of  uncertain  authorship,  is  in  '  grandmother)  bemg  of  the  ancient  house  of 
the  chapel  of  Abbot's  hospital  at  Guildford.  ,  ^^^^^'     ,  i.  t^.    , 

There  is  a  gloominess  of  expression  in  these  ;  ^.  h^s  early,  as  of  his  later  education, 
pictures  which,  while  confirming  the  morose-  \  not^g  has  been  transmitted,  ^liilst  his 
ness  of  disposition  usuaUv  ascnbed  to  him,  ^tings  e\^dence  npe  and  varied  scholarship 
is  vet  tempered,  on  closeV  examination,  by  f."^  <^^ture  on  somewhat  out-of-the-way 
much  natural  kindliness.  lines,  e.g.  Hebrew  and  patnstic— there  is  no 

record  of  academic  training. 

[The  ftdlest  accounts  of  Abbot's  life  are  to  be  i  He  married  a  daughter  of  the  once  &- 
found  in  the  Biographia  Britannica  and  in  Hook's  .  mous  Colonel  Purefov  of  Caldecote,  War- 
Lives  of  the  Archbishops.  The  former  was  l^  \  wickehire :  and  as  the  inscription  on  his  tomb 
William  Oldys,  and  was  reprinted  at  Guildford,  —still  extant  there— tells  us,  he  bravely  held 
in  a  separate  volume  by  Speaker  Onslow,  a  tlie  manorhouse  against  the  Princes  Rupert 
^low-townsman  of  Abbot  in  1777.    It  is  full  of    ^^^  Maurice  during  the  great  civil  war. 

^fr°*^^f  .^^P*?^  *^T-^'?'r???i'lt  '  As  a  lavman  and  nevertheless  a  theolo- 
in  the  eighteenth  century.    Hooks  Iafe(1875)      •  ^     ^^  •   j^^^^^  ^^  ^^  .  ^  j^       ^ 

attempts  to  incorporate  with  the  older  biography  ^         ?  iTi   \..   •  ^    \     1.  u*^     ^  • 

some  more  recenUy  discovered  information,  but  remarkable  attainments,  he  holds  a  unique 

18  only  very  partially  successful ;  it  is  disfigured  P^Sf  \^  ^he  literature  of  the  period.     His 

by  many  errors  as  to  dates  and  by  want  of  '  ^  nole  Book  of  Job  Paraphrased,  or  made 

syrapathywith  Abbot's  position.  Hook  gave  a  less  easy  for  any  to  understand'  (1640,  4to),  is 

elaborate,  but  more  valuable,  account  of  Abbot  in  striking  contrast  with   the  prolixity  of 

in  his  Ecclesiastical  Biography,  1845.   By  far  the  contemporary  commentators  and  exnositors. 

Ijest  account  of  Abbot  is  to  be  found  in  Mr.  S.  R.  His  'Ymdiciae  Sabbathi  *  (1641)  haa  a  deep 

Gardiner's  sketches  of  him  in  his  History  of  Eng-  and  permanent  influence  in  the  long  Sabba- 

land.   Original  authorities  for  Abbot's  biography  farian  controversv.     His  *  Brief  Notes  upon 

are  his  own  papers  and  works,  referred  to  above,  the  whole  Book  *^of  Psalms '  (1651,  4to),  aa 

whichshouldbe  compared  with  Laud's  diaiy  and  its  date  shows,  was  posthumous.     He  died 

Heylm  s  Cypnanus  Anglicanua,  or  the  Life  of  q  p  u   1543 
Laud,  on  the  other  fide.  Abbot's  will  was  printed 

at  Guildford  by  Onslow  in  1777.    Heame's  bio-        [MS.  collections  for  History  of  the  Abbots, 

graphical  notice  in  Rawlinson  MS.  C.  146,  f.  by  J.  T.  Abbot,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  of  Darlington;. 


Abbot  ri  Abbot 

p.  1099;  WoGdV  Atli«e.«d.KM.  1  143.  5M      smslH^t  Nf  h*  fj^-di!  cctsri::^  of  diwrtk« 


CoxV  litABmof  the  SaI^*:^  L  :M.  441. 47*.    frrot  1*X  -c^rmrisw  &d£  '■^  liinwflKMn  kk 


31»f«.  A.  *  C.  IfiM^J  A.  t.  1..  ^  J^^  ..^  ^._^a:.    ..^  .1^  A<v>cat5  of 


pAZT  i.r  Tb*  ftuii:  .-f  :bf  »«»-cat5  of  fji* 


Cambridge,  mdnatiiv  RA.  in  1*^7.  HiV.    fr  Tbr  iiio:Trr>  .  f  -be  ij;.r:b-ir«.:  |«»»^.* 
in  1610,  and   BJ).  in  1617.     Haritr  tan    EaHt  ia  lt*l.!»  b?   tta*  ^st'  of  the  commit- 


braced  the  catholic  rrligion.  he  nrcr^  to  zht  *:  w^  'i-^i^Tob^i  :  ^  Holland  :*>  Mettle  the 

Continent,  and  in  1633  wa*  a  mrnsV-r  ^f  Tbr  di*j.::T<*  Tb»T  were   ^^.^nsTaBTlv  ari^inf  W- 

convent  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  ax  AnTwrrp^  :wc«n  ibe  IVj:oh  and  Er^lidb  Ea^Tlndia 

lie  is  the  aathor  of  a  verr  <e&M>e  p^^ical  rraparie*  a*  :  ^  :br:r  tT^aW  riibt*  in  the 


woii^ entitled  *Jesii»jT»%iiivd:  oraP-v-nr  Ea«;  Indies  ar.d  th-ir  fishing  riihis  in  the 

of  the  HoIt  Xame  of  Jrtn^  in  fivr  V•>ke^  -.^nb  *«**.     Bi;:  :br  ivnfer^no**  that  fi4- 

(the  first  and eecond  bookefk.br  John  Abbnt.  lim-ed  produced  n>  s»T:>iadorv  result.     In 

Penni«su  Sapeiionun,*  16S3.  4to.     It  :*  be-  Hav  161.>  AbHr  h:is!*-lf  |^id  a  visit  to  the 

lieyed  that  no  further  portion  of  thi*  alni'-i^T  East  Indite  and  .^n  hL*  nium  wa*  ch<^«n 

unique  poem  was  nrinted.    The  vrJume  ha*  drputy-^ivem«"»r  "f  iLr  cs'tmpany,  an  annual 

two  dedications :  the  primarr  onr  tnChaH-=-i>,  oiSce  :«■»  which  ht»  ws>  eiirh:  tiroi*#  in  micw*- 

Prince  of  Wales,  in  verse,  si^nar?d  whh  : he  sumrv^lt^t-ii.   Ihirincsub^wuent  years  the 

author^s  name:  the  second  in  the  S^iani^h  disjunvements  w-ih  The  l>iit<li  inoTva>«>d  in 

langoaffe,  addressed '  A  la  *erenissima  rvnora  f^rtv.  and  in  li^V*  AMh^t  wa>  one  of  thi>5e 

I>o£a  Maria  de  Austria,  Infanta  ^-^  £^paiia.  appinnted  to  Treai  in  l^mdou  with  ci^mmis- 

Princessa  de  Gales,'  dated  fr.^m  the  o^nven:  si.^ners   fri^m   IL^lland   as   to   the  }toacvful 

of  St.  John  the  Baptist  at  Antwerp,  li*  Nov.  e>T.ihli<hment  •»!  the  two  c>^mpanie$  abn^d. 

1623.     The  date  is  remarkable  a>  temlinf  to  A  tT«ity  was  si^mevi  ('J  June^,  which  s«»cui\\l 

prove  that  the  news  of  the  niptuiv  .'f  tL*^  twcv-thirds  of  the  spice  pnximv  of  the  Mi>- 

match  had  not  reached  the  last-nameil  city  at  lucca  Islands,  where  t  he  disputes  liad  jrn^wn 

that  date,  and  readily  accounts  for  the  work  hottt^st,  to   the  Puich   i>>miwnv,  and   the 

not  being  continued  through  the  other  Three  remaining  third   T.»   the   Knglis^i   (Kyxek. 

books.  Charles  left  Madrid  h Sept. OS.  1  «!»:*..  Fa,/<.rrr,  .wii.   171  >.      But    this  settlement 

[Dr.  Bandinels  Sale  Cat.,  lot  707 :  Si-.r.  c'mH.  ^^s  not  a  permanent  tme.    In  IttH)  the  l>utch 

Libr.  B.  6,  12  :  Farr'j.  Jacol«an  P«>etry.  p.  xHii.  infrinj^il  s*^me  reirnlatiims  of  the  trt^aiv,  and 

363;  LowDdes's  Bibl.  Man.  ed.  Bohn.]     T.  i\  Abbof  in  ci^mpany  with  Sir  l>udley  ftigg^^ 

ABBOT,  Sib  ^L^URICE  or  MOK15IS  went  on  an  embassy  to  Holland  to  set  matters 

<156>5-1612>,an  eminent  merchant, guvemor  once  again  on  a  surer  finning.    'Hie  tH»mmis- 

of  the  East  India  Company,  and  lord  mayor  sioners  were  at  iirst  well  nivivinl  ^^2l>  No\. 

of  London,  was  the  fifth  and  youngest  son  of  16i*0^   by  the   IVimv   of  Orangt*   and   the 

Maurice  Abbot,  a  cloth  worker  of  Guildford,  *tatos-general :  but  the  l>utch  wen*  unwil- 

and  was  the  brother  of  George  Abbot,  arch-  ling  to  make  any  ot^nivssions,  and  luirsuinl 

bishop  of  Canterbury,  and  of  Robert,  bishop  the  negotiation>.  acconling  Xo  the  English 

of  Salisbury  [q.  v.].     Comparatively  little  is  accounts,  with  tt>o  much  duplicity  to  admit 

known  of  liis  early  life.     He  was  baptised  at  of  any  effectual  arrangi»ment.     In  Februnr\- 

Trinity  Church,  (Juildford, 2  Nov.  156o,  was  162(V-*1  Abl>ot  nMunuHl  to  IamuIou,  and  in 

educated  at  Guildford  gprammar  school,  and  an  audience  irnuiteil  him   bv  .lamet*    1   he 

was  probably  apprenticed  in  London  to  his  bitterly  complaiutHl  t>f  the*lmse  usngi*'  to 

father's  trade,     bubsenuently  he  became  a  '  which  lie  had  Ixvn  subjiM'ti'd.    It  was  clearly 

ftvemanoftheDrapers'ComiMiny,  and  rapidly  •  imiwssible  to  diminish  tlu»  actixc  ftn^lingn  of 
amassed  great  wealth  as  a  merchant  dealing  'jealousy  that  existed  iM'tween  the  English 

in  such  various  commodities  as  cloth,  indigo,  and  Dutch  residents  in  the  Kast  Indies,  and 

spices,  and  jeweller^'.                                         j  AblM)t  shared  the  >entiment  to<»  ht»artily  to 

It  is  Abbot's  connection  with  the  manage-  enable  him  to  inipnm*  the  |M)sition  of  afliiin*. 


ment  of  the  East  India  Company  through 
a  long  and  troubled  epoch  of  its  hist  or}' that 
gives  his  career  much  of  its  importance.  He 
was  one  of  the  original  directors  of  the 
company,  which  was  incorporated  by  royal 
charter  in  1000,  was  among  the  earliest  to 


In  16-M  matters  In'came  nion*  crit icnl.  News 
rt^ached  England  that  Amh(\vna,  one  of  the 
chief  trading  de]M*)t  soft  he  .Moluccas,  had  Ikmmi 
the  scene  of  the  muiiler  of  several  English 
traders  by  the  Dutch.  At  thi»  time  AblM>t 
was  holding  the  ollice  <if  g<»\ernor  of  tha 


Abbot  22  Abbot 

company,  to  which  he  had  been  elected  and  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  for  the  remis- 
23  March  1623-4.  Intense  excitement  pre-  |  sion  of  part  of  20,000/.  claimed  by  them  from 
vailed  throughout  the  country,  and  the  '  the  East  India  Company.  In  1624,  when 
greatest  anxiety  was  evinced  as  to  the  steps  he  was  again  returned  to  parliament  for 
that  Abbot  would  take.  He  recognised  at  Kingston-upon-Hull,  Abbot  was  appointed 
once  the  necessity  of  '  pressing  the  matter  |  a  member  of  the  council  for  establisning  the 
modestly,*  in  order  to  avoid  open  war  with  colony  of  Virginia.  It  was  in  the  same  ye*r 
Holland ;  but  in  repeated  audiences  with  !  that  he  had  b^n  elected  governor  of  the  £ast 
the  king  and  in  petitions  and  speeches  to  |  India  Company,  an  office  that  he  was  still 
the  privy  council  he  insisted  that  demand  holding  in  1633,  but  which  he  resigned  before 
should  be  made  of  the  Dutch  authorities  to  ;  1638 ;  and  during  the  time  that  he  sat  in 
bring  the  perpetrators  of  the  outrage  to  '  parliament  he  was  continually  called  upon 
justice.  He  spoke  of  withdrawing  from  the  to  speak  in  the  company's  behalf.  On  many 
trade  altogether  if  this  measure  was  not  occasions  he  complained  of  the  obloquy 
adopted,  and  after  much  delay  the  Dutch  heaped  upon  himself  and  his  friends,  oe- 
agreed  to  give  the  desired  reparation.  But  the  cause  it  was  supposed  that  their  extensive 
death  of  James  I  saw  the  promise  unfulfilled,  foreign  trade  deprived  this  country  of  the 
and  Abbot's  efforts  to  piu-sue  the  question  benefit  of  their  wealth,  and,  with  a  discrimi- 
further  proved  unavailing.  nation  far  in  advance  of  his  age,  denounced 

But  it  was  not  only  in  the  affairs  of  the  the 'curiousness' of  the  English  in  forbidding 
East  India  Company  that  Abbot  during  the  exportation  of  specie,  and  asserted  the 
these  years  took  a  leading  part.  He  was  an  economic  advantages  to  the  state  of  the 
influential  member  of  the  Levant  Company    company's  commerce. 

before  1607,  and  the  English  merchant  sen-ice  On  the  accession  of  Charles  I  in  1625 
was,  from  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  Abbot  was  the  first  to  receive  the  honour  of 
century,  largely  under  his  control.  In  1614  knighthood  from  the  new  king  (Authentic 
one  of  his  vessels,  named  the  Tiger,  was  as-  Documents  of  the  Court  of  Charles  /,  i.  16), 
saulted  and  taken  by  *  M.  Mintaine,  a  French-  and  he  represented  London  in  the  earliest 
man  of  the  Mauritius,'  and  Abbot  sought  re-  parliament  of  the  reign,  although  his  old 
dress  for  the  injury  in  vain.  In  1616  he  with  constituency  had  tried  hard  to  secure  hb 
others  received  a  bounty  for  building  six  new  ser\*ices.  He  apparently  supplied  some  of 
sliips.  In  1612  he  was  nominated  a  director  the  jewellery  required  for  Charles's  corona- 
of  a  newly  incorporated  company  *  of  mer-  tion,  and  received  on  5  July  of  the  same  year 
chants  of  London,  discoverers  of  the  north-  <  8,000/.  for  a  diamond  cut  in  facets  and  set 
west  passage/  and  his  statement  that  in  1614  in  a  collet.'  On  15  Dec.  1626  Abbot  became 
he  *  brought  to  the  mint  60  pounds  weight  of  alderman  of  the  ward  of  Bridge  Without, 
gold  for  Indian  commodities  exported 'proves  and  a  few  months  later  was  chosen  sheriff 
that  his  own  commercial  transactions  con-  of  London.  In  1627  the  customs  department 
tinned  for  many  years  on  a  very  large  scale,  was  reorganised,  and  Abbot  with  others  re- 
Ile  also  expressed  himself  anxious  a  few  ceived  a  lease  of  the  customs  on  wines  and 
years  later  to  open  up  trade  with  Persia,  and  currants  for  three  and  a  half  years,  in  con- 
to  wrest  from  the  Portuguese  the  commercial  sideration  of  a  fine  of  12,000/.  and  a  loan  to 
predominance  they  had  acquired  there.  the  king  of  20,000/.     Bdt  he  was  no  servile 

During  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  i  agent  of  the  crown.  On  16  Sept.  1628  in- 
Abbot  played  a  still  more  active  part  in  ,  formation  was  sent  to  the  king's  council  that 
public  affairs.  In  1621  he  was  elected  mem-  Abbot  was  one  of  the  merchants  who  refused 
ber  of  parliament  for  Kingston-upon-Hull ;  to  pay  a  newly  imposed  additional  tax  on  the 
shortly  aften\ards  was  nominated  one  of  the  ,  importation  ot  currants,  and  that,  while  the 
commissioners  forequipping  merchant  vessels  !  quarrel  was  pending,  he  had  broken  into  the 
to  take  part  in  a  projected  expedition  against  |  government  warehouse  w4iere  currants  be- 
thepiratesof  Algiers,  and  he  appears  to  Iiave    longing  to  him  had  been  stored.     But  the 


l)eeu  consulted  by  the  king's  ministers  in 
every  stage  of  the  preparations,  which  were  for 
a  long  period  unaer  discussion.  On  17  Nov. 
of  the  samo  year  he  became  a  farmer  of  the 
customs,  and  in  1623  he  was  empowered  to 
administer  ^  oaths  to  such  persons  as  should 
either  desire  to  pass  the  seas  from  this  kingdom 
or  to  enter  it  from  abroad '  (Rymeb,  Fcpdera^ 
xvii.  467).  A  few  months  later  he  was  en- 
gaged in  personal  negotiations  with  James  I 


supreme  authorities  do  not  appear  to  have 
pressed  the  charge  against  him.  In  1637  he 
was  one  of  those  entrusted  by  the  lords  of 
the  admiralty  with  fitting  out  ships  at  the 
expense  of  the  city  of  London  in  accordance 
with  the  ship-money  edict  of  1636,  and  the 
attorney-general  ana  the  recorder  of  London 
shortly  anerwards  exhibited  an  information 
against  him  in  the  exchequer  court  on  the 
ground  that  he  had  not  provided  sufficient 


■nmuiiiuuii-    By  ordrr  'i(:W  kiiii;'? 
hnweter.   the    pn)ce*^inii^    tj^iiifl 

-  iif  tiooiloti.  wbo  look  ' 
Whaif  of  (be  iroint. 
'  ]«rliiui]enl  fur  having 
■  iirr- (.1  U'lTship-iD'jDev.  I 
t-^  Si:  Mziiirio-  AMm.  who  had  on  I 
1631  exchanspd  iIm-  vard  if  Bnd^ 
It  tar  that  of  Colrinan  Slrc«t.  h^cnmp  , 
if  I^ndiin.  The  usual  dw<Tip- 
;. -.-pared  lo  celebnte  hi.'  ■ 
■  was  from  the  pen  of 
'  Jramntisl.  Lhilr  one 
I  ~~  work  is  now  known. 
,.  t....i>^uililibrary,  llbearBthe 
lltU.  ■I'.>ri«i-K.lViaiis..r  i\ir  Pnri  or  Har- 
bour of  Pietr.  Kxprest  in  »iiniin*TnmDphe«, 
Pn^nuus.  and  Sbowes  at  the  LutJIiilion  of 
the  Right  Honuiinihle  Sir  Maiu-ice  Abbol, 
knight,  into  the  Mavonlty  of  the  famous 
snd  &iue  renowD«l  citv  Landau.  Written 
liT  Thomajs  HeTirorHJ.'  Lundon.  1638.  In  a 
d»^calion  lo  the  new  lord  major.  Heywood 
empfaauHA  Abbot's  popularity  among  hU 
felkiw-dtiieng,  and  Kfun  tn  the  eitraordi' 
narilT  Mccessful  careers  of  hijaeelf  and  his 
two  brotheT&  'Neithercan  I  omit  the  ha»- 
|iiD«s»e  of  TOUT  decHUed  father,  remsrlnbli^  i 
in  thr'ee  moat  fortunate  »onne«.'  In  'the  I 
first  ihow '  deHnibed  bj-  Herwood  he  makes  j 
allnsinn  In  '  tfae  trading'  of  the  right  honour- 
able the  ]n*»ent  lord  mayor,  who  is  a  mer-  i 
tliant  free  of  the  Turk^,  Italian,  French, 
MuscotT.nnd  waalalegovernourof  theEast- 
Indr  ComjKny.'  In  another 'eh' <«-'  a  shep-  ' 
henl  wa«  introduced  to  frpifr  the  cloth  trade, 
in  ttUefa  Abbot  was  still  engaged,  and  ^ub-  , 
heqamtljr  an  actor  in  the  pageant,  in  the 
chsnuter  of  an  Indian.  iddrM^  lalldaln^^-  , 
r*nem  m  the  new  lord  mavor  b«  the  chief  , 
^Hfarefaant  of  England,  | 

^^B  vbnae  eummerce  our  natioD  hath  Wn  Citn'it.  I 
^^^AUrat's  mayorallT,  which  covered  the 
greater  part,  of  the  year  1639,  was  rendered 
Himewlint  eventful  bj  the  outbreak  of  nur 
with  tile  Soots,  and  by  the  departure  of  an 
Enfliab  army  fbr  the  northern  border  under 
the  King  hinuelf.  On  7  March  Abbot  was 
ci)iutitut«l' the  king's  lieutenant  within  the 
citj  and  B  u  hurbs  of  London'  d  uri  ng  bia  absence 
intbe  uonh,  and  was  ^ven  full  authority  to 
ana,  if  OM^wary,  the  inbabitunleagainet  the 
king'senemies,  and  at  thediscretion  of  himself 
nnd  the  aldermen  lo  put  in  force  marital  Inw. 
In  the  following  months  be  wan  frequently 
lonisbed  by  the  king's  council  to  keep  a 
et  watch  over  the  manufacturertt  of  shot 
■Mber  warlike  implements,  and  ordered  to 
^arreald  of  suspected  persons.    Ai  times 


iai  energy  in  this  directinM  s««mi>  to  hav«> 
hseti  esressive.  ttti  2l*  May  br  sent  to  thi> 
Fi>ul(n  C'lfiRter  ■  woman  tu^prcti^  to  have 
distrihutfd dtuiiuc  the  Whitsuntide hnlidaya 
a  pamphlH  by  John  Lilbume,  tbe  &unous 
•^lator:  liui  the  Houw  of  Lords  in  the  fol- 
lowiot(«ar  ti?Teti*d  Abbot'»iie(-iMOn(Zf<nwe 
of  £u^  MSS..  HUt,  MSS.  Omh.  Bfp.  i 


practicallv  ret iivd  from  puUic  life.  He  died 
10Jan.l641~^lnot  IfUa as  Uusually  given), 
and  was  buncd  in  St.Slrplien*sCburcli,Cair- 
man  Strvet,  IiOndon. 

Abbot  niarrivd,  firstly,  Joan  Auatno, 
daughter  of  Georgo  Austen,  of  Shalfold, 
near  Guildfonl,  by  whom  he  had  live  child- 
ren. Morris,  tme  of  his  Hnt$.  was  called  to 
the  bar  as  a  member  of  the  Inner  Temple, 
and  was  one  of  the  executors  of  the  will 
of  hi«  uncle,  the  arclibishop.  who  left  him 
several  legactee.  George  Abbot,  another  of 
hia  eons,  became  a  probationer  fellow  of 
Merton  College.  Oxford,  in  162J,  and  was 
admitted  bachelor  of  civil  law  in  16.% 
(Wood,  AthtTi.  Ojoa.  |ed.  Blivl,  ii  SM). 
He  carried  the  great  banner  at  the  funeral 
of  bis  uncle,  tbe  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
in  tti33,  and  sat  in  the  Long  Parliament  as 
M.P.  for  Guildford  unUl  bis  death  in  \iW> 
lMrtnier»(,/ParUam^nt.i.t»i).  Atbirdsou. 
Edward,  was.  it  appears  from  petitions  to  the 
rinuse  of  Lords  in  lt>4l.inconliniuiIpecunian' 
d  ifHr  ultie*  ( Bouti-  ofLonU  MSS.,  Jlirt.  MSJi. 
Com.  Bep.  iv.  62, 72, 73, 8a  103t.  After  the 
death  of  his  first  wife  in  IfiiC.  Abbot  married, 
fur  the  second  lime,  Margaret,  daughter  of 
Bartholomew  Barnes,  an  alderman  of  Lon- 
don, and  she  died  on  5  Sept.  163a 

There  is  no  certain  record  of  the  sittu- 
lion  of  Abbots  house  in  London,  but  bis 
name  occurs  among  those  who  in  1630  held 
'tenements  from  the  great  south  door  (of 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral)  to  the  south-west  cor- 
ner of  the  cloister  wall '  \  Val.  Staff  Paptn, 
1629-31,  p.  458),  and  he  wag  one  of  the 
commi^toners  nomiuatod  in  1631  for  the 
repair  of  the  cathedral.  He  erected  in  1635 
an  etaborale  monument  in  Trinity  Church, 
Guildford,  to  the  memory  of  bis  brother, 
the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  who  bad  died 
two  years  previously,  and  had  appointed  Sir 
Maurice  an  executor  under  his  will.  In  1633 
one  Hobert  Asliley  dedicated  his  translation 
of  an  Italian  work  on  Cochin  China  to  .\bbot, 
and  attributes  to  him  the  assertion  that '  the 
remotest  trafiique  is  always  tlie  most  beiieii- 
ciall  to  tbe  publick  slocke,  and  the  trade  to 
East  Indies  doth  fcrre  eicell  all  otlier.'  Ab- 
bot's whole  career,  which  was  begun  uniler 
no  external  advnutages,  is  a  remarkable  in- 


Abbot                  24  Abbot 

*-- —      --■  ■■  ■   -  r-imm  _  immii.i.__ ■ 

stance  ofwell-directed  energy  and  enterprise;  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  royal  chap- 
it  is  one  of  the  earliest  examples  we  have  of  kins  in  oramary.  In  the  same  year  he  pub- 
the  creation  of  enormous  wealth  by  the  ap-  lished  his  *  Antichristi  Demonstration  also 
plication  of  ^reat  personal  abilities  to  com-  designed  as  a  reply  to  Bellarmine.  This 
merce,  and  illustrates  the  extraordinary  de-  treatise  was  regaraed  by  James  with  so 
yelopment  of  the  English  foreign  trade  at  much  approyal  that  he  directed  that  a  por^ 
the  close  of  the  sixteenth  and  opening  of  the  tion  of  nis  own  commentary  on  Reyela- 
seventeenth  centuries.  tions  (on  the  passage  xx.  7-10)  should  be 

[Lifeof  Dr.  George  Abbot,  reprinted  by  Onslow  appended  to  the  second  edition— an  honour 

from  the  Biographia  Britannica,  with  the  lives  of  unaccorded,  says  Abbot's  biographer,  to  any 

his twobrothers (Guildford,! 777) ;Kemembrancia  other  of  the   *  great  clerks^  of  the  realm 

of  the  City  of  London,  166,  304 ;  W.  N.  Sains-  (Abel  Ited.  p.  541).     It  may  be  added  that 

bury's  Colonial  State  Papers  (East  Indies,  China,  James's  high  estimate  appears  to  have  been 

Japan),  1600-24  ;  Foster's  Collectanea  (}enealo-  concurred  m  by  Bishop  Andrewes.    But  the 

gica,  vol.  i.;  Brayley  and  Mantell*s  Hifstory  of  work    which    chiefly    served    to    establish 

Surrey,  i.   392-3 ;   Hevwood's  Porta  Pietatis,  Abbot's  reputation  with  his  contemporaries 

edited  by  R  W.  Fairholt,  in  Percy  Society's  was  his  *  Defence  of  the  Reformed  Catholike 

Publications,  X.  part  "-PPf  ^78 1  Calendars  of  ^f  Mr.  William  Perkins '  (published  in  three 

^™^«?il^X"i  "^      '^'   1580-1626.  and  ^    ^^^       ^      1606-9).      The   'Informed 

from  1619  te  1639.]                             S.  L.  L.  Catholike\)f  that  eminent  divine  was  ad- 

ABBOT,  ROBERT  (1560-1617),  bishop  mitted  by  writers  of  the  Roman  party  to  be 
of  Salisbury,  elder  brother  of  George  Abbot,  the  ablest  exposition  of  heretical  bebef,  and 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  bom  at  Guild-  Abbot,  in  his  *  Defence,'  clearly  indicates  his 
ford  in  Surrey,  about  1560,  and  educated  sympathy  with  the  puritan  party,  deriving 
at  the  free  school  there.  The  talent  he  tne  true  tradition  of  the  early  church 
evinced  in  a  school  ^  oration '  on  the  anni-  through  the  Albigenses,  Lollards,  Hugpie- 
versary  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  accession  nots,  and  Calvinists,  in  distinct  opposition 
(17  Nov.  1571)  appears  to  have  led  to  his  not  only  to  Tridentine  doctrine,  but  also  to 
election  to  a  scholarship  at  Balliol  College,  the  views  of  the  Arminian  party,  which 
Oxford,  where  he  shortly  after  entered  {Id/e  were  then  beginning  to  gather  strength 
by  Fbatlby,  in  Fuller's  Abel  Itedivivus,  ed.  within  the  English  church  (pt.  ii.  p.  56). 
1651,  p.  540).  He  was  elected  fellow  in  1581,  In  the  concluding  part  Abbot  drew  'the 
proceeded  M.A.  in  the  following  year,  and  in  true  ancient  Roman  Catholike  *  as  he  him- 
1597  was  admitted  D.D.  Having  entered  self  conceived  the  character.  He  dedicated 
holy  orders  and  been  appointed  lecturer  both  his  performance  to  Prince  Henry,  who  ac- 
at  St.  Martin's  Churcn  in  Oxford  and  at  knowledged  the  dedication  in  an  autograph 
Abingdon  in  Berkshire,  he  soon  began  to  letter  in  which  he  promised  that  Abbot 
attract  attention  by  his  abilities  as  a  should  not  be  forgotten  in  the  future  distri- 
preacher,  and  a  sermon  delivered  at  Wor-  but  ion  of  church  preferment.  In  1609  he 
cester  resulted  in  his  appointment  as  lecturer  returned  to  his  own  college  at  Oxford  as 
in  that  important  centre,  and  subsequently  master,  a  piece  of  preferment  for  which  he 
to  the  rectory  of  All  Saints  in  the  same  city,  was  indebted  mainly  to  Archbishop  Ban- 
About  the  same  time  a  sermon  which  he  croft's  influence.  He  continued  to  preside 
preached  at  Paul's  Cross  procured  for  him  over  the  society  at  Balliol  until  his  promo- 
the  valuable  living  of  Bingham  in  Notting-  tion  in  1615  to  the  see  of  Salisbury.  His 
hamshire,  to  which  he  was  presented  by  John  rule  (of  which  his  biographer  gives  a  detailed 
Stanhope,  Esq.,  an  ancestor  of  the  present  account),  while  notable  for  assiduous  care 
patron,  the  Earl  of  Chesterfield.  His  oratory,  for  the  general  welfare  of  the  students, 
as  contrasted  with  that  of  his  brother,  the  appears,  like  that  of  Whitgift  at  Trinity 
archbishop,  is  thus  charaoterised  by  Fuller :  College,  Cambridge,  to  have  been  distin- 
*  Gteorge  was  the  more  plausible  preacher,  guished  by  a  rigorous  enforcement  of  dis- 
Robert  the  greater  scholar ;  George  the  abler  cipline,  and  especially  of  religious  obser- 
statesman,  Robert  the  deeper  divine;  gravity  vances  (Abel  Rediv.  p.  543).  In  1610  he 
did  frown  in  George,  and  smile  in  Robert '  was  appointed  a  fellow  of  the  newly  founded 
(  Worthies,  Surrey,  p.  82).  college  at  Chelsea,  designed  by  King  James 

Abbot's  reputation  was  increased  by  the  as  a  school  of  controversial  divinity  and  a 

publication  in  the  year  1594  of  his  '  Mirror  bulwark  against  popery.     In  the  same  year 

of  Popish  Subtleties,'  designed  as  a  refutation  he  also  obtained  the  prebend  of  Normanton 

of  the  arguments  advanced  by  Sander  and  attached  to  the  ancient  church  of  Southwell, 

Bellarmine  against  the  protestant  theory  of  ^  the  mother  church '  of  Nottir^hamshire. 

the  sacraments.  On  the  accession  of  James  I  In  1612  he  was  appointed  by  £ng  James 


T^iis  professor  of  diviuily  at  Oxford,  in 
AucceBsion  to  Dr.  HoIIbdi).  During  hU  resi- 
dence in  the  imivMBity  his  Bympathy  with  ' 
ihe  CalvimBtic  pwtT  wna  tiiunietnbnbly 
evinced  bv  his  Buspencion  (when  vice-chau-  , 
cellorl  of  th-.HowBon,  canon  of  Christ  jfhurch,  ' 
who  had  WDtured  publicly   to  aniniadrert 

ri  the  DOtee  to  the  Genevan  Bible  |  and  i 
bj  a  direct  attaclt  from  the 
t  that  time  preeidt 


e  pulpit  upon 
of  St.  John's 


College,  for  his  Icuningg  inwards  llomsitism 
OIei LIS,  L^e  itf  Laud,  n.e7  :  Aeriiu  Reiit- 
i-irtu,  p.  390). 

In_  tlie  year  1813  Abbot  took  a  leading 
part  in  the  dispute  respecting  the  complicity 
of  the  jvsiiil  (Jamet  in  the  Gunpowder  plot 
— a  controversy  in  which  Bellarniine,  Bishop 
.-\ndrewes,  '  Eudieinon  Joannes '  (the  Jesuit 
L'Heureux),  and  Casaubon  were  likewise 
engaged.  Abhot  was  invited  to  answer  £u- 
diemoD  Jonnnes,  wjiosr  treatise  the  cutholJc 
party  regarded  as  a  triumphant  vindication 
..f  Garnet.  Ilia  replj-  was  enlitled  'Anti- 
liigia  udverwiB  A_po1ogiiun  Andrew  Eudiemou 
Jonnnis.'  '  It  IS  manifest,'  says  Jardine, 
'that,  during  ile  composition, Dr.  Abbot  had 
free  access  to  all  the  iloeumeutary  evidence 
ugainst  Garnet  which  was  in  the  poesesston 
of  the  goveriLnient  .  .  .  and  in  consequence 
of  the  TMt  body  of  evidence  t  hat  it  contuns 
...  as  well  ns  tin'  powerful  reasoning  of 
the  author,  it  is  beyond  all  comparison  the 
most  important  work  wliich  appeared  in  the 
course  of  the  controversy.' 

In  December  1B15,  Abbot  was  consecrated 
by  his  own  hrotber  to  the  «ee  of  Salisbury. 
Ilia  appointment  was  not  made  without  con- 
siderable opposition.  '  Abbot,*  said  King 
Jumee, '  I  have  had  very  much  to  do  to  make 
thee  a  bishop;  but  I  know  no  reason  for  it, 
unleas  it  were  hocause  tbou  writeHt  against 
one ' — alluding  to  the  fact  that  Abbot's '  De- 
fenc«'  was  a  rqoinder  to  one  Dr.  SitAop,  a 
Jesuit  (AM  Sfdiv.  p.  64B).  On  quitting 
GsfordjAbbot  delivered  before  the  university 
a  farewell  oration  in  Latin,  of  which  some 
tngmeate  are  still  presen'ed.  Ue  was  at- 
tended, with  every  mark  of  resnect,  by  the 
nmmbera  of  bis  own  coUeee  and  the  heads 
of  houses  to  the  borders  ofluB  diocese.  His 
discharge  of  the  duties  attaching  to  bis  em- 
scop*t«,  duringthe  short  period  Inat  be  held 
the  office,  would  seem  to  liave  been  in  every 
respect  mi'ritorious.  He  restored  the  cathe- 
dral which  hail  fallen  into  decoy,  exercised 
a  bountiful  and  discriminating  hospitality, 
and  devoted  his  best  energies  to  the  religious 
instruction  of  the  jieople  and  the  improve- 
ment of  their  socio!  condition.  He  died 
2  March  1017-18  after  much  suffering  from 
A  Itainful   laaWy   induced   by    liis   seden- 


tary habits.  '  He  was,'  says  Wood,  '  ft  pei^ 
son  of  unblameablo  life  and  conversation,  a 
profound  divine,  most  admirably  well  read 
in  the  fathers,  councils,  and  schoolmen.' 
Abbot  was  twice  married ;  the  second  time 
to  u  widow  lady,  Bridget  Chej-nell,  mother 
of  Francis  Cheynell,  an  eminent  presbyteriau 
divine  iu  the  time  of  the  Commonwealtb. 
Tliis  second  marriage  is  swd  to  have  dis- 
pleased his  brother,  the  archbishop,  who 
ignrded  it  as  a     "   "  '  .      -  . 


infringement  of  the  apo- 
lat  a  bishop  should  be  the 


stolic  injunction  that 

huabanu  of  one  wife.  By  bis  first  wife 
Abbot  had  sous  and  a  daughter,  who  was 
married  to  Sir  Nathaniel  Brent,  warden  of 
-Merton  College,  Oxford.  Their  daughter, 
Margaret,  was  married  to  Dr.  Edward  Cor- 

'  bet,  rector  of  Haseley  in  Oxfordshire,  and 

j  the  latter   presented  some  of  the  bishop's 

I  manuscripts  to  the  Bodleian. 

I  Besides  the  works  already  mentioned, 
AblKit  was  the  author  of  a  laborious  com- 
mentary on  the  Epistle  to  the  Romans,  a 
mBTiuscript  in  four  volumes  folio  and  one 
of  the  coll(H;lion  pn'sented  hy  his  grand- 
daught4!r'a  husband  to  the  Bodleian ;  of  his 
other  contributions  to  controversial  theoloj^ 
an  account  will  be  found  in  Middlelon,  'Bio- 

g'nphin  Evongelica/ii.  881-2;  'Biographia 
ritannieo,'  i.  19. 

[Lifu  hy  Fealley,  in  FuUcr's  Alwl  BedirivAUi. 
vol.  ii.;  Fuller's  Church  History;  Wood.  Athens 
Oion.,  ed.  Bliss,  ii.  2'J4-T;  Criminal  Trials 
(H.  D.  n.  K.),  ii.  366-7.]  J-  B.  M. 

ABB0T,R0BP:RT  (  1588  ?-1662  ?),  divine, 

has  been  strangely  confused  with  others,  e.g. 

1-  I  with  Robert  Abbot,  bishop  of  Solisbury,  and 


H  of  the  humble  'BJeet«d 


lury,  and 
of  1662 


(Palvgk's  Nmtconf.  Mem.  ii.  ^18) ;  he  hiu  also 
been  at  different  times  erroneously  separated 
into  a  Robert  Abbot  of  Cronbruok,  Kent ; 
another  of  Southwick,  Hants ;  a  third  of 
St.  Austin's,  London  (the  last  being  further 
described  as  a  presbyterian,  and  as  joining 
in  the  rebellion) ;  while  these  were  only  the 
successive  livings  of  the  same  Robert  Ab- 
bot- He  is  also  usuolly  described  as  of  the 
archbishop's  or  Guildford  Abbots,  whereas 
he  was  in  no  way  related  to  them,  albeit 
he  acknowledges  gratefully,  iu  an  epistle  de- 
dieutory  of '  A  Hand  of  Fellowship  to  Heipe 
Keepe'Ort  Sinne  and  Antichrist'  (1&'3, 
4to'),  that  it  was  from  tlie  archbishop  he 
had  'received  all  his  worldly  maintenance,' 
as  well  as  'best  earthly  countenance'  and 
'fatherly  encouragements.'  The  'worldly 
maintenance'  was  the  presentation  to  the 
vicarage  of  Oranbrook,  of  which  the  arch- 
bishop was  patron.  Thiswas  in  1616.  He 
had  received  his  education  at  Cambridge, 
where  he  proceeded  M,  A.,  and  was  afterwards 


Abbot 


26 


Abbott 


*  incorporated '  at  Oxford.  His  college  re- 
mains unknown. 

In  1639,  in  the  epi«tle  to  the  reader  of  his 
'  Triall  of  our  Church  Forsakers,*  he  writes : 
'  I  have  lived  now  by  God's  gratious  dispen- 
sation above  fifty  years,  and  in  the  place  of 
my  allotment  two  and  twenty  full.'  The 
former  date  carries  us  back  to  1588-9,  or 
probably  1587-8,  as  his  birth-year;  the 
latter  to  1616-7,  the  year  of  his  settlement 
at  Cranbrook. 

In  his  'Bee  ThankfuU  London  and  her 
Sisters '  (1626),  he  describes  himself  as  for- 
merly'assistant  to  a  reverend  diuine  .  .  .  now 
with  God ; '  and  the  name  on  the  margin  is 

*  Master  Haiward  of  Wool  Church '  (Dorset). 
This  must  have  preceded  his  going  to  Cran- 
brook. He  was  also  the  author  01 '  Milk  for 
Babes,  or  a  Mother's  Catechism  for  her 
Children,'  164^5 ;  and  of '  AChristian  Fanuly 
builded  by  God,  or  Directions  for  Governors 
of  Families,'  1653.  Puritan  though  he  was 
in  his  deepest  convictions  and  mildly  Cal- 
vinistic  in  his  creed,  he  wa^ed  a  prolonged 
warfare  against  the  Brownists,  and  sought 
to  cover  their  saint liest  men  and  women 
with  undeserved  opprobrium. 

He  remained  at  Cranbrook  till  164t3,  and 
in  that  year,  having  been  called  upon  by  the 

Earliament  'rules'  to  choose  between  two 
enefices,  so  as  not  to  come  under  the  ban  of 
being  a  pluralist,  he  selected  the  far  inferior 
living  of  Southwick,  Hants.  Later  he  suc- 
ceeded the  extruded  Udall,  of  St.  Austin's, 
London,  where  he  continued  'until  a  ripe 
old  age.'  In  1657,  in  '  Evangelical  Peace,' 
he  is  described  as  '  pastor  of  St.  Austine's, 
I»ndon.'  He  disappears  silently  between 
1657-8  and  1662.  His  books  are  terse  and 
vivid,  and  fetch  high  prices  on  their  rare 
occurrence. 

[Brook's  Puritans,  iii.  182, 183  ;  Abbot's  MSS. 
as  under  Abdot,  Gbokob  ( 1603-1 648)  ;  Walker's 
SufTerioKS,  part  ii.  183;  Wood's  Fasti,  ed.  Bliss,  i. 
323 ;  Bodleian  and  Dr.  Williams's  Library  Catal. ; 
article  in  Encyc.  Brit.  (9th  ed.)  b^'  present  au- 
t  hor,  partly  reproduced  by  permission  of  Messrs. 
A.  &  C.  Black.]  A.  B.  G. 

ABBOT,  WILLIAM  (1789-1843),  actor 
and  dramatist,  was  bom  at  Chelsea,  and 
made  his  first  essay  on  the  stage  at  Bath  in 
1806.  He  remained  a  member  of  the  Bath 
company  for  some  seasons.  For  one  night 
only  he^  appeared  at  the  Haymarket,  in  the 
hummer  of  1808,  on  the  occasion  of  the  bene- 
fit of  Charles  Young,  the  tragedian,  return- 
ing afterwards  to  Bath.  He  reappeared  at 
the  Haymarket  in  1810,  and  was  first  en- 
gaged at  Covent  Garden  in  1812.  He  was  a 
performer  of  light  comedy  and  ju^-enile  tra- 
gedy, but  he  took  part  in  the  melodramas 


which  were  then  in  vogue.  He  was  assigned 
the  part  of  Lothair  upon  the  first  production 
of  the  'Miller  and  his  Men.'  For  many 
years  he  continued  to  be  a  member  of  tlie 
Covent  Garden  company.  *  Mr.  Abbot  never 
acts  ill,'  wrote  Hazlitt'in  1816.  Macready, 
in  his  '  Reminiscences,'  describing  his  own 
first  appearance  at  Covent  Garden  in  1816  as 
Orestes  in  the  '  Distressed  Mother/  writes : 
'  Abbot,  as  Pylades,  was  waiting  for  me  at 
the  side  scene;  and  when  the  curtain  had 
risen,  gprasping  his  hand  almost  convulsiTdy, 
I  dashed  upon  the  scene,'  &c.  Abbot  was  the 
original  representative  of  Appius  Claadius 
and  of  Modus  in  Sheridan  Knowles's  plays 
of  '  Virginius'  (1820)  and  the  '  Hunchback ' 
(1832).  The  critics  applauded  the  spirit  of 
his  acting,  and  his  '  acute  sense  of  proprietv 
of  emphasis.'  In  1827  Abbot  was  engaged, 
at  a  weekly  salarv  of  twenty  napoleons,  as 
stage  mana^r  of  tlie  English  company  visit- 
ing Paris,  with  Miss  Smithson  as  tneir '  lead- 
ing lady.'  He  played  Charles  Surface  amoof 
other  parts ;  but  the  '  School  for  Scandal 
was  little  admired  at  the  Salle  Favart.  The 
season  concluded  in  Paris,  Abbot,  with  others 
of  the  company,  attempted  to  g^ve  Ijiglish 
performances  in  certain  of  the  chief  towns 
of  France ;  but  the  experiment  was  whoUv 
unsuccessful,  the  company  was  disbandeci, 
I  and  the  English  actors,  m  a  most  necee- 
'  sitous  condition,  found  their  way  home  as 
best  they  could.  Upon  the  first  appearance 
of  Miss  Fanny  Kemble  in  1830  at  Covent 
Garden,  Abbot  played  Romeo  to  her  Juliet. 
Leigh  Hunt  "wrote  of  his  performance: 
'  Mr.  Abbot  has  taken  it  in  his  head  that 
noise  is  tragedy,  and  a  tremendous  noise  he 
accordingly  makes.  It  is  Stentor  with  a 
trumpet.  .  .  .  We  hear  he  is  a  pleasant  per- 
son everyii'here  but  on  the  stage,  and  such  a 
man  may  be  reasonably  at  a  disadvantage 
with  his  neighbours  somewhere.'  Abbot 
was  the  author  of  two  melodramas,  the 
'Youthful  Days  of  Frederick  the  Great' 
and  '  Swedish  Patriotism,  or  the  Signal 
Fire,'  produced  at  Covent  Garden  in  1817 
and  1819  respectively,  and  both  founded 
upon  French  originals.  Abbot  left  England 
to  try  his  fortune  in  America,  meeting  there 
with  small  success.  He  died  at  Baltimore 
in  distressed  circumstances,  'shunned  and 
neglected,'  it  was  said, '  by  those  his  former 
friendship  served.' 

[Biography  of  the  British  Theatre,  1824; 
Genest's  Hist  017  of  the  Stage  in  England,  1832 ; 
Donaldson's  Recollections  of  an  Actor,  1865.1 

D.  C. 

ABBOTT,  CHARLES,  first  Lord  Tbk- 
TERDEN  (176:?-1832),  lord  chief  justice,  -wis 
born  7  Oct.  1762,  at  Canterbury,  in  a  house 


Abbott 


27 


Abbott 


311  the  left-hand  side  of  the  west  entrance  to 
the  cathedral.  He  was,  to  quote  the  epitaph 
srhich  he  wrote  for  his  tomb  two  montns 
before  his  death,  ^  Filius  natu  minor  humil- 
limis  sortis  parentibus,  patre  vero  prudenti, 
matre  pia  ortus/  that  is,  he  was  the  second 
son  of  a  respectable  hairdresser  and  wig- 
maker,  amonff  whose  patrons  were  the  cler^ 
of  the  cathedral.  As  a  lad  Abbott  is  said 
to  have  helped  his  father  in  his  business. 
Lord  Campbell,  who,  in  his  '  Lives  of  the 
Chief  Justices,'  gives  the  most  complete  ac- 
count of  him,  describes  Abbott  as  a  '  scrubby 
little  boy,  who  ran  after  his  father,  carrying 
for  him  a  pewter  basin,  a  case  of  razors,  and 
a  hair-powder  bag.'  Having  been  taught  to 
read  at  a  dame's  school,  he  entered  at  seven 
the  King's  or  Grammar  School,  where  manv 
celebrated  men  have  been  educated.  Abbott  s 
ability  was  soon  discovered  by  his  teacher, 
Dr.  Osmond  Beauvoir.  The  late  Sir  Egerton 
Brydges,  who  was  Abbott's  schoolfellow, 
states  that  '  from  his  earliest  years  he  was 
industrious,  apprehensive,  regular  and  correct 
in  all  his  conduct,  even  in  nis  temper,  and 
prudent  in  everything.'  Another  schoolfellow 
describes  him  as  *  grave,  silent,  and  demure ; 
always  studious  and  well-behaved.'  The  same 
informant  says :  *  I  think  his  first  rise  in  life 
was  owin^  to  a  boy  of  the  name  of  Thurlow, 
an  illegitimate  son  of  the  lord  chancellor, 
who  was  at  Canterbury  Free  School  with  us. 
Abbott  and  this  boy  were  well  acquainted, 
and  when  Thurlow  went  home  for  the  holi- 
days he  took  young  Abbott  ^idth  him.  Abbott 
then  became  acquainted  with  Lord  Thurlow, 
and  was  a  kind  of  helping  tutor  to  his  son ; 
and  I  have  alwavs  heard,  and  am  persuaded, 
that  it  was  by  his  lordship's  aid  that  he  was 
afterwards  sent  to  school  with  us.'  About 
the  age  of  fourteen  he  was  put  forward  by 
his  father  as  a  candidate  for  a  place  as  singing- 
boy  in  the  cathedral.  But  his  voice  being 
husky,  another  boy  was  preferred.  In  after 
years,  as  chief  justice,  he  went  the  home 
circuit  with  Mr.  Justice  Richardson,  and 
visited  the  cathedral  with  his  brother  jud^e. 
Pointing,  to  a  singer  in  the  choir,  he  said, 
*  Behold,  brother  Richardson,  that  is  the  only 
human  being  I  ever  envied.  When  at  school 
in  this  town  we  were  candidates  for  a  cho- 
rister's place ;  he  obtained  it ;  and  if  I  had 
gained  my  wish,  he  might  have  been  accom- 
panying youaschief  justice,  and  pointing  nf? 
out  as  his  old  schoolfellow,  the  singing-man.' 
Abbott's  proficiency  in  I^tin  verse  was 
remarkable ;  and  at  seventeen  he  was  captain 
of  the  school.  His  father  wished  that  his  son 
should  be  apprenticed  to  his  trade,  and  the 
indenture.^  were  actually  signed,  sealed,  and 
delivered.     Fortunately  the  trustees  of  the 


school  saw  their  way  to  increase  the  amount 
of  an  exhibition,  and  he  was  thus  enabled  to 
go  to  Oxford.  He  entered  Corpus  Christi 
College  21  March  1781,  where  he  obtained  a 
scholarship.  In  1783  he  competed  for  the 
chancellor  s  medal  for  Latin  composition,  the 
subject  being  the  siege  of  Gibraltar, '  Calpe 
obsessa.'  lie  failed  to  get  the  prize,  being 
beaten  bv  Bowles  the  poet,  then  a  scholar  of 
Trinity,  but  in  1784  he  won  it  by  his  verses 
on  *  Globus  Aerostaticus,'  the  voyage  in  a  bal- 
loon of  Lunardi,  who  had  about  that  time  in- 
troduced the  air-balloon  into  England.  In 
1786  he  gained  the  chancellor's  medal  for 
English  composition  by  an  essay  *  On  the  Use 
and  Abuse  of  Satire.'  This  essay,  which  is 
printed  in  the  first  volume  of  the  *  Oxford 
Prize  Essays,'  begins  in  the  approved  prize 
style  of  the  period:  *In  the  early  ages  of 
nations,  as  in  the  youth  of  individuals,  before 
the  authority  of  the  judgment  is  confirmed 
by  the  establishment  of  acknowledged  truths, 
the  passions  are  ever  the  most  powerful 
springs  of  human  action.'  The  essay  deals 
separately  with  personal,  political,  moral,  and 
critical  satire.  Clear  as  one  of  Lord  Tenter- 
den*s  judgments,  it  shows  considerable  read- 
ing; and  it  ends  with  the  cautious  remark, 
characteristic  of  the  author : '  Perhaps  we  need 
not  hesitate  to  conclude  that  the  benefits 
derived  from  satire  are  far  superior  to  the 
disadvantages,  with  regard  both  to  theirextent 
and  duration ;  and  its  authors  may  therefore 
be  deservedly  numbered  among  the  happiest 
instructors  of  mankind.'  In  1785  Abbott 
took  his  degree  of  B.A.,  and  he  was  soon 
afterwards  made  a  fellow  of  his  college  and 
tutor.  As  private  tutor  of  Mr.  Yarde,  son 
of  Mr.  Justice  Buller,  he  became  acquainted 
with  that  judge,  who  strongly  urged  him  to 
go  to  the  bar.  *You  may  not  possess,'  he 
said  in  his  pithy  fashion,  *■  the  garrulity  called 
eloquence,  which  sometimes  rapidly  forces  up 
an  impudent  pretender,  but  you  are  sure  to 
get  early  into  respectable  business  at  the 
bar,  and  you  may  count  on  becoming  in  due 
time  a  puisne  judge.'  He  took  Buller  s  ad- 
vice. On  16  >^ov.  1787  Abbott  was  admitted 
a  student  of  the  Middle  Temple.  He  took 
chambers  in  Brick  Court,  and  attended  for 
several  months  the  offices  of  Messrs.  Sandys 
&  Co.,  attorneys,  in  Craig's  Court.  After- 
wards he  entered  the  chambers  of  Mr.  Wood, 
who  had  been  the  instructor  of  Lord  Ellen- 
borough  and  several  other  judges,  and  who 
was  one  of  the  chief  pleaders  of  his  day. 
Having  there  mastered  the  science  of  special 
pleading,  he  practised  for  several  years  as  a 
special  pleader  under  the  bar. 

(hi  13  July  1795  he  married  Mary,  daughter 
of  John  Langley  Lamotte,  of  Basildon,  Berk- 


Abbott 


28 


Abbott 


ehire.  He  had  four  children,  two  sons  and 
two  daughters,  John  Henr^*,  Mary,  Catherine 
Alice,  and  Charles  {Gentleman*s  Magazine, 
1832,  ii.  571).  His  success  as  a  special  pleader 
induced  him  to  ^  to  the  bar,  or,  to  use  his 
own  characteristic  words,  to  take  that '  leap 
into  the  turbid  stream  of  forensic  practice 
in  which  so  many  sink,  while  a  few — ''  rari 
nantes  in  gurgite  vasto  " — are  carried  success- 
fully along  to  riches  and  honour.'  Called  to 
the  bar  by  the  Inner  Temnle  in  Hilary  t^rm 
1796,  he  loined  the  Oxford  circuit,  and,  not- 
withstanding his  lack  of  most  of  the  quali- 
ties of  an  advocate,  he  obtained  a  laive 
practice.  Appointed  junior  counsel  to  the 
treasury,  he  orew  the  indictments  and  was 
employed  as  counsel  in  several  important 
state  trials.  In  1801  he  was  made  recorder 
of  Oxford.  In  1802  he  published  his  work 
on  the  '  Law  relative  to  Merchant  Ships  and 
Seamen,'  a  subject  which  had  been  suggested 
to  him  by  Lora  Eldon.  The  choice  was  fortu- 
nate. Malynes's  work  on  mercantile  law  had 
been  published  as  far  back  as  1622,  and  con- 
siderably more  than  a  century  had  elapsed 
since  the  appearance  of  Molloy  s  book,  almost 
the  only  work  on  maritime  or  mercantile  law 
to  be  found  at  the  b^inning  of  this  century 
in  an  English  lawyer^  library.  Abbott  drew 
upon  materials  which  haJ  hitherto  been 
neglect^  by  most  writers  and  judges.  The 
civil  law,  the  maritime  codes  of  foreign 
countries,  the  *  Notabilia '  of  Roccus,  and  the 
treatises  of  Pothier  and  Emerigon  were  con- 
sulted. It  may  appear  strange  that  so  im- 
portant a  work  as  the  '  Consolato  del  Mare ' 
nad  never  been  seen  by  Abbott,  which  he 
admits  was  the  case.  But  the  book  displayed 
much  learning.  His  treatment  of  legal  ques- 
tions was  novel.  To  appreciate  the  value  of 
his  work,  one  must  know  the  character  of 
English  law  books  at  the  time  of  its  appeai> 
ance.  They  were,  with  scarcely  an  exception, 
crude  compilations  of  cases.  A  writer  who 
sought  to  illustrate  principles  rather  than  to 
collect  the  decisions  of  courts  and  the  acts  of 
the  legislature  j  ustly  earned  high  praise.  The 
book  was  successful  to  an  extent  not  often 
realised  by  a  legal  author.  It  brought  Ab- 
bott, tradition  says,  many  briefs  in  commer- 
cial cases.  It  has  passed  through  twelve 
editions.  In  this  country  it  was  edited  by 
Mr.  Justice  Shee,  and  in  the  United  States 
by  Mr.  Justice  Story ;  and  it  is  still  quoted 
as  a  book  of  authority  by  lawyers,  who  regard 
it  as  unsurpassed  in  its  clear  and  simple 
enunciation  of  principles.  In  1807  Abbott's 
practice  had  so  grown  that  he  returned  his 
income  as  8,026/.  5«.  His  success  was  not  won 
bythe  display  of  brilliant  forensic  abilities. 
^He  had  no  striking  talents,'  says  Lord 


Brougham.  *  He  never  was  a  leader  at  the 
bar.'  *  I  believe,'  says  Lord  Campbell,  *  he 
never  addressed  a  jury  in  London  in  the 
whole  course  of  his  life.'  Lord  Camj^iell 
adds  that  on  the  few  occasions  when  Aobc^ 
had  to  address  a  jury  on  circuit  he  showed 
'  the  most  marvellous  inaptitude  for  the  func- 
tions of  an  advocate,  and  almost  always  lost 
the  verdict.'  He  was  offered  in  1808*  a  seat 
on  the  bench,  but  his  practice  was  so  lucra- 
tive that  he  declined  it.  Aware  of  his  de- 
ficiencies as  a  leader,  he  did  not  take  silk. 
Owing  to  bad  health  he  seems  at  one  time  to 
have  thought  of  Quitting  hisprofession;  hxA 
on  the  death  of  Mr.  Justice  Heath,  in  Febru- 
ary 1816,  he  accepted  a  puisne  judgeship  in 
the  court  of  Common  Pleas.  As  a  sexjeant 
he  gave  rings  with  the  characteristic  motto 
labore.  He  remained  for  a  short  time  in  that 
court,  which  was  uncongenial  to  a  man  of 
his  quiet  demeanour.  On  the  death  of  Mr. 
Justice  Le  Blanc,  in  May  of  the  last  year,  he 
was  moved  into  the  Bang's  Bench,  l^eie  his 
rise  was  rapid.  Admonished  by  the  decay 
of  his  faculties.  Lord  EUenborough  resigned 
the  office  of  chief  justice  in  September  1818. 
There  was  a  difficulty  in  choosing  a  succes- 
sor. Sir  Samuel  Shepherd,  the  attomev- 
general,  was  unpopular  and  in  bad  healtk; 
Gifford,  the  solicitor-general,  was  too  younff. 
In  these  circumstances  Abbott  was  selected, 
though  with  some  misgiving.  '  We  endea- 
voured to  do  the  best  we  could,*  wrote  Lord 
Eldon  to  Lord  Kenvon  after  the  appointment 
was  made.  *  We  could  not  do  wnat  would 
have  been  really  unexceptionable.  It  was 
impossible '  (Twiss,  L\fe  of  Eldon ,  ii.  824). 
On  4  Nov.  1818  Sir  Charles  Abbott  was  made 
chief  justice.  He  had  the  good  fortune  to  be 
supported  by  puisnejudges  of  rare  ability, 
such  as  Bayley  J.,  Holroyd  J.,  and  Little* 
dale  J.  Speaking  of  the  Kmg's  Bench  in  that 
period,  Lord  Campbell  observes :  *  Before  such 
a  tribunal  the  advocate  becomes  dearer  to 
himself  by  preserving  his  own  esteem,  and 
finds  himseli  to  be  a  minister  of  justice  in- 
stead of  a  declaimer,  a  trickster,  or  a  bullv. 
I  do  not  believe  that  so  much  important  butt- 
ness  was  ever  done  so  rapidly  and  so  well 
before  any  other  court  that  ever  sat  in  any 
age  or  country.'  Abbott's  judgments,  whicn 
are  for  the  most  part  reported  in  Maule  and 
Selwyn's,  Bamewall  and  Alderson's,  and 
Bamewall  and  Cresswell's  Reports,  are  distin- 
guished by  their  perspicuity  and  moderation, 
clearness  of  reasoning,  and  absence  of  futile 
subtleties.  Among  the  many  judgments 
which  he  deliverea  in  cases  of  importance 
may  be  mentioned  ^  The  King  af^ainst  Bur- 
dett'  (4  B.  <$*  Aid.  95),  a  leading  case  in 
the  law  of  libel  as  to  what  constitutes  pub- 


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staiited  it  is  tbnr  dspr  to  Mt^mit*  Asd  5«u««  ul  kk  »mk«7!i  tkftt  ke  mk  Uwd^ir*- 

r  one  or  BKre  kvyesw  vkc«e  Wbit^  lerdiMA  as  tbe  ;viKn^Vei>UBdI  AftdKMOii^t 

be  s«5pe<ted  of  Ifffc^T^f  t^esi  to  tbe  bia  to  «v  kcwie.     *  Gvv  duef  jm$9>c>f.    \  o« 

«ioe  of  too  mivb  soIci^tt  absI  T\^aBe^  viH  kill  voorwufl*    '  It  »  dc«ie  AbiMdr/  w«$ 

Abbon  ps«t»ded  At  »TerAl  ^nwrtmst  kis  AB5wr.    IVnurk  ilLW  pn«mM  oT«r  tke 

kriAk.  ASD>:«BZ  ofbe-r«  ibc«««  c^  ikistle^  tr&Al  At  bAT  in  IS;^  of  CbAr)et5  I\umt,  tke 

md  the  CAto  Street  coBSKrAtoT^  Hotte  mftTvv  i:^  Rnstv?^  f xr  m»icv>QdiK't  And  ncicWt 

inheiDOfis  libeL  And  CoMKCt  for  lilel :  of  ^httr  v«i  tbe  ^xmjioQ  c^  tke  nv45  m  tbAt 

i  oiflebAiced  bi<  d^ks  witk  iB-:^TAtx>Q  cttr.   tie  <\>ald  iK>t  belp  Ke47ATinc  inmtiieiK^ 

i^nhr.    In  AvrQ  IS:^  be  was  TAiwd.  dckiv:  the  rroeee<biur!s  AZhi  oa  tbe  third  dAT 

mstADce  of  3tr.  CAtmiiur.  to  tbe  pe^:^  be  was  cvuLluwd  to  bis  bed  bj  ab  Attack  of  in- 

Oder  tbe  title  of  Batoci  Tenterdoi  c^  AASAmAtion.     He  rNomed  borne  on  :^5  iVt^ 

m.    He  imivhr  took  patc   in  iioliticAl  And  died  on  4  Not.    His  Ust  wvds^  ntteivd 

non  in  tbe  Hoa?e  of  LAtrds.     He  c«b-  wben  Abnost  nxie\iiutnons«  indieAted  tbAt  be 

bimself  for  tbe  most  pArt  to  debAtes.  was  tbinkinf  of  tbe  duties  wbicb  be  bAd  ;k^ 

■1  topics^  respecting  wbicb  bi?  opinion  k^^disebAi^rd :  *  Gentle»eB«Tv>a  Aie  aII  dij^ 

i  weiffbt.     He  was  iKit  An  Actire  Iaw  miKted.*  He  was  buried.  At  bis  own  le^uost, 

yer.    He  did  not  STmnAtbi?^  with  or  in  tbe  Foondiing  HospitAl,  of  whick  be  was 

B  reforms  in  tbe  criminAl  Iaw  wbicb  a  coTemor. 

Arried  out  by  RomillT  And  Lord  >f  Ack-       In  no  jense  or  CApAcitr  was  LordTenterden 

In  1830  he  oppoised  tbe  pTCipcis^  to  giVAt.      As  a  Uwr^r  be  was  suz^ASsed  in 

ipnnishmentof  deAtbforfonrerv.   But  Acuteness  And  erudition  by  some  judji:«t»  of 

not  A  little  to  impioTe  tbe  Admmistn-  bis  own  time.      He  was  totAlly  destitute 

r  some  pATts  of  the  common  Iaw.     In  of  elojueiK^,  And  rAtber  deispijied  it  as  An 

le  introauced  into  pArliAment  fire  bills  impediment  to  justice.     He  sbowed  to  dis- 

ODon  the  reports  of  the  commissioners  AdrAntAge  in  An  o£Bce  which  MAns£eld  luui 

aa  been  Appointed  to  inquii^  into  tbe  recently  filled :  And  it  was  a  eimve  defect  in 

of  improvin|ir  the  Administrmtion  of  his  conduct  as  chief  justice  tkAt  he  giAnted 

His  nAme  is  AssociAted  with  certAin  tbe  perilous  remedy  oi  criminAl  infonnAtions 

le  measures :  e.g.  9  Geo.  r\',  c.  14.  An  in  circumstAnces  in  which  HAle  And  Holt 

rendering  a  written  memorAndum  ne-  would  bATe  refused  it.   But  he  exhibited  rare 

r  to  the  VAliditT  of  certAin  promises :  good  soise  And  si^reme  reasonAblene^s.     He 

.  rV,  c.  15,   wiiich  WAS  intended  to  hAd  no  pleasure  in  deducing  &om  the  common 

t  a  failure  of  j  ust  ice  by  reason  of  Taria-  Iaw  pAndoxes  offensive  to  justice.   The  court 

between  written  or  printed  evidenoe  orer  which  he  presided  was  respected:  And  bis 

e  recital  of  them  upon  the  record :  and  decisicms  are  still  referred  to  with  deference. 
3  WilL  I\',  c.  71,  for  shortening  the        [CAmpbell*6  Lires  of  the  Chief  Jnstiecs;  Foas's 

of  prescription.      A  strong  tory  in  Judges,  ix.  68 ;  Townseods  Judges,  ii.  234 ;  Gem. 

s,  he  was  conspicuous  in  his  opposition  Mag.  for  1832,  ii.  568 ;  Law  Jfagaziiie.  ix.  233, 

}orporation  and  Test  Bill,  the  Catholic  234,  xzri.  51.]  J.  M-i. 


Abbott  30  Abdy 

ABBOTT,   CHARLES  STUART   AU-  ,  line  Street,  Bloomsbury.   He  was  a  frwuent 


BREY,  third  Lokd  Teotbrdek  (1834-1882), 
])ennanent  undep-secretary  for  foreign  affairs, 
was  the  son  of  the  Hon.  Charles  Abbott, 
brother  of  John  Henry,  second  Lord  Tenter- 
den,  and  was  bom  in  London  on  26  Dec.  1834. 
He  was  educated  at  Eton,  and  in  1854  entered 
the  Foreign  Office,  where  in  1866  he  was  ap- 
)inted  pr6cis  writer  to  Lord  Stanley.     On 


re 


contributor  to  the  exhibitions  of  the  Koyal 
Academy  between  1788  and  1800.  Although 
he  lacked  the  tast«  and  skill  requisite  knt 
producing  a  good  whole-length  picture,  the 
heads  of  his  male  portraits  were  perfect  in 
their  likenesses,  particularly  those  which 
he  painted  from  the  naval  heroes  of  his  time. 
His  portrait  of  the  poet  Cowper  is  well  known, 


0  April  1870  he  succeeded  to  the  peerage  !  and  the  best  likeness  of  Lord  Nelson  is  from 


on  the  death  of  his  uncle.  In  the  following 
ytiar  he  was  employed  as  secretary  to  the 
joint  high  commission  at  Washington ;  sub- 
sequently he  assisted  the  lord  chancellor  in 
preparing  the  statement  regarding  the  Ala- 


bama claims,  and  at  the  general  conference    penurious  disposition,  he  employed  no  assist- 


his  hand.  Many  of  the  prints  from  his  pic- 
tures are  marked  Francis  Lemuel  Abbott,  but 
it  is  not  known  why  he  assumed  this  addi- 
tional Christian  name,  which  was  not  be* 
stowed  upon  him  at  the  font.     Being  of  a 


ant,  and  consequently  he  was  overwhelmed 
with  commissions  which  he  could  not  execute. 
Domestic  disquiet,  occasioned  by  his  maniage 


on  the  subject  he  acted  as  agent  for  Great 
Britain.  He  was  assistant  under-secretary 
for  foreign  affairs  from  1871  to  1873,  when 

he  became  permanent  under-secretary.  In  withawomanof  very  absurd  conduct,  preyed 
1878  he  was  a  royal  commissioner  at  the  upon  his  mind  and  brought  on  insanity,  which 
Paris  Exhibition,  and  the  same  year  was  pro-  i  at  last  terminated  in  his  death  in  18(^. 
moted  to  the  rank  of  K.C.B.  Lord  Tenterden  :  [Edwards's  Anecd.  of  Painters,  281 ;  Pilking^ 
was  a  distinguished  freemason,  being  installed  '  ton's  Diet,  of  Painters,  ed.  Davenport;  Biyan's 
provincialgrandmasterof  Essex 2  Jul V  1879.  Diet,  of  Painters  and  Engravers,  ed.  Stanley; 
He  died  22  Sept.  1882.  '  j  Recigrave's  Diet,  of  Artists  (1878).]         T.  C. 

[Times,  23  Sept.  1882;  Foreign  Office  Sketches  ABBOTT,  THOMAS  EASTOE  (1779- 
( 1 883),  pp.  2o-40.]  T.  1^ .  H.        ;i  g^^^  poetical  writer,  was  descended  from  a 

ABBOTT,  EDWIN  (1808-1882),  educa-  Suffolk  family,  and  resided  for  many  years  at 
tional  writer,  bom  in  London  on  12  May  \  Darlington,  where  he  served  many  offices  of 
1808,  was  from  1827  to  1872  head  master  |  local  trust  with  jnreat  credit.  For  his  services 
of  the  Philological  School  in  Marylebone.  j  in  connection  with  the  Royal  Free  (Grammar 
Besides  elementary  works  on  Latin  and  School,  which  he  succeeded  in  placing  in  a 
English  grammar  he  compiled  a  *  CJomplete  satisfactory  state,  he  was  presented  with  a 
Concordance  to  the  Works  of  Alexander  valuable  testimonial  by  the  inhabitants  of 
Pope,'  which  was  published  in  1875.  He  that  town.  He  died  at  Darlington  18  Feb, 
died  on  12  May  1882.  .  1854,  aged  76.     His  works  are : 

rPersonal  information  1  !      ^'  *  ^^^^e :  a  Lyric  Poem.'    Hull,  1814. 

'■  '■'  I  2.  *  The  Triumph  of  Christianitv :  a  Mission- 

ABBOTT,  LEMUEL  (d,  1776),  poetical  |  ary  Poem,  with  Notes  and  other  Poems.' Lon- 
writer,  became  curate  of  Ansty,  Leicester-  don,  1819.  3.  *The  Soldier's  Friend;  or, 
shire,  in  1756 ;  vicar  of  Tliomton,  in  the  same  Memorials  of  Bninswick :  a  Poem  sacred  to 
county,  in  1773:  and  died  in  April  1776.  ;  the  memory  of  his  Royal  Highness  Fiede- 
He  published  *  Poems  on  various  Subjects.  ;  rick,  Duke  of  York  and  Albany.'  Hull,  1828. 
Whereto  is  prefixed  a  short.  Essay  on  the  4.  *  Lines  on  Education  and  Keligion.'  Dar- 
Stnicture  of  English  Verse.'    Nottingham,    lington,  1839. 

1 765.  [Latimer's  Local  Records  of  Northumberiand 

[Nichols's  Leicestershire,  iii.  1082,  iv.  984;  and  Durham.  338;  Gent.  Mag.  N.S.,  1854,  zli. 
Cresweirs  Collections  towards  the  History   of    443 ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.]  T.  C. 

Printing  in  Nottinghamshire,  34.]  T.  C.  ABDY     EDWARD    STRUTT    (1791- 

ABBOTT,  LEMUEL  (1760-1803),  por-  1846),  writer  on  America,  was  the  fifth  and 
trait  painter,  was  a  son  of  a  clergvman  in  youngest  son  of  Thomas  Abdy  Abdy,  Esq., 
Leicestershire — most  probably  the  llev.  Le-  of  Albyns,  Essex,  by  Mary,  daughter  of  James 
muel  Abbott,  vicar  of  Thornton  [q.  v.].  At  Hayes,  of  Holliport,  a  bencher  of  the  Middle 
the  age  of  fourteen  he  became  a  pupil  of ,  Temple.  He  was  educated  at  Jesus  College, 
Frank  Hayman,  after  whose  death,  two  years  '  Camoridge,  where  he  obtained  a  fellowship 
later,  he  returned  to  his  parents,  and  tjr  his  (B.A.  1813;  M.A.  1817).  His  death  occuned 
own  perseverance  acquirea  the  art  of  taking  a  j  at  Bath,  12  Oct.  1846,  at  the  age  of  66.  His 
correct  likeness.  About  1780  he  settled  in  '  works  are : 
London,  and  resided  for  many  years  in  Caro-  .      1.  *  Journal  of  a  Residence  and  Tour  in  the 


Abdy  51  A  Beckett 

States  ^  N^rck  AsKkm.  fr'^m  .V^cil    H^^  *  w«r?  evsrriVis^MKv     H«  w»»  ^i^^  tW 
October  l?CU.';»  T^^iiw    LaL  ISSS^    aar^Y  ^k*  t&tf  -CVwttr  ffistvHrr  olT  Gn^^^Mfti^ 

^^"^TTTT  iTnm4iTH  f-Ti  *Vr  *'^— twit  ■  beCTad^i  W  ljw«rkVtlii»*'t\>aHk'Blick»t\^ 

■■■1    iMnjBini  to  lytfy^'  ^^  c^:<»«>-'*  \wh&  tIh»C7i£Mi»  W  G«i.«»  Cbfcikflfcaim^  V 

Jjomd.  lS4i.  ?^Tc^  VsBc  a  rnuasiar^.Mft  awi  tW  *^^BBK4^.^<fif  cW  ti^niia$k  I^raMdk' 

■fUrf  In-  Torn  FaIkw;<AL  3ir.  a  Rk^kt.  W&vy  W  Mir^ntif  wtTk 

X.  C.       Hearr  Okwi^^  J-P-  vf  Sihw  HalL  Is*!- 

►T,  MAsiA  ,i  i!«jr^  («**». «»  *r*K:L  ';^  1*^^*  »^««'!«-  ,5««<p  ^» 

u>d  JuK«  S^h  -W  Star*.  H<-    I'*?*  *-"^  ^*^*^  **^:    !*^r*r^> 

•nd  wife  of  the  rJt.  J.  cu>i^>r  *^K.^  ?n^^'r^'  '^1^  i*jK  ^  * 


She  died  IPJoIt  l*«r.  *T"  '**  ««*fnipol«»*  k****  cf  **«wk<nafd 

Hial  infonuskA.  ]                   J.  H.  R  JUt IhMigii  derxvui^  «o  hiiic^  oT  life»  toae  to 

HtemiuY^  be  al^o  Ya$  »c«t  ^UBpnl  ui  ibe 

BECKETT.    GILBERT    ABBOTT  mr^ui  of  lki»  fCK^feKkm.    H^va^dKumibT 

18561,  comic  writer.  wa5  K«b  at  tke  Mr.  Boiler,  tlie  iKvne  wcx^anr.  a^^  a  ptxvr^ 

y  HaTCfstock   IIOL  Londco.  9  Jan.  Uwc««BMij%i40ii«r.toiiMmmiBtotlie«^^ 

eia^aiDemberofanancieiit  WOt^liiiY  c«»BWt«d  with  the  ABaoT«r  iiiu^«;  aad  it 

which  claims  direct  descent  from  the  was  owin^  to  his  reoort  ^declared  ^  tb^^ 

if  St.  Thomas  a  Be^et.  arrhhisliop  of  minister  to  be  one  of  tlie  be»t  ernr  nr>M«nted 

MITT.  He waseducated at  Westminster  to  parliament^  that   important   alterations 

and  following  in  the  footsteps  of  his  wexe  made  in  the  statute4»oo^  For  this  and 
William  a  Beckett  (a  strenaoos  sop-  «Hher  $ervicess^  <^  a  kindred  character*  Mr. 
of  municipal  reformX  he  joined  the  a  Beckett  was.  at  the  earlv  ag«  of  tbiitT^ 
'ofeesion,  and  was  called  to  the  bar  at  ^ght,  appointed  a  metropolitan  police  magi- 
Inn,  of  which  honourable  society  his  strate.  an  office  he  occupied  until  his  death 
ras  also  a  member.  From  his  earliest  in  1S56.  at  Boulogne-^ur-Mer,  from  ty^ihus 
devoted  much  of  his  time  to  literature,  fever. 

at  Westminster,  in  conjunction  with  The  following  epitaph  bv  Doufflas  Jexn>]d 

S0t  brother  William  ~q.v/,  he  >tarted  appeared  in  *  Punch  *  sbonlv  after  his  de- 

lers,  entitled  respectively  the  'Censor'  cease — the  latter  portion  is  inscribed  on  his 

e  '  Literary  Beacon,^  which  attracted  tomb   in  Hiffhgate   cemeterv:    *W>  have 

ttention.    Subseauently  he  produced,  to  deplore  the  loss  of   GilWt   Abbott   ^ 

» the  first  editor  01, 'flgaro  in  London*  Beckett,  whose  genius  has  for  more  than 

ated  by  Seymour  and  CruikshankX  the  fifteen  years  been  present  in  the^e  pages; 

ate  precursor  of  'Punch.'    He  was  present  from  the  first  sheet,  17  July  1841, 

irdsoneof  theorigiiud  staff  of 'Punch.*  till  dO.\ug.  1856.     On  that  day  passed  fri^ra 

ny  years  he  was  one  of  the  principal  among  us  a  genial  manly  spirit,  singularly 

Bmters  of  the  'Times'  and  *Monung  gifted  with  the  subtlest  powers  of  wit  au<l 

;'  and  under  the  siimature  of  *The  numour,  faculties  ever  exercised   by  their 

>ulatingPhilosopher,  he  contributed  a  possessor  to  the  healthiest  and  most  inni>- 

f  articles  to  the  '  Illustrated  London  cent  purpose.     As  a  magistrate,  Gilbert  ]\ 

subsequently  continued  under  other  Beckett,  by  his  wise,  calm,  humane  admini- 

y  Mr.  Shirley  Brooks  and  Mr.  George  stration  of' the  law,  gave  a  daily  rebuke  to  a 

usSala.   On  one  occasion  the  whole  of  too  ready  belief  that  the  faithful  exercise  of 

icles  in  the  '  Times '  were  written  by  the  highest  and  sravest  social  duties  is  in- 

le  edited  the '  Table  Book,'  which  coii-  compatible  with  the  sport iveness  of  literary* 

rhackera3r'8'Le^nd  of  the  Rhine,' and  genius.    On  the  bench  his  firmness,  modera- 

sinibus ' — both  illustrated  by  George  ,  tion,  and  gentleness  won  him  public  respect, 

lank.    In  1846  he  conducted'  the  *  Al-  as  they  endeared  him  to  all  within  their  in- 

of  the  Month/   to  which  all    the  fluence.     His  place  knows  him  not,  but  his 

re  of  the  *  Punch'  staff  (then  includ-  memory  is  tenderly  cherished.' 

lech,    Doyle,    Lemon,    Jerrold,    and  [Private  information.]                          T.  i\ 


A  Beckett 


32 


Abel 


A  BECKETT,  Sir  WILLIAM  (1806- 
1 869 ),  chiefjustice  of  Victoria,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  William  k  Beckett,  and  brother  of  Gil- 
Iwrt  Abbott  &  Beckett  [q.  v.].  He  was  bom  in 
London  28  July  1806,  received  his  education 
at  Westminster  School,  and  was  called  to  the 
bar  at  Lincoln's  Inn  in  1829.  Going  to  New 
South  Wales,  he  was  appointed  solicitor- 
general  of  that  colony  in  1841,  and  subse- 
quently attorney-general.  In  1846  he  was 
made  a  judge  of  the  supreme  court  for  the 
district  of  Port  Phillip,  and  he  was  nomi- 
nated chiefjustice  of  ^  ictoria  in  1851,  when 
the  colony  received  a  separate  organisation. 
On  the  latter  occasion  he  was  knitted  by 
patent.  He  retired  and  returned  to  England 
in  1863,  and  died  at  his  residence  in  Church 
Road,  Upper  Norwood,  Surrey,  27  June  1869. 

He  wrote:  1.  *The  Siege  of  Dumbarton 
Castle  and  other  Poems,'  1824.  2.  A  large 
number  of  the  biographies  in  the  *  Georgian 
Era,'  4  vols.,  1832-4.  3.  *  A  Universal  Bio- 
graphy ;  including  scriptural,  classical,  and 
mythological  memoirs,  to|yether  with  ac- 
counts of  many  eminent  living  characters. 
The  whole  newly  compiled  and  composed 
from  the  most  recent  and  authentic  sources,' 
.*J  vols.,  London  [1835  ?]»  8vo,  a  compilation 
of  little  value.  4.  *Tne  Magistrates'  Ma- 
nual for  the  Colony  of  Victoria,'  Melbourne, 
1852.  5.  *  Out  of  Harness,'  London,  1854, 
containing  notes  on  a  tour  through  Switzer- 
land and  Italy.  6.  *  The  Earl's  Choice  and 
other  Poems,'  London,  1863.  7.  Legal  judg- 
ments printed  in  collections  of  *  Reports.' 

[Men  of  the  Time  (1868);  Dod's  Peerage 
(1869),  83;  Beaton's  Australian  Diet,  of  Dates, 
1  ;  Times,  1  July  1869,  p.  10,  col.  6;  Catalogue 
of  Printed  Books  in  Brit.  Mus.]  T.  C. 

ABEL  {d,  764),  archbishop  of  Rheims, 
wai*  a  native  of  Scotland  ana  Benedictine 
monk.  In  the  early  part  of  the  eighth  cen- 
tiu*y  he  left  England  in  company  with  Boni- 
face, to  aid  him  in  his  missionary  work  in 
Germany,  and  he  did  not  again  return  to  this 
country.  Abel's  missionary  labours  were 
mainly  confined  to  the  country  we  now  know 
as  Belgium.  For  many  years  he  held  an 
office  of  authority  in  the  abbey  of  Lobbes,  in 
Ilainaidt ;  and  in  744,  through  the  instru- 
mentality of  Boniface,  who  was  at  the  time 
archbishop  of  Mainz,  Abel  became  arch- 
bishop of  Rheims.  The  office  was  a  very 
arduous  one.  All  ecclesiastical  suits  and 
disputes  as  to  monastical  discipline  arising 
in  a  great  part  of  France  were  referred  to 
him.  His  predecessor,  Melo,  moreover,  had 
been  forcibly  removed  from  his  post  by  the 
council  of  Soissons  (3  March  744),  and  many 
barons  declared  themselves  the  champions  of 


Melo,  and  refused  to  reco^^nise  AbeL    Carlo- 

man,the  king  of  the  Frankish  empire,  favoured 

the  new  prelate ;  but  Pope  Zacharias,  after 

much  hesitation,  finally  joined  his  opponents. 

He  declined  to  confer  upon  him  the  pallium, 

and  thus  Abel's  election  was  never  confinnedL 

.  Harassed  by  these  quarrels,  Abel  at  length 

I  withdrew  m>m  Rheims,  and  surrendered  the 

!  see.     He  retired  to  Lobbes,  and  apparently 

i  became  abbot  of  the  monastery  there.    The 

last  years  of  his  life   he  spent    in  ener* 

getic  missionaij  work  in  Hainault,  Flanders, 

and  neighbouring  provinces,  and  he  died  at 

Lobbes  on  5  Aug.  764.    He  was  buried  at 

Binche,  near  Jemappes.     Subsequently  he 

was  canonised,  and  m  the  districts  where  he 

laboured  the  day  of  his  death  was  consecrated 

to  his  memory. 

His  works,  which  do  not  seem  to  have 
;  ever  been  printed,  are  thus  enumerated  by 
Dempster  and  Tanner :  1.  '  Epiatoks  ad 
j  Zachariam  et  Adrianum.'  2.  '  Ad  Rhemen- 
sem  Ecclesiam.'  3.  '  Ad  Bonifacium  Lega- 
tum.'  4.  *Ad  Lobienses  Fratres.'  6.  *Ad 
nuper  Conversos.'    6.  *  De  Mysteriis  FideL* 

[Dempster's  Historia  Eccl^iastica  (Mentis  Soo- 
torum ;  Tanner's  Bibliotheca  Britannico-Hiber- 
nica;  Bollandists' Acta  SS.  (Augustus),  ii.  111-7; 
Ghesqui^re's  Acta  SS.  Belgii,  vi.  353 ;  Breyng 
and  Hahn's  Jahrbiicher  des  frankischen  Beidtf- 
(741-752);  AUgemeine  deutsche  Biographic; 
Migne's  Hagiographique,  i.  20.]  S.  L.  L. 

ABEL,  CLARKE  (1780-1826),  botanist, 
was  bom  about  1780,  educated  for  the  medi- 
cal profession,  and  on  the  occasion  of  Lord 
Macartney's  mission  to  China  was  appointed 
physician  on  the  staff  of  his  lordship,  but  by 
the  ^ood  offices  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks  he  was- 
nommated  naturalist  with  three  assistants. 
He  joined  H.M.S.  Alceste  at  Spithead  on 
8  Peb.  1816,  accomplished  the  voyage  to 
China,  where  he  made  large  collections,  and 
on  returning  home  on  16  Feb.  1817  the  ship 
struck  on  a  reef  off  Pulo  Leat,  at  the  entrance 
of  the  straits  of  Gaspar,  and  became  a  total 
wreck.  A  portion  of  the  crew  proceeded 
to  Batavia  in  a  boat ;  the  remainder  were 
rescued  from  a  position  of  great  peril  by 
H.M.S.  Ternate  on  6  March. 

The  whole  of  Abel's  collections  went  down 
in  the  ship,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  col- 
lection he  had  previously  given  to  Sir  Georgs 
Staunton.  The  latter,  on  hearing  of  the  cm- 
lector's  misfortunes,  at  once  returned  the 
plants,  and  they  were  described  by  Robert 
brown  in  a  botanical  appendix  to  an  account 
of  the  voyage  written  by  Abel  under  the 
title  of  *  Narrative  of  a  Journey  in  the  In- 
terior of  Cliina,  1816-7,'  London,  1818.  In 
this  volume  will  be  found  also  descriptions. 


Abel  33  Abel 

of  the  'orang-outang'  and  the  boa,  and  his  1795;  Xagler's  AllgemeiDes  Kiinstlep-Lexicon  ; 
observations  on  the  geology  of  the  Cape  have  Duncomb'H  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  County 
been  highly  praiaed.    Dr.  Abel  was  subse-    of  Hereford,  1804.]  E.  R. 

quentlyappointedphysiciantoLordAmherst,  ABEL,  KARL  FRIEDRICH  (1725- 
the  governor-general  of  India,  and  died  in  1737),  a  celebrated  player  on  the  viol-di- 
that  country  on  24  Nov.  1826.  The  imme-  ^mba,  was  the  son  of  a  musician,  Christian 
diate  cause  of  his  death  was  a  fever,  but  he  Ferdinand  Abel.  He  was  bom  at  Cothen  in 
had  beenm  feeble  health  for  some  time,  and  1725,  received  his  first  musical  education 
his  constitution  was  never  robust.  He  was  a  from  his  father,  and  subsequently  entered  the 
fellow  of  the  Linnean  and  Geological  Socie-  Thomas  Schule  at  Leipzig,  where  he  was 
ties  of  London,  and  a  member  of  the  Asiatic  probably  a  pupil  of  J.  S.  Bach.  In  1748  he 
Society  and  Medical  and  Physical  Society  of  entered  the  court  band  at  Dresden,  remain- 
Calcutta.  Robert  Brown  dedicated  a  genus  ing  there  until  1768.  He  left  Dresden  '  with 
to  him,  Abelia,  founded  on  one  of  the  plants  three  thalers  in  his  pocket  and  six  symphonies 
formerly  presented  to  Sir  George  Staunton,     in  his  ba^ ,'  and  his  talent  as  a  performer  main- 

[Biog.  Nouv.  Univ.  i.  109 ;  Abel's  Xamitive ;  tained  him  during  his  wanderings  until  he 
Asiatic  Journal,  xxiii.  (1827)  669  ;  Gent.  Mag.  reached  England  in  1769.  Here  he  found  a 
xcvii.  pt.  u.  (1827)  644.]  B.  D.  J.        patron  in  the  Duke  of  York,  and  on  the  esta- 

ABEIL,  JOHN  (1577-1674),  was  a  dis-  blisliment  of  the  queen's  private  band  was 
t  inguished  architect  of  timber  houses.  He  appointed  one  of  her  chamber  musicians,  with 
buUt  the  old  town  halls  of  Hereford  and  ft  salary  of  200/.  a  year.  At  his  first  concert 
Leominster;  the  former  destroyed  in  1861,  Abel  was  announced  to  play  his  own  compo- 
the  latter  in  1858.  Both  are  illustrated  by  '  sitions  on  the  viol-di-gamba,  the  harpsichord, 
John  Clayton  in  his*  Ancient  Timber  Edifices  and  an  instrument  of  his  own  invention,  which 
of  England,' fol.  1846.  The  Hereford  building  he  called  the  Pentachord;  but  after  1766  he 
was  finished  in  the  time  of  James  I ;  that  only  performed  on  the  viol-di-gamba.  On 
of  Leominster  in  1633.  The  following  ac-  the  arrival  in  1762  of  John  Christian  Bach 
count  of  Abel  is  given  by  Price  {Historical  the  two  musicians  joined  forces,  and  in  1766 
Account  of  Leominster^  1795) :  *  The  most  started  their  celebrated  concerts.  Abel  was 
noted  architect  in  this  country  of  his  time  ;  in  Paris  in  1772  and  also  in  1783,  in  which 
he  built  the  market  houses  of  Hereford,  year  he  returned  to  Germany  to  visit  his 
Brecknock,  and  Kington,  and  did  the  tim-  brother  Leopold  August,  who  was  also  a  mu- 
ber  work  of  the  new  church  at  Abbey  Dore.  sician  of  eminence.  He  returned  to  London 
The  said  John  Abel  being  in  Hereford  city  <  in  1786,  and  occasionally  played  at  concerts 
at  the  time  when  the  Scots  besieged  it,  in  the  until  his  death,  which  took  place,  hast> 
year  1646,  made  a  sort  of  mills  to  grind  com,  ened  by  his  habits  of  intemperance,  June  20, 
which  were  of  great  use  to  the  besieged ;  for  1787.  Abel's  compositions  chiefly  consist 
which  contrivance  and  service  King  CJharles  of  instrumental  music.  As  a  player  he  was 
the  1st  did  afterwards  honor  him  with  the  1  remarkable  for  the  beautv  of  his  execution 
title  of  one  of  his  majesty's  carpenters.  This  on  an  instrument  which  was  even  in  his  days 
architect,  after  he  was  ninety  years  of  age,  almost  obsolete,  but  to  which  he  was  never- 
made  his  own  monument,  wnich  is  in  Sar-  theless  devoted.  It  is  said  that  he  declared 
nesfield  churchyard,  and  engraved  his  own  the  viol-di-gamba  to  be  *  the  king  of  instni- 
efliffT,  kneeling  with  his  two  wives,  and  the  ments ; '  and  when  challenged  to  play  by 
emblems  of  his  occupation,  the  rule,  compass,  ,  liichaixis,  the  leader  of  Drury  Lane  orchestra, 
and  square,  and  he  made  the  following  epi-  !  exclaimed,  *  What,  challenge  Abel  1  No,  no, 
taph : —  there  is  but  one  Qod  and  one  Abel !  *    He 

This  craggy  stone  or  covering  is  for  an  archi-  >  was  a  great  admirer  of  the  fine  arts,  and  com- 

tect's  bed,  !  pletely  covered  the  waUs  of  his  rooms  with 

That  lofty  buildings  raised  high ;  yet  now  lyes  j  drawings  by  Gainsborough,  which  the  painter 

down  his  heed :  j  used  to  give  him  in  exchange  for  his  music.   In 

Ilis  line  and  rule,  so  death  concludes,  are  locked  |  person  he  was  big  and  portly.    He  was  twice 

u]^in  Btore,^     ,.^    __  ^i. a. .•_.   x.  _  i.    '  P*i^^®d  ^J  GainslDorough  ;  a  portrait  of  him 

.1-  _  1-^    __  X  ^   !.__         by  Robineau  is  at  Hampton  Court  Palace,  and 


Bnild  they  who  list,  or  they  who  wist,  for  he 
can  build  no  more. 

His  house  of  clay  could  hold  no  longer : 
May  Heavens  frame  him  a  stronger. 

John  Abel. 

Vive  ut  vivas  in  vitam  setemam.' 

He  died  in  1674,  aged  97. 

[Price's  Historical  Account  of  Leominster, 

VOL.   I. 


another  by  an  anonymous  artist  in  the  Music 
School  at  Oxford. 

[Grove's  Dictionary  of  Music  and  Musicinn^. 
i.  4;  McndeFs  MusikalisKshes  ConversatiouH- 
Lexicon,  i.  5;  Allgemeino  Deutsche  Biographic, 
i.  13;  P.  Spitta's  J.  8.  Bach,  i.  616.  985;  Bar- 
ney's History  of  Music,  iv.  678;  Busby's  History 

D 


Abell 


34 


Abell 


of  MiLMic,  ii.  617  ;  H.  Angelo*s  Reminiscences, 
i.  19,  58,  184,  187,  190.  467;  W.  T.  Parke's 
Musical  Memoirs,  i.  63,  62;  Gent.  Mag.  Ivii. 
part  i.  649 ;  European  Magazine,  v.  366 ;  Notes 
and  Queries,  4th  ser.  ix.  39.]  W.  B.  S. 

ABELL,  JOHN  (1660P-1716?),  a  cele- 
brated lutenist  and  alto  singer,  was  sworn  a 
'  gentleman  of  liis  majesty's  chapel  extraor- 
dinary '  1  ^lay  1679.     He  was  sent  to  Italy 
by  Charles  II  to  cultivate  his  voice,  and  re- 
tumed  to  England  in  1681-2,  when  John  Eve- 
lyn recorded  of  him  in  his  Diary  (27  Jan.) : 
*  I  never  heard  a  more  excellent  voice ;  one 
would  have  sworn  it  had  been  a  woman's, 
it  was  so  high,   and  so  well  and  skilfully 
managed.'    Between  1679  and  1688  he  re- 
ceived from  the  crown  large  sums  of  *  bounty 
monev ;  *  but  at  the  Revolution  he  was  dis- 
charged  from  the  Chapel  Royal  as  a  papist, 
and  went  to  Holland  and  Germany,  wnere 
he  supported  himself  bv  his  talents  as   a 
singer  and  player  on  the  lute.     In  the  course 
of  nis  travels  he  went  so  far  as  Warsaw, 
where  it  is  said  that  he  refused  a  request  of 
the  King  of  Poland  to  sing  before  the  court.  , 
Tlie  day  after  this  refusal  lie  was  ordered  to  j 
appear  at  the  palace.     On  his  arrival,  Abell  i 
sat  on  a  chair  in  the  middle  of  a  large  hall,  l 
No  sooner  was  lie  seated  than  the  chair  was  , 
drawn  up  into  the  air  until  it  faced  a  gallerj- 
in  wliicli  were  the  king  and   his  courtiers,  t 
At  the  same  time  a  number  of  bears  were 
turned  into  the  hall,  and  Abell  was  given 
the  alternative  of  singing  or  being  lowered 
to   the   wild   beasts.     The   terrified   singer 
promptly  chase  the  former  course,  and  after- 
wards said  that  he  had  never  sung  better 
in  his  life.     In  1696  overtures  were  made 
to   liim   through  Daniel  Purcell  to  return 
to   England  and  sing   on   the   stage   at   a 
salarv  of  500/.  a  vear:  but  in  1698  he  was 
still  abroad  (at  Aix-la-Chapelle),  though  he 
offered  to  return  and  sing  at  the  opera  in 
English,  Italian,  Suanish,  or  Latin,  for  400/. 
per  annum,  provided  his  debts  were  paid. 
In  1(J98  and  1699  he  occupied  the  post  of 
intendant  at  Cassel ;  but  he  seems  soon  after 
t(\have  returned  to  England,  for  Congreve 
heard  him  sing  in  1700,  and  in  1701  he  pub- 
lished two  col  lections  of  songs,  prefixed  to  one 
<»f  which  is  a  poem  in  which  he  states  that — 

After  a  twelve  years'  industry  and  toil, 
Abell,  at  hist,  has  reach'd  his  native  soil. 

He  published  a  song  on  Queen  Anne's  corona- 
tion,  and  a  few  manuscript  compositions  by 
him  are  to  be  found  in  contemporary  collec- 
tions. The  date  of  his  death  is  unknown  ;  but 
in  his  later  vears  he  is  said  to  have  been  at 
Cambridge,  and  in  1716  he  gave  a  concert  at 
Stationers'  Hall.    Mattheson  says  that  Abell 


possessed  some  secret  by  which  he  preserved 
nis  pure  alto  voice  unimpaired  until  old  age ; 
his  extreme  carefulness  in  matters  of  diet  is 
recorded  by  the  same  author. 

[Grove's  Diet,  of  Music,  i.  6 ;  Cheque  Book  of 
the  Chapel  Royal  (Camden  Society's  Publicatioiu, 
1872),  pp.  17,  129;  Evelyn's  Diary  (ed.  1S60), 
ii.  163 ;  Hawkins's  History  of  Music  (ed.  1863), 
ii.  726 ;  Congreve's  Literary  Relics,  p.  322 ;  Tom 
Brown's  Letters  from  the  Dead  to  the  Living 
(Works,  2nd  ed.  1707),  ii.  36;  Mattheson  s  Der 
vollkoramene  Kapellmeister  (1739)  ;  Mendel's 
Musikalisches  Conversations-Lexicon,  voLi.;  Ellis 
MSS.  (Brit.  Mus.  Add.  MS.  28883,  67) ;  British 
Museum  Catalogue ;  Catalogue  of  Library  of 
Royal  College  of  Music]  W.  B.  S. 

ABELL,  THOMAS  U,   1540),  catholic 
martyr,  studied  at  Oxford  and  took  the  de- 
gree of  M.A.  in  1516.    Nothing  else  is  known 
of  his  early  life,  nor  when  it  was  that  he  en- 
tered the  service  of  Katharine  of  Aragon; 
but  it  was  certainly  before  the  vear  1528, 
when  he  received  a  new  year's  gilt  from  the 
king  as  her  chaplain.    A  year  later  Katharine 
sent  him  into  Spain  on  a  delicate  and  rather 
perilous  mission  to  the  emperor,  Charles  V. 
Ilenry  VIII  had  then  instituted  his  suit  for 
a  divorce  before  the  legatine  court  in  Eng- 
land, and  had  discovered  to  his  surprise  that 
his  case  was  very  seriously  weakened  by  the 
fact  that  besides  the  original  bull  of  dispen- 
sation for  the  marriage  a  brief  had  been  also 
granted  by  Julius  II,  which  completely  met 
some  objections  he  had  taken  to  the  suffici- 
encv  of  the  other  document.    This  brief  waa 
in  Spain,  and  he  determined,  if  possible,  to 
get  it  into  his  hands  by  artifice.     Pressure 
was  put  upon  Katharine's  l^gal  advisers,  and 
through  tnem  she  was  induced  to  write  to 
the  emperor,  earnestly  requesting  him  to  send 
it  to  England,  as  its  production  was  of  the 
most  vital  importance  to  her  cause,  and  she 
was  informed  no  transcript  could  be  received 
in  evidence.     Abell  was   compiissioned  to 
carry  this  letter  to  Spain ;  but  along  with  it 
he  delivered  one  of  his  own  to  the  emperor, 
stating  that  he  had  been  expressly  desired  by 
the  queen  to  explain  that  she  liad  written 
under  compulsion,  and  that  she  particulariy 
begged  he  would  by  no  means  gfive  up  the 
brief  as  in  her  letter  she  requested  him  to  do. 
Thus  the  emperor  was  made  fully  aware  of 
the  queen's  position,  and  carefiillv  avoided 
doing  anything  to  prejudice  her  real  interests 
even  at  her  written  rec^uest. 

After  his  return  from  this  mission,  Abell 
was  presented  by  the  queen  to  the  rectory  of 
Bradwell-by-the-Sea,  in  Essex,  to  whict  he 
was  instituted  on  23  June  1680  (Nbwcoubt, 
Bepertorium^  ii.  84).  Bv  this  time  the  legar 
tine  court  in  England  had  been  dissolved, 


Abell  35  Abell 


and  Ileniy  was  «eekiiig  the  opinions  of  uni-  w»s  prwurvd  a£:Hin>t  them  in  p«rluuiient 
vt*r5hie8  in  hie  &Toar,  which  heingikhtained,  early  in  the  foilowin;?  year.  In  that  act 
liooks  were  puhlLshed  by  the  king*<  autho-  Abell  wa$  nameil.  not  as  one  i>f  her  active 
rity  to  show  that  marriage  with  a  deceased  accomplices,  but  as  having  lieen  gnilty  oi 
brother's  wife  could  not  be  legalised  by  papal  misprision  by  concealing  her  treas^ws :  and  it 
dispensation.  To  one  of  the^  publications  was  also  charged  against  him  that  he  had  en- 
AbeU  wrote  an  answer,  entitled  'Invicta  couraged  '  the  lady  Katharine  *  after  her  di> 
Veritas/  which  was  printed  in  1532  with  vorre  still  to  claim  the  title  of  qrnvn,  and  her 
the  fictitious  date  '  Luneberge*  on  the  title-  ser\-ants  to  call  her  m^  a^inst  the  kinff  s  ex- 
page,  to  pat  inquirers  off  the  scent.  He  also  press  commands.  At  this  time  he  had,  as  a 
preached  boldly  to  the  same  effect,  and,  as  a  iellow-pris*mer  in  the  Tower.one  Friar  Forest, 
natural  conseqaence,  was  committed  to  the  who,  like  himself,  Mifft*red  martxTihmi  some 
Tower,  where,  as  we  find  stated  in  a  contem-  vears  later :  and  it  would  ap^iear  that  though 
porary  letter,  he  and  his  fellow  prisoner.  Dr.  Ijoth  were  for  the  moment  sivtrtxl,  they  both 
Cook,  parson  of  Honey  Lane,  were  permitted,  at  this  time  expected  to  die  together.  This 
by  some  extraordinary  oversight,  to  say  mass  we  know  fn»m  the  letters  they  wrt>te  to  each 
before  the  lieutenant  ( Calendar  uf  State  Pa-  other  in  prison,  which  wen»  printeil  nearly 
jfert,  Henry  ^^II,  vol.  v.,  Xos.  1256,  l-ti2).  fifty  years  later  in  Bourchier  s  *  Ilistoria  Ec- 
During  his  imprisonment  replies  to  his  book  '  clesiastica  de  Martyrio  Fratrum  *  ( Ing^tlstadt , 
were  published,  which  he  in  vain  asked  per-  l.Vv^).  Abell  was  of  cours**  de]>rivtHl  of  his 
mission  to  see.  He  was,  howevtr,  liljerated  benefice  of  Brad  well:  but  as  the  offence 
at  Christ  mas,  with  an  injunction  not  to  preach  cluirged  against  him  in  the  act  was  only 
again  till  after  Easter ;  and  for  a  few  mimths  misprision,  he  seems  to  have  nnunine<l  in  the 
he  was  again  at  liberty.  But  inJuly  irjTtt  we  Tower  for  six  years  longer.  On  CK)  July 
find  search  made  for  him  again  by  order  of  1540  he  was  one  of  n  coni|>iuiv  of  six  prison- 
Lord  Chancellor  Audeley :  yet  it  appears  he  ers  who  were  dnigginl  out  ot  th«»  Tower  on 
was  soon  afterwards,  if  not  at  that  very  time,  hurdles  and  siifiertni  at  Smithfield.  llirtv 
attendant  upon  Katharine  in  her  household,  of  them  were  protestant  heretics,  and  were 
By  this  time  the  marriage  with  Anne  Ik>leyn  ,  burned  at  the  stake :  tlie  other  thnt*,  of  whom 
had  taken  place,  and  in  December  of  the  same  Abell  was  tme,  were  linngeil,  beheaded,  and 
vear  a  deputation  from  the  king*s  council,  quartered  for  tn»nson,  the  smvific  charges 
lieaded  by  the  Duke  of  Suffolk,  waitwl  on  against  them  being  denial  ot  the  kingV  su- 
Katharine  at  Bugden,  to  induce  her  t<»  re-  premacy,  and  atfirniing  tlie  validity  of  his 
iiounce  her  title  of  queen  and  accept  the  ,  marriage  witli  Katharine  of  Ariigtm. 
name  of  Princess  Dowager.  This  she  steadily  ,  On  the  wall  of  his  prison  in  the  Tower, 
refused  to  do;  and  the  deputation  endea-  ■  during  his  confinement,  Abell  car\eil  the  dt»- 
voured  at  first,  with  equally  little  success,  viceof  a /W/ with  the  letter  .Von  it  to  n»pn»- 
to  impose  an  oath  upon  her  servants  incon-  ,  sent  his  surname,  surmounttMl  by  his  chris- 
sistent  with  that  which  thev  had  already  tian  name  *  Thomas.'     Tliis  memorial  of  his 


sworn  to  her  as  queen.  Suffolk  and  his  col- 
leagues found  upon  inquiry  tlmt  tlie  serv- 
ants had  been  instructed  how  to  reply  by  Ka- 
tharine's two  chaplains,  Abell  and  Barker. 
Tliey  dismissed  a  portion  of  the  household. 


captivity  remains,  and  is  continually  showTi 
to  visitors  along  with  the  other  inscriptions 
in  the  Beauchamp  Tower. 

[WoimVs   AtheiiR}    Ox(»uit'nst»s;     Calendar   of 
Stttto  Papers  of  Henry  VIII,  vols,  iv.-vii. ;  Sta- 


put  the  rest  in  confinement,  and  carried  the    tute  25  Henry  VIII,  c.  12  :  lloiirchier's  Historia 
two  priests  up  to  London,  where  they  were  '  Ecclesiastica,  and  Newcourt,  eitwl  alKive.] 
lodged  together  in  the  same  grim  fortress,  j  ^'^' 

from  which  Abell  had   been  release<l  only        ABELL,  WILLIAM  (^.1640),  alderman 


twelve  months  before. 

At  this  time  Elizabeth  Barton,  popularly 
known  as  the  Nun  of  Kent,  had  recently 
been  arrested  for  her  denunciation  of  the 


of  London,  was  elect  t»d  alderman  of  Bread 
Street  ward  in  1(J3(5.  IIo  was  a  vintner  by 
trade,  and  in  1637  became  sheriff  of  I^ondon 
and  master  of  the  Vintners'  Company.     The 


king's  second  marriage,  and  she  had  already  ^  guild  was  engaged  at  the  time  in  a  financial 
made  open  confession  at  St.  PauFs  that  she  ;  dispute;  with  the  king.     Charles  I  had  made 


had  practised  imposture  in  her  prophecies, 
ravings,  and  trances.  The  opportunity  was 
unscrupulously  used  to  make  her  implicate 
as  many  as  possible  of  those  who  had  noto- 
riously disliked  the  king's  divorce  and  second 
marriage  as  confederates  with  herself  in  a 
disloy^  conspiracy ;  and  an  act  of  attainder 


heavy  and  illegal  demands  upon  the  vintners* 
resources,  and  on  their  resisting  his  propo- 
sals his  ministers  had  threatened  proceedings 
against  them  in  the  Star  Chamber.  But 
Abell  undertook,  at  the  instigation  of  the 
Marquis  of  Hamilton,  and  with  the  aid  of 
Richard  Kilvert,  a  liver^'man,  stated  to  be 

d2 


Abell 


36 


Abercrombie 


the  aldennan*8  cousin,  to  bring  the  vintners 
to  terms.     With  some  trouble  he  obtained 
from  them  a  promise  to  pay  to  the  king  40^. 
per  tun  on  all  wine  sold  by  them,  on  the 
understanding  that  they  might  charge  their 
customers  an   additional  penny  per  quart. 
Abell  was  nominated  one  of  the  farmers  of 
the  new  duty ;  but  many  merchants  refused 
to  pay  it,  and  Abell  petitioned  for  means  to 
coerce  them.  In  1639  Abell,  whose  name  had 
become  a  byword  in  the  city  as  a  venal  sup- 
porter of  the  government  and  as  a  placehuut^r, 
became  the  licenser  of  tavern-keepers,  and  in 
that  office  did  not  diminish  his  unpopularity. 
Barely  a  month  elapsed  aft«r  the  first  meet- 
ing 01  the  Long  Parliament  before  Abell  was 
summoned  to  answer  the  committee  of  griev- 
ances for  his  part  in  the  imposition  of  the 
arbitrary  duty  of  40*.  per  tun  on  wine.     On 
27  Nov.  1640  he  was  committ^    to  the 
custody  of  the  sergeant-at-arms  by  order  of 
the  Commons.     Bail  was  refusea,  and  on 
26  May  1641  it  was  resolved  to  bring  in  a 
bill  against  Abell  and  Kilvert  as  *  projectors ' 
of  the  40*.  duty,  *  to  the  end  to  make  them 
exemplary.*    On  1  Sept.  following  Abell  was 
released  on  bail  in  20,000/.,  and  on  9  April 
1642,  having  been  declared  a  *  delinquent,* 
he  oilered  to  make  his  submission   to  the 
house;    on  payment  of  2,000/.  his  request 
was  granted,  and  pardon  promised  him.   Ten 
years  later  Abell  was  again  imprisoned,  but 
in  the  interval  he  had  resigned  his  office  of 
alderman.     On  12  March  1652  he  was  given 
into  the  custody  of  Sir  John  Lenthall  on  the 
petition  of  certain  persons  to  whom  he  owed 
money,  borrowed  in  behalf  of  the  Vintners* 
Company  several  years  previously.    He  was 
not,  nowever,  kept  in  close  confinement,  but 
allowed  to  reside  with  his  son  at  Hatfield, 
IlertJ*.      On  5   May   1652  it  was  reported 
to  the  council  of  state  that  he  had  spoken 
*  dangerous    words  *    against    the    existing 
government,  and  measures  were  devised  to 
keep  him   under  closer  surveillance.      On 
25  Feb.  1653-4  he  petitioned  the  judges  sit- 
ting at   Salters*   Hall  for  the  pajTnent   of 
1,833/.  13*.  Ad.  owing  to  him  from  persons 
concerned  with  him  in  farming  the  wine  duty. 
On  7  June  1655  a  passport  to  Holland  was 
given  to  him,  but  nothing  seems  ascertainable 
of  his  subsequent  career. 

A  number  of  pamphlets  and  broadsides 
condemning  Abell's  action  in  the  matter  of 
the  wine  duty  appeared  in  1640  and  1641. 
Soon  after  his  first  imprisonment  by  the  Com- 
mons Thomas  Heywood  published  (18  Dec. 
1640)  a  tract  dealing  witn  *  a  priest,  a  judge, 
and  a  patentee,*  in  which  Abell  was  severely 
attacked  as  the  patentee.  In  1641  appeared 
*  An  Exact  Legendary,  compendiously  con- 


taining the  whole  life  of  Alderman  Abel,  the 
maine  Proiector  and  Patentee  for  the  raising 
of  Wines.'  He  is  here  described  as  springing 
from  the  lowest  class  of  society,  and  thriving 
through  his  extreme  parsimony.  His  wealth 
is  computed  at  from  *  ten  to  twelve  thousand 
pounds.*  He  is  denounced  as  having '  broken  ^ 
both  '  merchants  and  retailors,'  and  the  city 
is  described  as  rejoicing  in  his  removal  from 
his  shop  in  Aldermanbury  to  a  'stronger 
house.*  Other  tracts  relating  to  Abell,  all 
of  which  appeared  in  1641,  bear  the  titles: 
'The  Copie  of  a  Letter  sent  from  the  Roaring 
Boyes  in  Elizium,  to  two  errant  Knights  of 
the  Grape  in  Limbo,  Alderman  Abel  and  Mr. 
Kilvert;*  'Time's  Alteration;'  and  'The 
Last  Discourse  betwixt  Master  Abel  and 
Master  Richard  Kilvert.'  An  attempt  to 
defend  Abell  from  the  charge  of  obtaming 
by  undue  influence  the  consent  of  the  Vint- 
ners* Company  to  the  wine  duty  was  printed 
under  the  title  of '  A  True  Discovery  of  the 
Proiectors  of  the  "Wine  Proiect,'  and  a  reply 
to  this  defence  appeared  in  '  A  true  Relation 
of  the  Proposing,  Threatening,  and  Perswad- 
ing  of  the  Vintners  to  yeeld  to  the  Lnposi- 
tion  upon  Wines.'  An  engraved  portrait  of 
the  aloierman  by  Hollar  was  issued  in  1641. 
Above  it  is  -wTitten  '  Good  wine  needs  not 
A-Bush  nor  A-Bell.*  Abell  is  often  referred 
to  in  hostile  broadsides  as '  Cain  s  brother,'  and 
as  '  Alderman  Medium.* 

[Gardiner's  Hist,  of  England,  viii.  286-7 ;  Com- 
mons* Journal,  vol.  ii. ;  Calendars  of  State  Papers, 
1638-41,  1652-3,  1656;  Remerabrancia,  14».; 
Rushworth's  Collections,  iv.  277-8 ;  Catidogaeof 
Prints  and  Drawings  in  the  British  Museum- 
Political  and  Personal — vol.  i.,  where  full  ac- 
counts of  the  broadsides  relating  to  Abell  may 
be  found.]  S.  L.  L. 

ABERCORN,  Ejurl  of.  [See  Hamilton.] 

ABERCROMBIE,  JOHN  (1726-1806), 
a  writer  on  horticulture,  was  the  son  of  a 
market  gardener  at  Prestonpans,  near  Edin-^ 
burgh.  Having  received  some  education,  he 
began  at  an  early  age  to  work  under  his  father ; 
and  when  about  twenty-five,  he  found  em- 
ployment in  the  Royal  hardens  at  Kew,  and 
Leicester  House,  and  in  the  service  of  several 
noblemen  and  gentlemen.  After  a  marriage 
which  brought  him  a  numerous  family,  he 
began  business  on  his  own  account  as  a 
market  gardener  at  Hackney.  "While  he 
was  thus  occupied,  his  biographer  Mean  as- 
serts that  he  was  asked,  about  1770,  by 
Lockyer  Davis,  a  well-known  publisher,  to 
vrnie  a  work  on  practical  gardening:  he  con- 
sented only  on  condition  that  his  manuscript 
should  be  revised  by  Oliver  Goldsmith;  and 
it  is  said  that  the  manuscript  was  sent  back  by 


Abercrombie 


37 


Abercrombie 


Goldsmith  unaltered,  with  the  remark  that 
Abercrombie's  own  style  was  that  best  suited 
to  the  subject.  The  story  can  hardly  be 
true  in  relation  to  the  first  edition  of  Aber- 
crombie's  earliest  work,  since  that  was  not 
published  by  Lockyer  Davis,  who  was  the 
publisher  of  some  of  his  subsequent  produc- 
tions. It  appeared  in  1767,  and  was  en- 
titled *  Every  Man  his  own  Gardener,  being 
a  new  and  more  complete  Gardener^s  Ka- 
lendar  than  any  one  hitherto  published.' 
^  From  a  diffidence  in  the  writer '  (this  is 
Abercrombie's  own  statement),  the  volume 
was  represented  in  the  title-page  as  written 

*  by  Mr.  Maw,  gardener  to  the  Duke  of 
Leeds/  who  had  not  seen  a  line  of  it  before 
publication,  and  who  is  said  to  have  received 
hOl.  for  this  use  of  his  name.  '  Every  Man 
his  own  Gardener '  soon  attained  a  popularity 
which  it  has  never  wholly  lost,  a  new  edition 
of  it  having  appeared  in  1879.  It  supplied 
a  want  scarcely  met  by  the  chief  work  of  the 
kind  in  vogue  at  the  time  of  its  publication, 
the  '  Gardener's  Kalendar '  of  Philip  Miller, 
4ind  gave  for  the  first  time  detailed  instruc- 
tions which  his  practical  experience  enabled 
him  to  furnish.  *  Every  Man  his  own  Gar- 
dener '  had  gone  througn  seven  editions,  said 
to  be  of  2,000  each,  when,  in  1779,  Aber- 
x;rombie  published  under  his  own  name,  now 
well  known,  *The  British  Fruit  Gardener  and 
Art  of  Pruning.*  Abercrombie  was  then  in 
business  at  Tottenham  as  a  market-gardener 
«nd  nurseryman.  He  afterwards  seems  to  have 
devoted  hunself  to  the  production  of  books 
on  horticulture  and  to  the  revision  and  re- 
publication of  his  earlier  works.  A  svstema- 
tic  work  on  general  horticulture,  in  wiich  the 
-calendar  form  was  discarded,  with  the  title  of 

*  The  Practical  Gardener,'  appeared  after  his 
death.  In  spite  of  his  industry  and  the  great 
success  of  some  of  his  manuals,  he  had,  during 
his  last  years,  to  depend  for  support  on  the 
bounty  of  a  friend.  He  died  at  or  about  the 
n^  of  80,  in  the  spring  of  1 806,  and  left  behind 
him  the  reputation  of  an  upright  man  and  a 
cheerful  companion.  A  competent  authority 
among  his  later  editors  or  annotators,  Mr. 
George  Glenny,  has  called  Abercrombie  *  the 
ffreat  teacher  of  gardening.'  Next  to  *  Every 
Man  his  own  Grardener,'  the  most  popular  of 
his  works  has  been  the  *  Gardener's  Pocket 
Journal  and  Daily  Assistant,'  which  in  18r)7 
had  reached  a  thirty-fifth  edition.  Among 
his  treatises  on  special  departments  of  horti- 
culture are  *  The  Complete  Forcing  Gardener ' 
(1781);  'The  Complete  WaU  Tree  Pruner' 
(1783) ; '  The  Propagation  and  Botanical  Ar- 
rangement of  Plants  and  Trees,  useful  and 
ornamental'  (1784);  and  *The  Hot  House 
Crardener  on  the  general  culture  of  the  pine- 


apple and  method  of  pruning  early  grapes,' 
&c.  (1789) ;  of  which  last  work  a  German 
translation  appeared  at  Vienna  in  1792      *. 

[Mean's Memoir  in  second  edition  of  the  IVac- 
tical  Gardener  (1817) ;  Biographical  Sketch  pre- 
fixed to  the  35th  edition  of  the  Gardener's  Pocket 
Journal  (1867)  ;  Preface  to  Philip  Miller's  Gar- 
dener's Kalendar ;  Catalogue  of  the  British  Mu- 
seum Library.]  F.  E. 

ABERCROMBIE,  JOHN,  M.D.  (1780- 
1844),  physician,  was  the  only  son  of  the 
Rev.  George  Abercrombie,  one  of  the  parish 
ministers  of  Aberdeen.  He  was  bom  on  10  Oct. 
1780,  in  Al^rdeen,  where,  at  the  grammar 
school  and  at  Marischal  College,  he  received 
his  early  education.  In  1800  he  went  to 
Edinburgh  to  study  medicine,  and  took  his 
degree  there  in  1803.  The  mental  aspects 
of  medical  science  seem  already  to  have  at- 
tracted him,  his  inaugural  address  being 
*De  Fatuitate  Alpina,  a  subject  to  which 
he  recurred  in  his  work  on  the  intellectual 
powers.  He  spent  about  a  year  in  London 
m  further  study  at  St.  George's  Hospital, 
and  soon  after  liis  return  to  Edinburgh  in 
1804  began  to  practise.  From  the  outset  of 
his  career  his  fellow-citizens  recognised  in 
him  a  man  of  boundless  energy  ana  of  gene- 
rous public  spirit.  Becoming  connected  with 
the  public  tlispensary,  he  gradually  gained 
an  intimate  knowledge  ot  the  moral  and 
physical  condition  of  the  poor,  and  found 
opportunities  for  the  exercise  of  those  habits 
of  close  and  accurate  observation  which  were 
already  formed  in  himself,  and  which  through- 
out his  life  he  strove  to  teach  to  others,  lie 
did  much  to  train  the  medical  students  of 
his  time.  It  is  recorded  as  part  of  his  sys- 
tem that  he  divided  the  poorer  quarters  of 
Edinburgh  into  districts,  and  allotted  them 
to  different  students,  himself  maintaining  a 
supervision  of  the  whole.  Meanwhile  ne 
kept  with  scrupulous  care  a  record  of  every 
case  of  scientific  interest  that  came  before 
liim.  The  results  of  his  observations  ap- 
peared in  a  series  of  papers  on  pathological 
subjects,  contributed  chiefly  to  the  *  Edin- 
burgh Medical  and  Surgical  Journal '  from 
1816  to  1824.  From  these  papers  were  elabo- 
rated his  two  cliief  works  on  pathology,  pub- 
lished in  1828,  in  which  his  aim  was  rather 
to  group  together  well-tested  facts  than  to 
theorise.  On  the  death  of  Dr.  James  Gregory 
in  1821,  Abercrombie,  whose  professional 
reputation  stood  very  high,  immediately  be- 
came one  of  the  cliief  consulting  physicians 
in  Scotland.  He  failed,  however,  in  his  ap- 
plication for  Dr.  Gregory's  chair  of  the  prac- 
tice of  medicine.  In  1823  he  was  made  a 
licentiate,  and  in  1824  a  fellow,  of  the  Col- 


Abercrombie  38  Abercromby 


lese  of  Physicians,  and  he  received  the  com- 
plimentary appointment  of  physician  in  ordi- 
nary to  the  King  in  Scotland.  About  this 
time  he  began  the  works  with  which  his 
name  has  been  chiefly  associated.  Like  Dr. 
Gregory,  the  friend  of  Keid,  he  was  led 
away  from  science  to  metaphysics,  through 


A  list  of  his  early  papers  is  g^ven  in  Baigf- 
Delorme  and  Dechambre's  *  Ihct.  EncycL  des 
sciences  m^dicales/  His  principal  works  were 
the  following:  1.  'Pathological  and  Prac- 
tical Researches  on  Diseases  of  the  Brain  and 
Spinal  Cord;  Edinburgh,  1828 ;  2nd  edition, 
enlai^d,  1829.    2.  *  Pathological  and  Prac- 


a  belief  that  his  wide  knowledge  of  nervous  tical  Keeearches  on  Diseases  of  the  Stomach, 
diseases  enabled  him  to  throw  light  on  men-  the  Intestinal  Canal,  the  Liver,  and  the  other 
tal  problems.  In  1830  he  published  a  work  Viscera  of  the  Abdomen,'  Edinburgh,  1828. 
on  tne  intellectual  powers  and  the  applica-  8.  *  Inquiries  concerning  the  Intellectual 
tion  of  logical  methods  to  science,  followed  Powers  and  the  Investigation  of  Truth,' 
three  years  after\vards  by  another  and  shorter  ;  Edinburgh,  1830.  4.  *  The  Philosophy  of  the 
work  on  the  moral  feelings.  Both  books  ac-  j  Moral  Feelings,'  London,  1833.  5.  A  col- 
quired  an  instant  popularitv,  which  even  now  '  lected  edition  of  *  Essays  and  Tracts,'  chiefly 
has  scarcely  died  away.  Immediately  after  on  moral  and  religious  subjects,  Edinburgh, 
their  first  publication   they  were   brought  .  1847. 

out  in  America.  AVithin  ten  years  there  ap-  |  In  <  Hogg's  Instructor,'  iii.  145,  will  he 
peared  ten  English  editions  of  the  *  Intel-  '  found  a  portrait  of  Dr.  Abercrombie,  and  in 
lectual  Powers?,  and  in  1 860  it  was  still  in  j  the  'Scottish  Nation,'  i.  3,  a  woodcut  of 
such  favour  that  it  was  introduced  as  a  text-  ;  the  medallion  on  his  monument  in  the  West 
book  in  the  Calcutta  University.  The  causes  Churchyard,  Edinburgh, 
of  this  popularity  were,  no  doubt,  partly  the  [  r^^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^  j^^^^l  i^jjj  g.^ 
numerous  cases  set  forth  of  pecidiar  mental  |  wftness.  23  Nov.  1844  ;  Rev.  J.  Brace's  Funewl 
phenomena,  whose  detailed  record  made  a  Semion;  Andersons  Scottish  Nation,!.  3;  Hogg'.* 
dry  subject  easy  and  entertaining  reading,  ,  lnstnictor,iii.l45;  Lol)lv8Al.ercrombiea8aText 
and  partly  the  pious  and  practical  tone  m  Book  in  the  Calcutta  University ;  Cockbum's 
which  the   books   were  written,   rendering.  Journal,  ii.  203-4.]  G.  P.  M. 

them  acceptable  for  educational   purposes. 

They  have  now  no  philosophical  value.  Aber-  ABERCROMBY,  ALEXANDER  ( 1 745- 
crombie's  theor\'  of  the  mind  is  such  as  might  1795),  Scotch  judge  and  essayist,  the  fourth 
be  expected  from  a  thinker  of  little  ongi-  and  voungest  son  of  George  Abercromby,  of 
nality,  who  was  acquainted  with  the  works  Tullibody,  in  Clackmannanshire,  was  bom  on 
of  Reid,  Brown,  and  Stewart,  and  who  studi-  1 5  Oct.  1 745.  Two  of  his  brothers  entered  the 
ously  kept  himself  from  bold  speculation  as  army,  one  of  them  becoming  the  celebrated 
from  a  thing  savouring  of  impiety.  Tlie  facts  general  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby.  Alexander 
which  formed  his  own  contribution  to  the  studied  at  the  university  of  Edinburgh, 
subject  are  verj*  rudely  classified,  and  are  where  he  seems  to  have  been  chiefly  dis- 
subjected  to  the  most  superficial  analysis,  tingjuished  for  his  handsome  person  and  en- 
Lord  Cockbum  no  doubt  referred  to  the  *  In-  gaging  disposition.  He  was  admitted  a  mem- 
tellectual  Powers 'and  the*  Moral  Feelings,'  ,  ber  of  the  F'aculty  of  Advocates  in  1766, 
when  he  said  that  Dr.  Abercrombie's  *  fame  and  was  soon  afterwards  appointed  sheriff- 
would  perhaps  have  stood  liigher  had  he  '  depute  of  his  native  county.  Personal  resi- 
published  fewer  books.'  During  his  later  dence,  however,  not  being  required,  he  con- 
years  he  wrote  little  besides  a  few  popular  tinned  the  practice  of  his  profession  at  the 
essays,  which  were  collected  after  his  death.  I  bar.  In  17o0  he  resigned  lus  sheriffship  and 
In  1835  the  degree  of  doctor  of  medicine  '  was  appointed  one  of  the  advocates-depute 
was  conferred  upon  him  by  Oxford.  In  the  by  Henrj-  Dundas,  then  lord-advocate  of 
following  year  the  students  of  Marischal  Scotland,  and  acquired  a  good  practice.  He 
College  elected  him  their  lord  rector.  Be-  also  helped  Henrv-  Mackenzie,  the  author  of 
fore  the  disruption  he  hesitated  long  as  to  the  *  Man  of  Feeling,'  to  start  the  *  Mirror,' 
the  course  which  he  should  take,  but  he  published  at  Edinburgh  in  1779,  and  contri- 
finally  decided  to  quit  the  established  church.  .  buted  to  the  *  Lounger '  in  1785  and  1786. 
lie  died  ver>'  suddenly  on  14  Nov.  1844,  of  ,  Abercromby's  papers  show  much  correctness 
a  somewhat  exce])tional  disease  of  the  heart,  of  style  and  tenderness  of  expression.  In 
a  full  account  of  which  is  given  in  the  *  Edin-  1792  he  took  his  seat  on  the  bench  of  the 
burgh  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,'  Ixiii.  Court  of  Session  under  the  courtesy  title  of 
225.  The  report,  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Adam  Lord  Abercromby,  and  a  few  months  a£te> 
Hunter,  states  that  Abercrombie's  brain  wards  was  apj>ointed  one  of  the  lords  com- 
weighed  6Ji  oz.,  being  only  a  little  less  than  missioners  of  justician*.  On  17  Nov.  1795^ 
the  weight  of  Cuvier's.  he  died  of  pulmonary  disease  at  Exmouth. 


Abercromby  39  Abercromby 


Iy>rd  Abercromlrr's  known  contnbuii*m^  Well-nirton  lWi«trfir>;  for  thr !««!:«  i-i  A ibnem 

to   litermtni^   coosnt   of  ten  papers  in  the  >«•  X*pi*r  *  Prninsnlar  W*r,  Nx*  xii.  ohap^  6 

'  Mirror'  and  nine  in  the  'Lounaer/  *^  "•  *»*  ^**'-  ^li^-^^^^'^n  ^tuh  an>*  on  th«^ 

^      ,     ,  ,      ,     T»  m«-  eiuMrft.  in  :bf  I  niii-^l   Srviiv  Mnimxine  Uhl 

[Xoti«  of  I/>rf  AVreiomlT  bv  Henry  lUt^  pulluhcd  immi  hlrt>0  H.  M.  S. 

kf  nzie  in  the  TnnMCtiow  of  the  Rot«1  >arw<y  '       ^^r^U^^^m-^-i-  t^  »  m-n^     .  i-^^i    ^tv 
of  Edmbargh,ToLir.|«t  l.«pp  L]    J-  B.  P.  ABERCROmY,  PAMD  ,./.  1.01-if  , 

was  a  Nrottish  phTSician  of  the  j^^ventertith 

ABEBCBOMBT,AL£XAXD£R<17^4-  century.    Half  a  c^^ntun  after  his  death,  his 

Is.'iSy,  colonel,   waa   the   youngest   son   of  •NovaMedicinie  Praxis '(1680^  was  reprinted 

Sir  Kalj^  AhercTomby.  ajid  was  bom  in  at  Paris  ( 1740> :  and  daring  his  lifetime  his 

1 7W.     He  entered  the  army  at  an  early  age.  •  Tuta  ac   efficax  Luis  ^"ener«e,  sappe  abs- 

and  served  as  a  volunteer  with  the  d2iid  re-  que  Mercuric  ac  semper  ab^ue  Salivatione 

giment  in  the  expedition  to  the  Helder  in  mercuriali,  curandie  MethMus"  tlHS4.  8vo>, 

1799.     He  soon  obtained  his  commission,  was  translated  into  French  i  Paris.  1K90V.  as 

and  saw  service  with  his  regiment  in  Egypt,  by  •  celebre  medicin  dWncletenv  :  *  and  into 

lie  was  appointed  aide-de-camp  to  his  father's  Ihitch  (Amsterdam.  Iti91 »  by  no  less  than 

<ild  lieutenant  and  friend.  Sir  John  Moore,  J.  B.  Lusart.     It  was  alsi^  translated  into 

during  his  command  in  Sicilv  in  1606.  but  German  (Dresden.  17(1:?,  8vo^.     His   b«wks 

was  not  with  him  in  Spain.   Like  his  brother,  also  gave  liim  a  place  of  honour  in  IlallerV 

Sir  John,  he  was  rapidly  promoted,  and  in  *Bibliotheca  Medicinie  Pmct.'  (4  vols.  4to. 

1H08,  when  only  twenty-four,  became  lieu-  iii.  ^19. 1779i    His  other  professioiwl  work^ 

tenant-colonel   of  the  28th  regiment.     He  are:    •  De   Variatione  et    Varietaie   Pulsus 

accompanied  his  regiment  when  it  was  sent  Obsenationes*  (Ixtndon  and  Paris.   lt>So>: 

tr>  Portugal  to  reinforce  Lord  Wellington  and  *Ars  explorandi  MedicasFacultates  Plan- 

after  the  battle  of  Talavera.    He  commanded  t  arum   ex   solo   Sapore'   (London.    U>8.VS, 

it  at  the  battle  of  Busaco,  and  in  the  lines  12mo>.     His  'Opuscula'  were  collect e<l  in 

of  Torres  Vedras,  and  as  senior  colonel  had  .  1687. 

the  good  fortune  to  command  his  brigade  at  ■  But  it  is  as  a  metaphysician  rather  than 
the  battle  of  Albuera.  His  ser\-ices  there  as  a  physician  that  he  lives,  and  ought  to  live, 
were  very  conspicuous,  and  his  brigade  has  Hi  j;  »  i)iscours<'  of  Wit'  (1(>8<)) — ^-n>ngly 
been  immortalised  by  Xapier.  He  was  soon  assigned  by  s«ime  writers  to  Patrick  Aber- 
superseded,  but  commanded  his  regiment  .  oromby — lias  somehow  fallen  out  of  sight, 
at  the  surprise  of  Arroyo  de  Molinos  and  |,iit  nonetheless  is  it  a  more  than  onlinarilv 
the  storming  of  the  forts  at  ^Vlmaraz.  In  noticeable  book.  It  an ttniates  the  (so-called) 
lf<12  he  was  removed  to  the  staff  of  the  •  Scottish  School  of  Phihisophy '  a  century- 
army,  and  was  present  as  assist  ant-quartei^  nearlv :  for  in  it  IV.  Thomas  Ueid's  nhi- 
master-general  at  the  battles  of  Vittoria,  the  InsopViy  of  common  sense — sinct^  plorifitMi  by 
Pyrenees,  and  Orthes.  He  ser%ed  in  the  same  ]  Sir  William  Hamilton — is  distinctly  taught . 
? —  ■_  t^tfr  — J ♦  -*  rk..-*-,^  ^^  j^j^  y^rith  it  is  the  following:  *  .Vcademia 

Scientiarum,  or  the  Academy  of  Sciences: 
being  a  Short  and  Easie  Intn)diiction  to 
the  Knowledge  of  the  Lilx'ral  ArtN  and 
Sciences,  with  the  names  of  those  famous 
authors  that  have  written  on  anv  ]uir1ioular 
Science.     In   English   and   Inline*   (lt>87, 


capacity  in  1815,  and  was  present  at  Quat  re- 
Bras,  ti'aterloo,  and  the  storming  of  Peronne. 
For  his  active  senices  he  was  promoted  to  a 
colonelcv  in  the  2nd  or  Coldstream  guards, 
and  made  a  companion  of  the  Bath,  a  knight 
of  the  order  of  Maria  Theresa  of  Austria,  of 
the  Tower  and  Sword  of  Portugal,  and  of  St. 


George  of  Russia.  He  was  returned  to  pai^  ,  12mo).  Tliis  is  arranged  alphalx^tically 
liament  in  1817  for  the  county  of  Clackman- !  from  Algebra  to  Rectiline  Trigonometry-. 
nan  in  the  place  of  his  brother  Sir  John,  but  |  and  is  far  ahead  of  its  age.  Eijunlly  weighty 
retired  in  the  following  year.  He  was  for  i  and  characteristic  is  another  trt^atise,  'A 
some  time  in  command  of  the  2nd  guards,  i  Moral  Discourse  of  the  Power  of  Interest : 


but  retired  on  half-pay  when  there  seemed  to 
be  no  chance  of  another  war,  and  died  at  his 
country  seat  in  Scotland  in  1853.  He  had 
no  smi^  share  of  the  military  ability  of  his 
family,  and  was  an  admirable  regimental  and 


by  David  Abercromby,  M.l>.  and  Fellow  of 
tiie  Colhnlge  of  Phvsicians  in  Amsterdam  * 
(London,  1690,  l2moV  Tliis  is  dedicattMl 
worthily  to  Boyle.  'Almighty  inten»st ' — 
perhaps  the  pnltotype  of  the  American  *  al- 


staff  officer:  but  the  long  peace  which  fol-    mighty  dollar* — is*  hen*  asserted  to  b«»  *tlu 


lowed  the  battle  of  Waterloo  gave  him  no 
opportunity  to  show  whether  he  had  his 
father's  ability  to  command  an  army. 

[For  his  services  see  the  Royal  Military  Ca- 
lendar, Tol.  iv.,  and  oceasioiial  allusions  in  the 


undoubttnl  cause  of  all  the  Transactions  of 
the  Politick  AVorld.'  The  *  Discourse*  is 
packed  with  capital  stories  and  racy  and 
sometimes  severely  sarcastic  sayings. 

Biographically,  a  little  book  of  his,  hitherto 


Abercromby 


40 


Abercromby 


entirely  neglected,  is  the  most  interesting 
of  all.  Its  title-page  runs  thus:  'Pro- 
testancy  to  be  Embraced;  or  a  New  and 
InMlible  Method  to  Reduce  Romanists 
from  Popery  to  Protestancy.  A  Treatise  of 
great  Use  to  all  His  Majestie*s  Subjects,  and 
necessary  to  prevent  Errors  ana  Popery. 
By  David  Abercromby,  [M.jD.,  Lately  Con- 
verted, after  he  had  Profess'd  near  nine- 
teen years  Jesuitism  and  Popery.  London, 
printed  for  the  author  by  Thomas  Hodgkin, 
1682,'  12mo.  It  was  republished  in  1686 
as  *  Protestancy  proved  Safer  than  Popery ' 
(12mo). 

There  is  a  good  deal  of  personal  auto- 
biof^phical  matter  in  the  introduction,  by 
which  we  learn  that  he  was  bom  into  a 
Roman  catholic  (Scottish)  family,  and  edu* 
cated  as  such,  *  because  that  all  his  nearest 
relations  were,  and  ever  were,  for  the  most 
part,  zealous  Romanists'  (p.  13).  'I  was 
bred  up,*  he  says,  *  in  my  greener  years  at 
Doway,  and  in  a  short  time  became  so  g^ood 
a  prohcient  in  the  mysteries  of  popery,  that 
I  enter'd  the  order  of  Jesuits  in  Prance  at 
my  first  instance :  I  lived  amongst  them  full 
eighteen  years  and  more,  and  I  may  say, 
without  vanity,  in  some  repute  of  a  scholar, 
being  judg'd  after  a  solemn  ezamen  capable 
to  teach  divinity  and  philosophy  in  the 
most  renowned  universities  of  Europe,  which 
is  the  Jesuits  way  of  graduating  their  own 
men  in  divinity.  I  taught  in  France 
fframmar,  in  Lorrain  mathematics  and  phi- 
losophy, and  being  graduate  in  physick,  I 
practisd  it  not  unhappily;  and  intend  to 
practice  it  hereafter,  with  certain  hopes,  God 
willing,  of  the  same  good  success '  (^p.  2-5). 

Ck)ntinuin^  on  his  spiritual  and  intellec- 
tual difficulties  and  doubts,  he  adds :  '  Being 
thus  perplexed  in  mind,  and,  as  Hercules  iw 
biviOf  uncertain  what  way  to  make  choice  of, 
I  came  to  Scotland,  where,  because  of  some 
repute  I  had  got  abroad  of  a  scholar,  I  was 
put  instantly  to  work  by  the  Jesuits  against 
M.  Menzies,  a  professor  of  divinity  in  Aber- 
deen. I  wrote  then  in  a  short  time  a  treatise 
of  some  bulk  against  his  way  of  defending 
the  protestant  religion,  but  neither  to  my 
own  satisfaction,  though  several  others,  see- 
ing things  but  under  one  light,  seem'd  to  be 
persuaded  by  my  arguments;  nor  to  the 
satisfaction  of  most  Romanists,  who  thought 
and  said  my  doctrine  in  some  material  points 
was  not  unlike  or  the  same  with  that  of 
Protestants'  (pp.  10-11).  He  remained  in 
Scotland  about  two  years,  and  *  after  an 
accurate  paraUel  of  Protestancy  and  Popery, 
and  a  scrupulous  scrutinv  of  the  most  ma- 
terial grounds  they  both  stood  on,'  he  re- 
nounced the  latter,  and  *  came  to  London  as 


to  a  safe  sanctuary '  where  he  might '  sene 
God  in  all  freedom  and  security'  (p.  11). 
He  protests:  'They  [his  Roman  catholic 
friends  and  relatives]  cannot  say  that  any 
other  motive  but  that  of  saving  my  soul  in 
the  securest  way  caus'd  me  to  withdraw 
from  them  and  side  with  Protestants.  They 
know  I  was  in  a  condition  amongst  them  to 
want  for  nothing,  being  supplyed  with  all 
necessaries  sufficiently ;  but  now  I  must  rely 
on  God's  providence  and  my  own  industiy' 
(p.  14).  There  is  rare  acuteness  and  force 
in  his  argumentation. 

The  last  occurrence  of  his  name  is  in  the 
following  work :  *  Fur  Academicus  sive  Aca- 
demia  Ornamentis  Spoliata  a  Furibus,  qui 
in  Pamasso  coram  Apolline  sistuntur,  ubi 
Criminis  sui  accusantur  et  convincuntur 
Auctore  Davide  Abercrombio  Scoto,  MJ). 
Editio  secunda,  Amstelod.  1701 '  (12mo>. 
This  consists  of  scholastic  and  medical  dis- 
cussions. It  would  appear  that  he  passed  over 
to  reside  and  practise  as  a  physician  in  Hol- 
land (Amsterdam).  The  aate  of  his  death 
is  unknown.  He  was  living,  says  Haller, 
*  early  in  the  eighteenth  century.'  It  will 
be  observed  that  in  *  Fur  Academicus '  he  is 
designated '  Scotus '  (Scoto).  He  is  believed 
to  have  belonged  to  the  Abercrombys  of 
Seaton  or  Seatoun.  Curiously  enougn,  so 
recently  as  1833,  Mr.  James  Maidment,  of 
Edinburgh,  printed  privately  for  the  first 
time  *  A  Short  Account  of  Scots  Divines ' 
by  him. 

[Al>ercroinby*8  books,  as  cite<l ;  Catalogues  of 
Scotch  Writers  (published  in  1833  by  Mr.  Jamei 
Maidment),  p.  62.]  A.  B.  G. 

ABERCROMBY,  JAMES,  first  Babojt 
DuNFEKMLiNB  (1776-1858),  third  son  of 
General  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby  [see  Abbb- 
OROMBY,  Sir  Ralph],  was  bom  7  Nov.  1776. 
He  was  educated  for  the  English  bar,  and 
was  called  at  Lincoln's  Inn  m  1801,  soon 
after  which  he  obtained  a  commissionership  of 
bankruptcy.  Subsequently  he  became  steward 
of  the  estates  of  the  Duke  of  Devonshire.  In 
1807  he  entered  parliament  as  member  for 
Midhurst,  and  in  1812  he  was  retiumed  for 
Calne,  which  he  continued  to  represent  till 
1830.  Without  special  claims  for  promotion 
as  a  politician,  he  owed  his  success  chiefly  to 
Ids  power  of  clear  and  judicious  statement, 
and  the  prudent  use  he  made  of  opportunities. 
His  career  was  also  influenced  to  a  consider- 
able extent  by  the  prominent  part  which  he 
took  in  the  discussion  of  Scotch  business. 
In  1824  and  1826  he  brought  forward  a  mo- 
tion for  a  bill  to  amend  the  representation  of 
the  city  of  Edinburgh ;  but  altnough  on  both 
occasions    he  received    large    support,  the 


Abercromby 


41 


Abercromby 


power  of  election  remained  until  1832  in  the 
hands  of  the  self-elected  council  of  thirty- 
three.  On  the  accession  of  the  whigs  to 
power  under  Canning  in  1827,  Abercromhy 
was  appointed  judge-advocate-general.  In 
1830  he  became  chief  baron  of  the  exchequer 
of  Scotland,  and  when  in  1832  the  office  was 
abolished,  he  received  a  pension  of  2,000/.  a 
year.  A  parliamentary  career  beine  again 
open  to  him,  he  was  chosen  along  with  Fran- 
cis Jeffrey  to  represent  Edinburgh  in  the 
tlrst  reformed  parliament.  As  on  various 
questions  of  privilege  he  had  manifested  a 
special  knowledge  of  the  forms  of  the  house, 
he  was  put  forward  by  his  party  as  a  candi- 
date for  the  speakership,  but  the  vote  was  in 
favour  of  Maimers  Sutton.  In  1834  he  en- 
tered the  cabinet  of  Lord  Grey  as  master  of 
the  mint,  but  the  ministry  became  disunited 
on  the  Irish  question.  At  the  opening  of 
the  new  parliament  in  183o  the  condition 
of  the  political  atmosphere  was  in  some  re- 
spects so  uncertain,  that  the  choice  of  a 
speaker  awakened  exceptional  interest  as  a 
touchstone  of  party  strength;  and  amid 
much  excitement  Abercromby  was  chosen 
3ver  Manners  Sutton  by  316  votes  to  310. 
A.8  speaker  Abercromby  acted  with  great 
impartiality,  while  he  possessed  sufficient 
decision  to  quell  any  serious  tendency  to  dis- 
order. His  term  of  office  was  marked  by 
the  introduction  of  several  important  re- 
forms in  the  management  of  private  bills, 
rending  to  simplify  the  arrangements  and 
minimise  the  opportimities  for  jobberv.  In 
tpite  of  failing  health  he  retained  otlice  till 
May  1839.  On  retiring  he  received  a  pen- 
non of  4,000/.  a  year,  and  was  created  Baron 
Dunfemdine  of  Dunfermline  in  the  county 
of  Fife.  He  died  at  Ck)linton  House,  Mid- 
lothian, 17  April  1858. 

Lord  Duniermline,  after  his  retirement, 
continued  to  interest  himself  in  public  affairs 
connected  with  Edinburgh,  and  was  one  of 
the  originators  of  the  United  Industrial 
School  for  the  support  and  training  of  desti- 
tute children,  witn  a  provision  for  voluntary 
religious  instruction  m  accordance  with  the 
beliefs  of  the  parents.  He  wrote  a  life  of 
bis  father.  Sir  Kalph  Abercromby,  which  was 
published  posthumously  in  1861. 

[Gent.  Mag.  3rd  series,  iv.  547-551 ;  An- 
laal  Begiiiter,  c  403-5 ;  AnderNon,  History  of 
Bdinburgh  (1856);  Journal  of  Lord  Cockbum 
1874) ;  Memoirs  of  Lord  Brougham,  iii.  230- 
S81 ;  Greville  Memoirs,  ii.  333,  iii.  95,  201, 204, 
{13;  Encyclopndia  Britannica,  9th  edit.  i.  87.1 

T.  F.  H. 

ABERCBOMBY,  JOHN  (d.  1561  ?\  a 
^kotch.  monk  of  the  order  of  St.  Benedict, 


I  was  a  staunch  opponent  of  the  doctrines  of 
I  the  Reformation,  and  on  that  account  was  con- 
demned to  death  and  executed  about  the  year 
1561 .  He  was  the  author  of  *  Veritatis  Defen- 
sio'and'HiereseosConfusio.'  It  does  not  ap- 
pear that  either  of  these  works  was  printed. 

[Deraiwter,  Hist.  Eccl.  Gentis  Scotorum,  i.  28  ; 
Tanner,  BibL  Britannico-Hibemicii.]       T.  C. 

ABEBCROMBY,  Sib  JOHN  (1772- 
1817),  general,  was  the  second  son  of  the 
famous  t^ir  Ralph  Abercromby,  and  the  elder 
of  the  two  sons  who  followed  their  father*8 
profession.  He  entered  the  army  in  1786  at 
the  age  of  fourteen,  as  ensign  in  the  75th 
regiment,  of  which  his  uncle  Robert  was 
colonel.  He  became  lieutenant  in  the  same 
regiment  in  1787,  and  captain  in  1792,  and 
first  saw  service  as  aide-de-camp  to  liis 
father  in  the  campaigns  in  Flanders  in  1793 
and  1794.  His  iather's  military  reputation 
and  dependence  on  his  serv'ices  caused  him 
to  rise  rapidly.  In  May  1794  he  became 
major  in  the  94th,  and  in  July,  when  only 
twenty-two,  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  112tK 
regiment.  In  1795  he  exchanged  into  the 
53rd,  and  accompanied  his  father  to  the  West 
Indies  in  1796  and  1797,  to  Ireland  in  179H, 
and  in  the  expedition  to  the  Ilelder  in  179J> 
as  military  secretary.  Tliis  was  a  post  of 
more  than  usual  importance  on  the  staff  of 
Sir  lialph,  who  was  extremely  short-sighted, 
and  haa  in  action  to  depend  entirely  for  his 
knowledge  of  what  was  happening  on  his 
personal  staff.  In  this  capacity  young  Aber- 
cromby particularly  distinguished  himself, 
and  on  more  than  one  occasion,  notably  at 
the  attack  on  Morne  Fortun6e  in  St.  Lucia,  the 
father  owed  much  of  his  success  to  his  8on*s 

Swer  of  explaining  the  military  situation, 
e  was  promoted  colonel  on  1  Jan.  1800,  and 
thus  removed  by  his  rank  from  his  father's 
personal  staff,  but  was  appointed  a  deputy- 
adjutant-general  in  the  army  under  Sir  Ralph 
in  the  Mediterranean,  and  attached  to  Gene- 
ral Hutchinson's  division.  In  Kgjpt  he 
jpreatly  distinguished  himself,  and  was  at 
least  twice  publicly  thanked  by  General 
Hutchinson  in  general  orders. 

At  the  time  of  the  rupture  of  the  peace  (»f 
Amiens  in  1803,  he  unfortunately  happened 
to  be  travelling  in  France,  and  with  other 
travelling  Englishmen  was  seized  and  im- 
prisoned by  Napoleon  at  Verdun.  Neverth<»- 
less  in  his  absence  he  was  promoted  major- 
general  in  1805,  and  made  colonel  of  his  old 
regiment,  the  53rd,  in  1807.  He  was  at  last 
exchanged  for  General  Brennier,  who  had 
been  taken  prisoner  by  Sir  A.  Wellesley  at 
the  battle  of  Vimeiro  in  1808,  was  allowed 
to  return  to  England,  and  was  appointed 


Abercromby 


42 


Abercromby 


commander-in-chief  at  Bombay  in  1809.    In 
this  capacity  he  led  tlie  division  from  Bombay, 
which  was  to  co-operate  in  the  expedition  sent 
by  Lord  Minto  from  India  to  capturtvthe  Mau- 
ritius.  This  island,  which  formed  the  base  of 
t  he  French  fleet  and  of  innumerable  French 
privateers,  caused  immense  damage  to  the 
Indiamen  sailing  between  England  and  India, 
and  Lord  Minto  had  determined  to  subdue 
it.     On  his  way  the  Ceylon,  on  which  Gene- 
ral Abercromby  nind  his  stali*  had  embarked, 
was  taken  by  the  French  frigate  ^'enu8,  but 
on  18  Sept.  was  fortunately  recaptured  by 
Captain    liowloy    in    the     Boadicea.      On 
'2'2  Nov.  he  left  the  ishind  of  Rodriguez  with 
the  Madras  and  Bombay  divisions,  and  was 
joined,  when  in  sight  of  the  Mauritius,  by  the 
division  from  Bengal.     He  took  command  of 
the  whole  force  as  senior  general  present,  and 
on  29  Nov.  disembarkea  at  an  om»n  road- 
stead, and  advanced  with  6,;}00  Europeans, 
2,000  sailors  lent  to  him  by  Admiral  Bertie, 
and  3,000  Sepoys,  upon  Port  Louis,  the  capi- 
tal of  the  island.     On  30  Nov.  he  fought  a 
hmart    action,   which    showed   the  French 
general  that  resistance  was  impossible,  and 
on  2  Dec.  Decaen  surrendered   the   island. 
Abercromby  returned  to  Bombay  in  1811, 
and  continued  to  command  the  forces  there 
till  1812,  when  he  was  appointed  commander- 
in-chief  and  temporary'  governor  of  Madras. 
This  presidency  had  lately  l)eini  disturljed 
by   the  well-known  mutiny  of  the  Madras 
officers,  on  account  of  whicn  Sir  George  Bar- 
low had  been  recalled ;  but  the  quiet  manner 
and  good  nature  of  General  Abercromby  had 
as  good  an  effect  as  similar  qualities  had  had 
during  his  uncle  Sir  Robert's  command  at 
Calcutta.     In  May  1813  Mr.  Hugh  Elliot 
assumed  the  govemorsliip,  and  in  I)eceml>er 
of    the   same    year   General   Abercromby's 
health  was  so  much  impaired  by  the  climate 
that  he  had  to  go  home.     On  his  return  ho 
was  well  received ;   he  had  been  promoted 
lieutenant-general  in  1812,  and  was  now  in 
1814,  on  the  extension  of  the  order  of  the 
Bath,  made  a  K.C.B.     In  1815  his  brother 
(leorge  resigned  the  seat  for  Clackmannan 
to  him,  and  in  1816  he  was  made  a  G.C.B. ; 
but  his  health  was  too  bad  for  him  to  take 
any    prominent    part    in    politics,   and   on 
14  Feb.  1817,  when  on  the  continent  for  his 
health,  he  died  at  Marseilles,  where  he  was 
buried  with   fiill   militaiV  honours.     Some 
French  wTiters  have  asserted  that  he  was  in 
command    of    an   escort   which    conducted 
Napoleon  to  St.  Helena ;  but  there  does  not 
seem  to  be  any  record  of  the  presence  of  any 
troops  or  any  general  officer  on  board  the 
Northumberland,  e.xcept  the  ordinary  com- 
plement of  marines.    Sir  John  seems  to  have 


possessed  the  military  abilities  of  his  family 
but  had  but  little  chance  of  showing  them, 
except  as  military  secretary  to  his  father, 
and  in  the  easy  conquest  of  the  Mauritius. 

[For  General  John  Abercn)inby  s  services  in 
early  life  aw  the  memoir  of  his  father ;  for  his 
services  in  Eg\*pt  see  Sir  R.  Wihjon's  Campaign 
in  Egypt ;  and  for  the  capture  of  the  Mauritius 
sc*e  the  denpatches  in  the  Annual  Register  and 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  the  Asiatic  Annual  Re- 
gister, and  liady  Minto's  Lord  Minto  in  India.] 

rL,  M.  S« 

ABERCROMBY,    PATRICK     (1656- 
1716  P),  Scottish  antiquary  and   historical 
j  writer,  was  the  third  son  of  Alexander  Aher- 
I  cromby  of  Fettemeir  in  Aberdeenshire,  a 
branch  of  the  house  of  Birkenbog  in  Banff- 
shire, and  which  again  was  a  mi^n^tion  from 
Abercromby  of  Abercromby  in  Fifeshire.  He 
was  bom  at  Forfar  in  I606.     Like  David 
Abercromby  he  was   bom   into   a  Roman 
catholic  family,  and  accordingly  would  not 
attend  the  parish  school,  but  was  probably 
educated  first  privately  and  then  abroad  (as 
he  himself  seems  to  indicate  in  the  prefiice 
to  his  mag7mm  opiuf).      This  probably  ex- 
plains liis  Roman  Catholicism  and  adhesion 
to  James  11.     He  graduated  at  St.  Andrew  s 
I'niversity  in  1685.     It  has  been  alleged  that 
he  passed  to  the  university  of  Paris,  and 
there  pursued  his  studies.      His  phras^  of 
having  *  spent  most  of  his  early  years  abroid' 
points  rather  to   this  having  preceded  his 
entry  at  St.  Andrew's.     On  the  completion 
of  his  professional  course  he  is  founa  prac- 
tising as  a  physician  in  Edinburgh,  accoraing 
to  his  biographers  ;  his  title-pages,  assure  us 
that  he  was  *  M.D. :  *  he  prooablv  therefore 
gave  himself  to  his  professional  duties  with 
all  fidelitv  and  success,  although  some  con- 
fusion "With   David  Al)ercromby  has  appa- 
rently led  his  biographers  to  emphasise  ais- 
proport  ionately  his  career  as  a  doctor.   When 
his  orother  Francis,  eldest  son  of  the  family^ 
was  created  Lord  Glassford  (or  Glasford)  on 
his  marriage  with  Anna,  Baroness  Sempill, 
in  July  1 68»5,  Patrick  was  appointed  physician 
i  to  James  II.     But  this  post  he  naturally 
vacated  at  the  n^volution. 

When,  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne,  the 
project  of  the  union  between  England  and 
Scotland  took  shape  and  substance,  he  rushed 
into  the  fray.  Two  considerable  panopblets 
by  him  attest  at  once  his  capacity  and  seal: 
*  Advantage  of  the  Act  of  Security  compared 
with  those  of  the  intended  Union  *  (Edin- 
j  burgh,  1707),  and  *  A  Vindication  of  the 
'  Same  against  Mr.  De  Foe '  (Edinburgh, 
1707).  Tlie  logic  was  with  Defoe,  but  the 
sentiment — more  powerful — was  with  Aber» 


Abercromby 


43 


Abercromby 


cromby.  The  disadvantages  of  union,  or,  as 
he  held,  absorption  and  extinction,  were  near 
at  hand,  and  the  advantages  remote  and 
contingent  on  a  thousand  circumstances  and 
uncertainties.  Hence  to  Lord  Belhaven  and 
Allan  Ramsay  and  Abercromby  union  with 
mighty  England  had  the  look  of  selling  the 
national  birthright  of  independence  and  free- 
dom won  at  Bannockbum. 

A  minor  work  of  Abercrombv  was  a  trans- 
lation of  M.  Beaugu6's  '  Litistoire  de  la 
Guerre  d'Ecosse*(  1556)  as  follows:  *  The  His- 
tory of  the  Campagnes,  1548  and  1549 ;  being 
an  exact  account  of  the  martial  expeditions 
performed  in  those  days  by  the  Scots  and 
French  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  English  and 
their  foreign  auxiliaries  on  the  other ;  done 
in  French  by  Mons.  Beaugu6,  a  French  gentle- 
man: with  an  introductorv  preface  by  the 
Translator'  (1707).  The  '"^Preface '  is  well 
written.  The  original  was  reprinted  for  the 
MaitlandClubbvoneof  its  members  (Smythe 
of  Methuen),  wJio  betrays  slight  knowledge 
of  either  the  language  or  the  book,  or  ability 
to  judge  of  Abercromby*8  translation.  More 
recently  the  Comte  de  Montalembert  edited 
a  reproduction  (Bordeaux,  1862,  8vo). 

But  the  work  that  has  kept  Abercromby's 
name  alive  is  his  *  Martial  Atchievements  of 
the  Scots  Nation ;  being  an  account  of  the 
lives,  characters,  and  memorable  actions  of 
such  Scotsmen  as  have  signalized  themselves 
by  the  sword  at  home  and  abroad;  and  a 
siurvey  of  the  military  transactions  wherein 
Scotland  or  Scotsmen  have  been  remarkably 
concem'd,  from  the  first  Establishment  of 
the  Scots  Monarchy  to  this  present  Time/ 
This  extraordinary  work  occupies  two  great 
folios,  vol.  i.  1711,"^  vol.  ii.  1716.  The  author 
modestly  disclaimed  the  name  of  historian  in 
vol.  i.,  but  in  vol.  ii.  felt  entitled  to  assume 
it.  TTiere  is  much  of  myth  and  *  padding/ 
but  there  is  indubitably  much  more  of  genuine 
historical  and  biographical  research.  It  could 
not  have  been  otherwise ;  for  besides  his  own 
untiring  exertions  he  was  ably,  seconded  by 
Sir  Thomas  Craig,  Sir  George  Mackenzie, 
Alexander  Nisbet,  and  Thomas  Kuddiman — 
the  last  his  printer  (in  vol.  ii.).  With  every 
abatement  the  ^  Martial  Atchievements '  is  a 
book  of  which  Scotland,  at  least,  may  well 
be  proud.  Singularly  enough,  the  date  of  his 
death  is  still  uncertain.  It  has  been  assigned 
to  1715, 1716, 1720,  and  1726.  It  has  been 
alleged  that  he  left,  a  widow  in  great  poverty. 
In  1716  he  must  have  been  living,  for  Craw- 
ford, in  his  *  Peerage,'  calls  him  *  my  worthy 
friend.*  Probably  he  died  in  or  soon  after 
1716.  A  manuscript,  entitled  *  Memoirs  of 
the  Abercrombies,'  elaborately  drawn  up  by 
him,  seems  to  have  perished. 


[Works  H»  citeil ;  Anderson's  Scottish  Nation  ; 
A.  Chnhnerji's  Biog.  Diet. ;  G.  Chalmers's  Lift'  of 
Rudcliman,  pp.  68-9 :  Crawfurd's  Peerage  (1716), 
p.  167 ;  art.  in  Encyc.  Brit.  9th  td.  by  the 
present  writer.]  A.  B.  G. 

ABERCROMBY,  Sir  RALPH  (1734- 
1801),  the  general  who  shares  with  Sir  John 
Moore  the  credit  of  renewing  the  ancient 
discipline  and  military  reputation  of  the 
British  soldier,  was  bom  at  Meustry,  near 
Tullibody,  in  October  1734.  His  father  was 
a  descendant  of  the  family  of  Abercromby 
of  Birkenbog,  and  wtis  the  chief  whig  landed 
proprietor  in  the  little  Scotch  county  of 
Clackmannan.  Mr.  George  Abercromby  had 
married  a  Miss  Dundas,  and  had  thus  in- 
creased his  own  political  importance  and 
prepared  an  important  connection  for  his  son. 
Voung  Ralph  was  educated  at  Rugby,  and 
then  studied  law  at  the  universities  of  Edin- 
burgh and  Leipzig.  But  he  felt  such  a  dis- 
taste for  the  legal  profession,  that  his  father 
gave  way  to  him,  and  in  1756  procured  him 
a  cometcy  in  the  3rd  dragoon  guards.  In 
1758  he  accompanied  his  regiment  to  Ger- 
many, where  it  formed  part  of  the  English 
force  under  the  command  of  Prince  Ferdi- 
nand of  Brunswick,  the  victor  of  Minden, 
and  he  was  soon  appointed  aide-de-camp  to 
General  Sir  "William  Pitt.  He  now  saw  a  good 
deal  of  active  warfare,  and  had  a  good  oppor- 
tunity of  studying  the  advantages  and  essen- 
tials of  the  strict  discipline  of  the  Prussian 
system.  He  was  ])romoted  lieutenant  in  1760 
and  captain  in  176:^,  and  at  the  conclusion 
of  peace  went  with  his  regiment  to  Ireland. 
Here  he  was  stationed  for  several  years,  and 
had  an  opportunity  of  studying  that  countr}', 
which  stood  him  in  good  stead  at  the  most 
critical  period  of  his  military  career.  His 
life  continued  its  even  tenor  of  domestic 
and  military  occupation ;  and  the  prolonged 
life  of  his  father,  who  lived  till  the  advanced 
age  of  ninety-five,  saved  him  from  the  neces- 
sity of  retiring  from  the  service  and  looking 
after  the  paternal  estate.  In  1767  he  mar- 
ried Miss  Menzies,  witli  whom  lie  lived  very 
happily,  and  was  promoted  in  due  course 
major  m  1770,  and  lieutenant-colonel  in  1773. 

But  a  change  was  at  hand,  and  he  was 
asked  to  contest  the  county  of  Clackmannan, 
which  his  prrandfather  and  other  memljers  of 
his  familv  had  represented,  in  the  whig  in- 
terest, l^ie  election  was,  like  all  elections  in 
Scotland  at  the  time,  contested  with  extreme 
bitterness.  His  opponent,  Colonel  Erskine, 
was  supported  by  all  the  old  Jacobite  fami- 
lies, who  felt  a  |)ersonal  animosity  against 
the  whigs.  The  election  terminated,  as  often 
happened  at  this  time,  in  a  duel  between 


Abercromby 


44 


Abercromby 


the  two  candidates,  fortunately  without  any 
111  ishap  to  either  side,  and  Colonel  Abercromby 
was  returned  by  the  influence  of  his  relative, 
8ir  Lawrence  Dundas.  The  plunge  into 
politics  was  not  a  fortunate  one  for  Colonel 
Abercromby.  lie  refused  to  vote  for  the 
interests  and  at  the  bidding  of  his  powerful 
relative,  and  by  his  opposition  to  the  Ameri- 
can war  forfeited  all  chance  of  professional 
advancement.  This  opposition  was  the 
more  creditable  to  him,  as  he  longed  to  see 
service  at  the  head  of  his  regiment.  His 
brothers  did  not  feel  as  he  did,  and,  while 
James  Abercrombv  fell  at  Brooklvn,  llobert 
fought  his  way  to  high  honour  and  the  com- 
mand of  his  regiment.  At  last,  disgusted 
with  political  life,  lialph  Abercromby  gave  up 
his  seat  in  parliament  and  retired  in  favour  of 
his  brother  Burnet,  who  had  made  a  fortune 
in  India,  and  then,  retiring  to  Edinburgh, 
devoted  himself  to  the  education  of  Yiis 
children. 

The  war  with  France  destroyed  the  chance 
of  his  ending  his  life  as  a  colonel  on  half- 
pay.  He  had  no  hesitation  in  applying  for  a 
command,and,  having  a  great  mibtary  reputa- 
tionandmuch  parliamentary  influence,he  was 
at  once  promoted  major-general  and  ordered 
to  proceed  with  a  brigade  to  Flanders.  It  is 
not  necessary  to  go  into  the  details  of  the 
disastrous  campaigns  in  Flanders  under  the 
Duke  of  York,  but  m  every  engagement  Gene- 
ral Abercromby  distinguished  himself.  He 
iirst  made  liis  mark  at  Fumes,  commanded  the 
storming  column  at  the  siege  of  Valenciennes, 
and  was  publicly  thanked  by  the  Duke  of 
^'ork  for  his  conduct  at  Roubaix.  It  was  in 
the  retreat,  however,  that  he  was  most  con- 
8])icuou8.  When  tlie  Duke  of  York  returned 
1  ()  England,  liis  successors.  General  Ilarcourt 
and  General  Walmoden,  proved  incompetent, 
and  on  General  Abercromov,  who  commanded 
t  he  rear  column,  fell  the  real  burden  of  the  re- 
t  reat  of  the  dispirited  troops  before  the  impetu- 
ous onset  of  the  republican  army.  Under  him 
Lieutenant-colonel  Wellesley  commanded 
t  he  33rd  regiment,  and  learned  his  first  lesson 
in  the  art  of  war.  On  his  return  to  England 
in  the  beginning  of  1 795  he  was  made  a  knight 
of  the  Bath,  and,  almost  to  his  own  sur- 
prise, found  himself  considered  his  country's 
greatest  general.  He  had  learned  from  this 
<lisastrous  retreat  the  terrible  deterioration 
in  the  military  discipline  of  the  English  army. 
His  last  campaigns  had  been  those  of  Minden 
and  the  Seven  Y'ears*  war,  and  he  had  no 
difficulty  in  understanding  the  causes  of  the 
failure  of  the  English.  The  American  war 
of  itself  would  have  been  enough  to  sap  the 
discipline  of  any  army,  but  there  were  yet 
further  causes.     Tlie  American  war,  like  all 


civil  wars,  had  made  the  soldiery  more  fero- 
cious and  less  easy  of  control,  and,  like  all 
wars  abounding  in  defeats,  had  deprived  them 
of  confidence  in  victory;  and  at  the  beffinning 
of  the  French  war  they  had  no  strong  teelingfl 
to  animate  them,  and  no  esprit  de  corpato  U&» 
the  place  of  strong  feelings.  The  army  wu 
like  a  neglected  machine ;  its  officers  knew 
they  owed  their  grades  to  political  inflaence, 
and  the  ministers  were  not  slow  to  use  these 
grades  for  political  purposes ;  while  the  sol- 
aiers  were  regarded  as  an  unimportant  &etor 
in  an  army,  and  were  secured  and  provided 
for  as  cheaply  as  possible.  The  result  of 
such  corruption  and  false  economy  appeared 
in  Flanders.  Sir  Harry  Calvert,  a  keen  ob- 
server, who  afterwards  became  adjutant- 
general,  remarked  that  Abercrombyns  own 
brigade  consisted  of  old  men  and  weak  boys, 
and  reminded  him  of  FalstalTs  ragged  ruf- 
fians. 

In  November  1795  Abercromby  was  or- 
dered to  start  for  the  West  Indies  at  the 
head  of  15,000  men  to  reduce  tbe  French 
sugar  islands.  He  was  at  first  driven  back 
by  a  storm,  but  reached  Jamaica  early  in 
1/96.  He  at  once  set  about  his  task.  'He 
first  reduced  the  island  of  St.  Luciay  with 
its  great  and  hitherto  impregnable  fortreu 
of  Morne  Fortun^e,  and  left  his  ablest  lieu- 
tenant, Moore,  to  govern  his  acquisition. 
He  then  took  Demerara,  relieved  bt.  Vin- 
cent, and  reorganised  the  defences  both  of 
that  island  and  of  Grenada.  He  also  ex- 
amined the  condition  of  the  health  of  soldiers 
in  tlie  West  Indian  climate,  had  the  uniform 
altered  for  the  hot  climate,  forbade  parades 
in  the  heat  of  the  sun,  established  mountain 
stations  and  sanatoria,  and  encouraged  per- 
sonal valour  and  self-reliance  both  in  men 
and  officers,  by  giving  the  former  pecuniary 
rewards  and  small  civil  posts,  and  by  placing 
the  latter  on  the  staff,  even  when  not  re- 
commended by  the  authorities.  He  went 
home  for  the  summer,  but  returned  at  the 
end  of  1796  and  took  Trinidad,  of  which  he 
made  Colonel  Picton  governor.  He  failed, 
however,  at  Porto  Rico,  through  the  inade- 
quacy of  the  force  at  his  command,  and  then 
threw  up  his  command  from  ill-health. 

His  fame  was  more  assured  than  ever,  and 
he  was  sent  to  Ireland  in  December  1797  to 
command  the  troops  there.  He  had  had  a 
great  experience  of  the  state  of  Ireland  when 
his  regiment  was  stationed  there,  and,  know- 
ing what  he  did,  refused  to  be  hoodwinked  by 
the  oiHcials  at  Dublin  Castle,  or  to  connive 
at  their  schemes.  The  situation  was  a  peri- 
lous one.  The  English  cabinet  and  Lnsh 
officials  had  fixed  their  attention  on  the 
intrigues  of  the  leading  patriots  and  clnb 


Abercromby 


45 


Abercromby 


^ratorSy  rather  than  on  the  populace  who 
would  take  part  in  a  rebellion.  And  this 
populace  haa  been  inflamed  to  revolution 
pitch  more  by  the  arbitrary  and  cruel  pro- 
ceedings of  the  troops  in  Ireland  than  by  the 
declarations  of  demagogues  or  the  bribes  of 
the  French  directory.  The  late  commander- 
in-chief  Luttrell,  Lord  Carhampton,  had  been 
ferocious  enough,  but  it  was  rather  of  the  con- 
duct of  the  troops  than  of  their  commanders 
that  the  Irish  people  complained.  The  garrison 
of  Ireland  consisted  nearly  entirely  of  English 
and  Scotch  militia  and  protestant  Irish  yeo- 
manry. Without  the  discipline  of  soldiers, 
they  committed  most  fearnil  excesses,  and 
the  officials  wished  to  condone  their  offences 
because  the  militia  were  only  serving  in  Ire- 
land as  volunteers,  and  could  demand  to  be 
sent  home.  Abercromby  was  too  thorough  a 
soldier  to  meet  their  wishes,  and  on  26  Feb. 
17dd  issued  his  famous  general  order,  that 
the  militia  were  far  more  dangerous  to  their 
friends  than  their  enemies.  The  castle  soon 
wished  to  get  rid  of  this  obnoxious  Scotch- 
man who  would  abuse  their  yeomanry,  on 
which  they  depended,  and  try  to  remove  the 
militia^  whose  services  they  wanted,  and 
who  seemed  to  expect  that  the  Irish  peasants 
should  not  be  wantonly  ill-treated ;  the  au- 
thorities soon  made  a  pretty  quarrel  between 
him  and  Lord  Camden,  the  lord  lieutenant, 
on  which  Abercromby  resigned  his  command. 
He  soon  found  he  was  not  in  disgrace  at  home, 
for  he  was  at  once  appointed  commander  of 
the  forces  in  Scotlana. 

In  1799  he  was  summoned  to  London  by 
Mr.  Dundas  to  discuss  a  project  for  a  descent 
on  Holland.  He  was  appointed  to  command 
the  first  division,  and  was  informed  of  two 
distinct  projects.  The  first  was  to  co-operate 
with  a  fleet  in  captiuing  the  remnant  of  the 
Butch  fleet  which  had  been  beaten  at  Cam- 

Serdown,  and  the  second  to  make  a  powerful 
iversion,  with  the  help  of  the  Russians,  in 
favourof  the  Archduke  Charles  and  Suwaroff, 
who  were  both  marching  to  invade  France. 
On  18  Aug.  he  set  sail  with  his  division  of 
10,000  men,  effected  a  landing  at  the  Helder 
after  a  smart  action  on  27  Aug.,  and  on 
30  Aug.  heard  that  the  Dutch  fleet  had  sur- 
rendexed  to  Admiral  Mitchell,  though  nomi- 
nally to  the  Stadtholder.  Thus  the  first 
project  was  accomplished ;  the  second  could 
not  be  attempted  without  a  larger  force. 
On  10  Sept.  he  defeated  an  attack  made  on  his 
position  by  General  Daendels,  and  on  13  Sept. 
was  supereeded  by  the  Duke  of  York.  When 
the  Russians  had  disembarked,  the  duke  or- 
dered an  attack  on  Bersen,  which  took  place 
on  19  Sept.,  but  was  roiled  by  the  impetu- 
osity of  the  Russians,  On  2  Oct.  a  yet  more 


elaborate  attack  on  Bergen  failed.  In  this 
Abercromby  had  to  lead  the  right  column 
along  the  sand  to  £gmont-op-Zee.  He  wa& 
completely  successful  after  an  engagement 
in  which  he  had  two  horses  killed  under 
him,  but  the  operation  failed  through  the 
failure  of  the  other  columns.  These  mlures 
were  followed  on  20  Oct.  by  the  disgraceful 
convention  of  Alkmar,  by  which  the  English 
restored  their  prisoners,  on  condition  that 
they  should  be  allowed  to  embark  undis- 
turbed. This  failure  disgusted  Abercromby, 
but  the  ministry  were  so  pleased  with  the 
capture  of  the  fleet  that  they  wished  to  make 
him  a  peer  as  Lord  Egmont  or  Lord  Bergen, 
but  he  refused  indi^antly  to  have  his  name 
associated  with  a  disgraceful  failure. 

He  now  had  a  very  few  quiet  months  in 
his  command  in  Scotland,  wnere  he  was  im- 
mensely popular,  as  was  shown  by  his  un- 
opposed re-election  for  Clackmannan  durins^ 
his  absence  in  the  West  Indies ;  but  he  had 
for  ever  renounced  political  life,  and  resigned 
in  favour  of  his  brother  Robert.  He  was 
then  appointed  to  succeed  Sir  Charles  Stuart 
in  the  command  of  the  troops  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean. He  reached  Minorca  in  June  1800, 
but  the  battle  of  Marengo  prevented  his 
being  able  to  land  in  Italy  as  the  ministr}^ 
had  directed.  He  therefore  waited  for  orders, 
and  spent  his  time  in  trying  to  improve  the 
physical  condition  and  the  morale  of  his 
army.  Orders  at  last  came  for  him  to  pro- 
ceed to  Gibraltar,  absorb  a  force  under  Sir 
James  Pulteuey,  and  make  u  descent  on  Cadiz 
with  the  co-operation  of  Vice-admiral  Lord 
Keith.  He  accordingly  arrived  at  Cadiz  on 
3  Oct.  with  20,000  men,  but  failed  to  make 
a  landing.  The  causes  of  the  failure  have 
been  the  subject  of  bitter  controversy,  but  it 
may  be  asserted  that  no  blame  is  to  be  laid 
on  either  side.  Keith,  who  must  have  known, 
declared  the  anchorage  unsafe ;  Abercromby 
refused  to  land  unless  the  fleet  would  stop 
with  him  a  fortnight.  He,  however,  made 
an  attempt  to  land  on  fy  Oct.,  but,  owing  to 
the  slowness  of  the  men  in  getting  into  the 
boats,  not  more  than  3,000  men  could  have 
been  got  to  shore  in  a  whole  day,  and  it 
would  have  been  too  dangerous  to  leave  them 
unsupported.  Admiral  and  general  agreed, 
therefore,  to  retire.  The  latter  had  not  to 
wait  long  for  further  orders,  for  on  24  Oct.  he 
was  directed  to  proceed  witli  all  his  troops  to 
Egypt  to  expel  or  capture  the  French  army 
left  there  by  Napoleon.  He  reached  Malta 
on  19  Nov.,  ana  was  delighted  with  its 
power  of  defence,  about  which  he  wrote  to- 
the  government,  begging  them  to  make  Malta 
the  head-quarters  of  the  Mediterranean  army 
instead  ofMinorca.  On  13  Dec.  he  left  Malta,. 


Abercromby 


46 


Abercromby 


and  cast  anchor  in  the  bay  of  Marmorice  on 
'27  Dec.  Here  he  waited  six  weeks,  receiving 
some  slight  reinforcements,  and  discovering 
that  the  Turks  were  quite  useless  as  allies. 
But  while  waiting  he  looked  after  his  soldiers' 
health,  and  practised  disembarkments  until 
tlie  whole  force  thoroughly  understood  how 
to  promptly  disembark,  and  every  man  knew 
hiH  place  in  his  boat.  At  last,  jnviiig  up 
any  nope  of  assistance  from  the  Turks,  he 
set  sail  from  Marmorice  Bay  with  14,000  in- 
fantry, 1,000  cavalry,  and  600  artillery.  On 
2  March  he  anchored  in  Aboukir  Bay,  and 
on  8  March  effected  a  landing  in  force  in  a 
single  day,  thanks  to  former  practice.  The 
opposition  of  the  French  was  vigorous  enough 
to  show  Abercromby  he  had  no  mean  enemy 
to  encounter,  and  he  decided  to  march  slowly 
and  cautiously  to  Alexandria.  He  had  a 
couple  of  skirmishes  on  13  and  18  March,  and 
then  heard  that  the  French  general  Menou 
was  coming  out  to  attack  him.  On  21  March 
accordingly,  the  French  made  a  violent  at- 
tack, but  without  effect,  owing  to  the  splen- 
did conduct  of  Moore  and  his  division,  wlio 
held  the  right,  and  more  particularly  of  the 
28th  regiment.  In  the  end  Menou  was 
beaten  back  with  immense  loss,  including 
three  generals  killed,  while  the  English  loss 
was  only  1,464  killed  and  wounded.  Among 
the  latter  was  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby,  who, 
riding  in  front  in  his  usual  reckless  manner, 
was  wounded  in  the  thigh  by  a  musket-ball. 
He  was  carried  to  the  Foudroyant,  the  flag- 
ship. *  What  is  it  you  have  placed  under  my 
head  ? '  asked  the  woimded  general.  *  Only  a 
soldier's  blanket,*  answered  the  aide-de-camp, 
who  afterwards  became  Greneral  Sir  John 
Macd(mald.  *  Only  a  soldier's  blanket  ?  Make 
haste  and  return  it  to  him  at  once.'  When 
carried  on  board  he  seemed  to  rally,  but  the 
improvement  did  not  last,  and  on  28  March 
he  died  on  board  the  flagship.  He  was  buried 
at  Malta,  where  a  simple  monument  was 
erected  to  his  memory;  a  more  enduring 
monument  has  remained  in  the  peerage  con- 
ferred upon  his  wife  as  Baroness  Abercromby 
of  Tullibody  and  Aboukir  Bay;  but  the  most 
enduring  of  all  lies  in  his  unstained  honour 
as  a  soldier. 

When  Abercrombv  came  to  the  front  in 
the  campaign  in  Flanders,  England  had  not 
a  single  great  or  even  tolerable  general,  imless 
we  except  Lord  Cornwallis,  and  her  army  was 
in  a  terrible  state  of  degeneration.  "Wlien  he 
died,  after  having  served  in  every  important 
campaign,  he  left  many  a  worthy  successor 
and  an  army  second  to  none  in  everjrthing 
but  equipment.  He  formed  a  regular  scliool 
of  officers,  of  whom  may  be  mentioned  John 
Moore,  John  Hope  and  Robert  Anstrutlier, 


and  James  Kempt,  his  adjutant-general, 
quartermaster-general,  and  military  secre- 
tary in  Egypt,  Hildebrand  Oakes,  Thomas 
Graham,  Rowland  Hill,  Cradock,  Doyle, 
Edward  Paget,  and  his  own  sons,  John  and 
Alexander  Abercromby — as  goodly  a  collec- 
tion of  officers  as  ever  were  formed  by  any 
general.  It  is  more  difficult  to  breathe  the 
spirit  of  military  prowess  and  military  dis- 
cipline into  an  army  than  to  win  a  battle ; 
and  this  is  what  Abercromby  did.  No 
wonder,  tlien,  that  Moore  ancl  Hope  for 
instance,  probably  his  superiors  in  mditaiy 
ability,  did  not  ^udge  giving  him  the  credit 
for  such  victories  as  Mome  Fortun6e  and 
Alexandria,  which  they  really  won,  for  they 
looked  on  liim  as  the  regenerator  of  thie 
English  army.  No  biographv  of  Sir  Ralph 
would  be  complete  whicn  diet  not  notice  his 
extreme  short-sightedness,  almost  blindness, 
which  made  him  depend  for  sight  at  different 
times  on  Moore,  Kempt,  and  his  son  John, 
nor  yet  without  noticing  tlie  singular  sweet- 
ness and  purity  of  his  domestic  life,  which 
made  all  who  came  across  him,  from  the 
Duke  of  York,  whom  he  eclipsed,  to  Lord 
Camden,  with  whom  he  quarrelled,  acknow- 
ledge tlie  charm  of  his  society. 

Sir  Ralph  left  four  sons :  1.  Oeorge  Ralph, 
M.P.  for  Edinburgh  and  Clackmannan,  who 
succeeded  his  mother  as  Lord  Abercromby, 
1821;  2.  Lieutenant-general  Sir  John  Ab«^ 
cromby,  G.C.B.  ;  3.  James,  M.P.  for  Edin- 
burgli,  speaker,  and  flrst  Lord  Dunfermline ; 
4.  Alexander,  colonel,  C.B.,  M.P.,  &c. 

[The  beet  authority  for  his  life  is  a  short  Mfr* 
moir  of  his  Father  by  James,  Lord  Dunfermline, 
publibluHl  in  1861  ;  Imt  there  are  also  short  bio- 
graphies in  Gleig's  Eminent  British  Militaiy 
Commander^!,  vol.  iii.,  and  the  Royal  Military 
Piinoranui,  vol.  iii. ;  for  the  campaigns  in 
Flanders  set*,  l»e.sides  the  despatches.  Sir  H.  Cil- 
vt»rt's  Journtil ;  for  the  West  Indian  campaign^f 
sea  the  supplement  to  Bryan  Edwards's  mstory 
of  the  West  Indies,  and  the  Naval  Histories  of 
Brcntcmand  James;  for  the  expedition  to  ^^ypt 
consult  Moore's  Life  of  Sir  John  Moore,  the  ▼»- 
rious  contemporary  journals  and  magazines,  and 
more  particularly  Sir  Rolwrt  Wilson's  Expedi- 
tion to  Egypt.]  *  H.  M.  S. 

ABERCROMBY,  ROBERT  (15S4- 
1613),  a  Scotch  Jesuit,  who,  after  entering 
the  order,  spent  twenty-three  years  in  assist- 
ing catholics  abroad,  and  nineteenyears  on 
the  Scotch  mission,  where  he  suffered  im- 
prisonment. Father  Drew,  in  his  *  Fasti  S. 
J.,*  states  that  Abercromby  induced  Anne  of 
Denmark,  queen  of  James  I,  to  abjure  Lii- 
theranism,  and  to  die  in  the  profession  of  the 
catholic  faith.  A  reward  01  10,000  crowns 
was  offered  for  Iiis  apprehension;   but  he 


Abercromby  47  Abercromby 


?8cap6d,   and    died  at    Bransberg  College,    able  for  the  second  Kohilla  war  and  the  mu- 
27  April  1613.  tiny  of  the  officers  of  the  company's  service. 

[Oliver's  Collectanea  a  J.  16;  Foley's  RecoTds,  !  ,./ft^^<^e  reduction  of  the  wild  but  war- 
^\(^  2.1  T.  C.        "'^^  tribes  of  the  RohiUas  bv  the  orders  of 

Warren  Hastings  after  his  disgraceful  con- 

ABERCXEIOMBY,  Sir  ROBERT  (1740-  vention  with  the  Vizier  of  Oudh,  the  district 
1827),  military  commander,  was  born  at  of  Rampoor  was  given  to  Fyzoollah  Khan, 
Tullibody,  his  father's  seat  in  Scotland,  in  .  one  of  tne  Rohilla  chieftains.  On  his  death, 
1740,  and  was  a  younger  brother  of  the  i  in  1793,  the  Vizier  of  Oudh  wished  to  resume 
more  famous  Sir  Ralph.  His  desire  to  enter  this  district  for  his  master ;  but  the  governor- 
the  army  was  as  great  as  his  elder  bn>-  general  supported  the  claim  of  Mahommed 
ther's ;  and  while  Ralph  was  serving  in  Ger-  !  Ali  to  succeed  his  father,  Fyzoollah  Khan.  In 
many,  Robert  served  as  a  volunteer  in  North  ■  1794,  however,  Mahommed  Ali  was  murdered 
America  with  such  gallantry,  that,  after  i  by  a  relative  named  Gholam  Mahommed,  and 
the  battle  of  Ticonderoga  in  1758,  he  was  '  Abercromby  was  ordered  by  the  governor- 
appointed  an  ensign,  and  in  1759  a  lieutenant  |  general,  Sir  John  Shore,  to  punish  the  mur- 
in  the  44th  regiment.  He  was  present  at  the  derer.  Abercromby  advanced  with  a  small 
battle  of  Niagara  and  the  capture  of  Mont-  force,  and  after  a  long  and  well-contested 
real,  was  promoted  captain  in  1761,  and  re-  .  action  at  Battina  defeated  Gholam  Mahom- 
tired  on  half-pay  at  the  peace  in  1763.  He  med.  Ilis  own  ability  and  the  gallantry  of 
spent  some  quiet  years  in  Scotland,  but  on  his  troops  were  at  once  acknowledged  by  Sir 
toe  breaking  out  of  the  war  with  the  Ame-  John  Shore ;  but  he  was  censured  for  admit- 
rican  colonies  felt  none  of  the  political  scru-  ting  the  murderer  to  terms, 
pies  of  his  brother  Ralph,  and  at  once  offered  ,  The  other  important  event  of  his  command 
nis  serA'ices  to  the  gfovemment.  They  were  '  was  the  mutiny  of  the  company's  officers, 
gladly  accepted,  because  of  the  numerous  re-  This  was  chiefly  caused  by  their  being  always 
tirements  of  officers  from  political  reasons,  regarded  as  inferior  to  the  king's  officers, 
and  in  1772  he  was  appointed  major  in  the  though  often  in  command  of  more  service- 
62nd  regiment,  and  in  1773 lieutenant-colonel  able  regiments,  w^Iiich  deprived  them  of  any 
of  the  3i  th.  He  served  with  great  distinc-  chance  of  obtaining  the  more  lucrative  ap- 
tion  throughout  the  war,  and  was  present  at  pointments  in  the  garrison  or  the  field, 
the  battles  of  Brooklyn,  where  his  brother  Abercromby's  mildness  and  good  temper 
James  was  killed,  Brandywine  and  German-  served  him  in  good  stead,  and  where  a  mar- 
town,  at  the  occupation  of  Charleston,  and  tinet  would  have  given  rise  to  a  regular  re- 
the  capitulation  of  Yorktown.  His  services  hellion  he  managed  to  control  the  snirit  of 
were  tne  more  appreciated  from  his  brother  s  disaffection  till  the  arrival  of  new  regulations 
well-known  pobtical  opinions,  and  in  1781  from  England.  He  was  now  suffering  so 
he  waa  promoted  colonel,  and  made  aide-de-  much  from  a  disease  of  the  eyes  that  he  was 
camp  to  the  king.  In  1787  he  was  made  obliged  to  return  home  in  April  1797.  The 
colonel  of  the  75th  regiment,  and  in  1788  best  character  of  himself  and  of  the  tenor 
accompanied  it  to  India.  :  of  his  command  in  India  is  contained  in  the 

In  India  during  the  next  nine  years  he  won  i  following  passage  from  a  private  letter  of  the 
his  chief  military  renown.  In  1790  he  was  governor-general.  Sir  Jonn  Shore  :  *  My  re- 
govemor  and  commander-in-chief  at  Bombay  t  spect  for  Sir  Robert.  Abercromby  has  in- 
and  was  directed  by  Lord  Comwallis  to  co-  creased  with  my  knowledge  of  his  character, 
operate  with  him  in  his  attack  on  Mysore.  |  What  he  was  at  Bombay  I  know  not ;  he  has 
He  first  occupied  with  his  forces  the  Malabar  been  here  mild,  conciliatory,  and  unassuming 
coast,  and  not  without  some  resistance  from  from  the  first,  and  it  is  only  justice  to  him  to 
the  independent  chieftains  who  either  feared  ,  declare  that  a  more  honourable,  upright,  and 
or  loved  Tippoo  Sultan,  and  in  1792  marched  :  zealous  man  never  served  the  company.  I 
up  from  the  west  to  meet  Lord  Cornwallis  !  assure  you  with  great  truth  that  I  have  ever 
before  Seringapatam.  His  march  was  com-  found  him  anxious  to  promote  the  public 
plet^ly  successml,  and  Tippoo  had  to  sign    good,  either  by  his  own  efforts  or  those  of 


the  tripartita  treaty  of  Senngapatam.  For 
his  eminent  services  he  was  made  a  knight 
of  the  Bath,  and  appointed  to  succeed  Lord 
Comwallis  as  commander-in-chief  of  the 
forces  in  India.  He  left  Bombay  in  November 

1792,  but  did  not  become  commander-in-chief 
till  the  departure  of  Comwallis  in  October 

1 793.  His  term  of  office  was  chiefly  remark- 


others.  I  certainly  do  not  think  his  abilities 
equal  to  his  situation,  and  there  are  few  men 
wlio  have  abilities  equal  to  it ;  but  I  believe 
that  his  have  been  under-estimated,  and  that 
his  greatest  fault  is  his  good  nature.  He 
will  retire  with  a  very  moderate  fortune,  for 
money  was  never  his  object :  he  thinks  too 
Uttleofit.' 


Abercromby 


48 


Abernethy 


He  was  promoted  lieutenant-general  in 

1797,  elected  M.P.  for  the  county  of  Clack- 
mannan in  the  place  of  his  brother  Ralph  in 

1798,  was  made  governor  of  Edinburgh  Castle 
in  1801,  and  a  general  in  1802.  His  increasing 
blindness  maae  it  impossible  for  him  ever 
again  to  take  active  service,  and  obligred  him 
to  resign  his  seat  in  parliament  in  1802.  He 
lived  to  the  age  of  87,  and  died  at  Airthrey, 
near  Stirling,  in  November  1827,  bein^  at 
the  time  the  oldest  general  in  the  British 
army.  He  does  not  seem  to  have  possessed 
the  abilities  of  his  brother  Sir  Kalpn,  but  al- 
ways did  well  whatever  he  had  to  do.  As 
an  Indian  ^neral  of  that  period  Sir  John 
Shore's  testimony  to  his  incorruptibility  is 
the  highest  praise  for  a  time  wnen  a  com- 
mand m  India  was  regarded  as  an  opportu- 
nity for  making  a  fortune. 

[For  Robert  Abercpomby's  services  see  the 
Royal  Military  Calendar,  1820,  vol.  i. ;  for  the 
campaigns  in  Mysore  see  Comwallis's  Corre- 
spondence, published  1861 ;  and  for  his  command- 
in-chief  in  India  the  Life  of  John,  Lord  Teign- 
mouth,  by  his  son.]  H.  M.  S. 

J     ABERDEEN,  Earls  OF.    [See  Gordon.] 

ABERGAVENNY.     [See  Neville.] 

ABERNETHY,  JOHN  (1680-1740), 
Irish  dissenting  clergyman,  was  bom  at  Cole- 
raine,  co.  Londonderry,  Ulster,  on  19  Oct. 
1680.  His  father  was  then  presbyterian 
minister  there.  His  mother  was  a  daughter 
of  Walkinshaw  of  Walkinshaw,  Renfrew- 
shire, Scotland. 

In  his  ninth  year,  on  occasion  of  his  father's 
being  sent  to  London  as  representative  of 
the  Irish  presbyterian  church  in  affairs  that 
concerned  them,  his  mother  removed  to 
Londonderry,  whilst  he  was  sent  to  a  rela- 
tive in  Ballymena  (or  Ballymenagh).  This 
was  in  1689.  To  escape  the  rebellion  and 
turbulence  and  confusion  of  the  times,  the 
ri'lative  proceeded  to  Scotland,  and  carried 
Master  John  with  him,  having  *  no  opportu- 
nity of  conveying  him  to  his  mother.'  lie  was 
thus  delivered  from  the  horrors  and  perils  of 
tlie  famous  siege  of  Derrj-,  in  which  Mrs. 
Abernethy  lost  all  her  other  children.  His 
education  was  continued  in  Scotland  for  three 
years.  He  then  returned  to  Coleraine ;  but 
in  his  thirteenth  year  he  is  again  found  in 
Scotland  as  a  student  at  the  university  of 
Glasgow.  He  himself  condemned  the  un- 
wisdom of  this  premature  sending  of  liim  to 
tlie  university.  His  career  in  Glasgow  was 
a  brilliant  one.  He  must  have  been  specially 
precocious  in  wit.  He  took  his  degree  of 
M.A.  with  much  Sclat 

At  this  time  his  leanings  were  towards  the 


study  of  medicine  or  physic.  He  was  per- 
suaded  b^  his  parents  and  other  firiends  to 
devote  himself  to  divinity.  Upon  this  de- 
cision he  went  to  Edinburgh  univerBity* 
His  distinction  at  Glasgow  college  and  his 
social  attainments  preceded  him.  He  was 
at  once  admitted  into  the  innermost  circle  of 
the  cultured  society  of  Edinburgh.  The 
imvarying  tradition  is  that  he  excelled  as  t 
conversationalist,  drawing  forth  the  wonder 
of  ffrave  professors  (e.g.  of  Professor  Camp- 
bell) and  the  more  perilous  homage  of  fair 
ladies'  bright  eyes. 

Patriotically  and  modestly  putting  aside- 
opportunities  presented  in  Scotland,  at  the 
close  of  his  theological  course  he  returned 
to  Coleraine.  He  there  prosecuted  his  studies- 

Erivately.  In  a  short  time  he  was  licensed 
y  his  presbytery  to  preach  the  gospel 
But  being  still  imder  twenty-one,  he  pro- 
ceeded to  Dublin  that  he  might  get  the 
advantages  of  further  classical  and  theologi- 
cal study.  When  he  left  for  the  capital,  he 
was  practically  under  '  call '  to  the  (presby- 
terian) church  at  Antrim ;  but  naving 
preached  in  Wood  Street,  Dublin,  that  con- 
gregation eagerly  sought  to  associate  him 
as  co-pastor  with  the  Kev.  Mr.  Boyse,  who 
was  held  in  high  esteem.  There  was  th^t 
competition  between  the  two  congregations. 
According  to  use  and  wont  the  synod  was  left 
to  decide.  In  the  interval  the  competitton 
was  complicated  by  a  third '  call '  on  the  death 
of  his  venerable  father,  from  his  father's  con- 
gregation of  Coleraine.  The  synod  deter- 
mined in  favour  of  Antrim,  and  he  was  there 
ordained  on  8  Aug.  1708.  His  admiring  bio- 
grapher (Duchal)  tells  of  such  quantity  and 
quality  of  work  done  in  Antrim  as  few  oonld 
have  achieved.  He  toiled  and  witnessed  as 
a  primitive  apostle  might  have  done.  By 
the  mass  of  his  intellect,  united  withun* 
eq  ualled  alertness  of  perception  and  fluency 
01  expression,  he  was  marked  out  for  a  de^ 
bat«r;  and  perhaps  no  ecclesiastical  courts 
in  Christendom  afford  finer  opportunities  for 
an  able  debater  than  the  synoos  and  general 
assemblies  of  the  presbyterian  churches. 
But  he  was  more  than  a  debater.  His  whole 
soul  and  heart  were  fired  with  zeal  on  be- 
half of  his  ignorant  and  superstitious  fellow* 
countrymen ;  and  it  is  clear  on  perusal  of 
the  *  Records '  that  he  lifted  the  entire  Irish 
presbyterian  church  to  a  higher  level  of  duty 
than  ever  before. 

Wlien  he  had  been  nine  years  in  Antrim, 
he  was  called  to  Londonderry,  but  rejoioed 
when  the  synod  retained  him  in  his  origi- 
nal charge.  In  1712  the  darkest  shadoir 
of  his  lite  fell  broad  and  black  upon 
the  death  of  his  wife,  whose  maiden 


Aberneihy  49  Abemethy 

was  SiMwnnfth  Jordan,  lesriiig  one  son  and  Boy;ie  and  Chappin,  of  Dublin,  and  others. 
;hree  daughters.  A*  Diarv' — m»Mges  of  which  The  effort  was  vain.  In  17^  the '  non-«ub- 
ire  giTen  in  Duchal's  *Life  — ^b^ernn  at  thii<>  scribers'  were  *cut  off*  fh>m  the  ministry* 
iateCFebu  171:2-13)  reveals  how  intenaewatf  and  membership  of  the  Irish.  prvsbTterian 
Ilia  deaolation  and  sorrow,  and  equally  how  church,  and  formed  themselve^i  into  a  separate 
reaming  and  devout  was  his  *walk  with  presbyterv.  Sorrowful  heart-burnings  and 
Sod.'  lus  passionate,  because  compassionate,  feuds  followed.  There  can  be  no  i[ue«tion 
ronoem  for  the  Roman  Catholics  was  most  that,  consciously  or  unct^nsciouslv,  Abemethy 
remarkable,  and  his  labours  abundant.  In  now  sowed  the  seed  whiv^  blisshil  or  baleful 
1717  he  was  again  involTed  in  competing  harvest  (according  to  opinion)  had  to  be  cut 
claims  for  him  as  minister.  First  there  came  down  by  the  illustrious  Dr.  Henry  Cooke 
A  call  from  the  ccmgregation  of  Ushers  fullv  a  century  later.  But  the  *  non-t^ub- 
f)uay,  DnUin,  in  conjunction  with  the  Rev.  scribing*  presbyterians  still  exist  as  unita- 
Mr.Arbudde.   Then,  almost  simultaneously,    rians. 

A  like  'call'  from  the  old  congregation  at  In  1730  he  accepted  a  call  to  Wood 
Belfast.  In  the  free  of  both,  ^Vntrim  de-  Street  congregation  in  Dublin,  on  the  death 
%ired  to  retain  its  beloved  pastor.  As  be-  of  Mr.  Boyse.  And  here  his  fame  «$  a  pul- 
fore,  the  s^'nod  decided  the  matter  and  a:»-  pit  orator  won  back  for  him  his  original  iit- 
iigned  him  to  Dublin.  This  threw  Abemethy  fluence.  His  sermons  were  now  noted  for 
into  no  common  agitation  and  perplexity,  their  pathos.  Here  he  married  a  Miss  B«)iil 
Aitertarryinj^  three  months  at  Usners  Quay  (or  Boyd),  and  was  again  happy  in  his 
ma  an  experimental  or  observing  visit,  he    choice. 

felt  that  Antrim  had  the  first  cLiim  upon  In  1731  came  on  the  greatest  of  all  the 
Kim,  and  resolved  accordingly,  spite  of  the  controversies  in  which  Abemethy  engagtKl. 
inpointment  of  the  general  synod.  AMien  The  occasion  was  tlie  notorious  Test  Act : 
liis  resolution  to  remain  at  Antrim  was  but  the  contest  grew  to  a  demand  for  repeal 
bruited  abroad,  it  was  as  though  an  eccle-  of  all  tests  and  disabilities.  The  stand 
iiiastical  earthquake  shook  the  Irish  presby-  taken  was  '  against  all  laws  that,  upim  at^- 
terian  church.  Such  a  thing  as  disobedience  count  of  mere  differences  of  religious  opinions 
to  a  decision  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  and  forms  of  worship,  excluded  men  of 
irhurch  never  had  been  heard  or  dreamed  of  integrity  and  ability  from  serving  their 
us  possible.  But  Abemethy  stood  firm;  and  country'.'  He  was  far  ahead  of  his  age.  He 
from  less  to  more  the  thing  grew  to  an  as-  .  had  to  reason  with  the  episcopal  church, 
fiertion  of  resistance  to  mere  authority,  or,  [  which  held  presbyterians  for  *  schisma- 
fts  it  ultimately  ran,  *  the  tyrannical  exercise  ,  tics,'  and  with  others  who  had  to  be  con- 
nf  ecclesiastical  power.'  His  convict  ions  were  vinced  that  it  was  possible  for  'protestant 
coloured,  if  not  shaped,  bj*  Bishop  Hoadly's  dissenters'  and  Roman  Catholics  to  be ^ men 
famous  sermon  on  the  *  Kingdom  of  Christ.' '  of  integrity  and  ability.'  John  Abernethy's 
Henceforward  he  stood  forth  uncompromis-  j  is  a  venerable  name  to  all  who  love  freedom 
ingly  for  religious  freedom,  and  disowned  '  of  conscience  and  opinion.  He  died  in  De- 
the  sacerdotal  assumptions  of  church  courts,  '  cember  1740.  Tlie  works  of  Abt»methy, 
higher  or  lesser,  llie  minister  of  Antrim  other  than  his  ecclesiastical  writings,  an» 
promulgated  his  new  opinions  in  an  associa-  |  *»till  noticeable.  The  *  Bi(>graphia  Britunnicn ' 
tion  of  like-minded  presbyterians,  called  T^e  '  furnishes  full  details.      Ilis  *  Discourses  nn 


Belfa$t  Society.  The  issue  was  a  division  of 
the  one  camp  of  Presbyterianism  into  two, 
known  historically  as  subscribers  and  non- 
Aubscribers.  Abemethy  was  at  the  head  of 
the  latter. 

In  1719  Abemethy's  opinions  and  senti- 
ments fotmd  memorable  expression  in  a  ser- 
mon on  the  text  (Romans  xiv.  5) :  '  Let  everv' 
man  be  fully  persuaded  in  his  own  mind,'  in 
which  he  nobly  vindicated  private  judgment 
tnd  christian  liberty;  but  it  was  as  fuel 
ftdded  to  fire.  The  jealousies  waxed  fast 
And  furious.  A  breach  or  schism  was 
threatened.  To  arrest  it  if  possible,  he  pub- 
lished '  Seasonable  Advice  to  the  contending 
Parties  in  the  North.'  This  was  accompanied 
with  a   'Preface' — an  admirable  one — by 


the  Divine  Attributes '  and  his  *  Posthumous 
Sermons'  (4  vols.)  are  still  valued.  His 
collected  'Tracts*  (1751),  when'in  he  mea- 
sures swords  with  Swift  himself  triumphant  Iv , 
carry  in  them  truths  and  principles  great fy 
in  advance  of  the  age. 

[Life,  by  Duchal,  pn*fixed  to  Strmoiis  (1762); 
Kippis's  BiographiH  BritaDnieu  :  Irish  IVi^byto- 
rian  Church ;  Eeids  Prwjbytorinn  Church  in 
Ireland,  iii.  234,  seq. ;  MS.  Diary,  6  vols.  4to.] 

A.  B.  G. 

ABERNETHY,  JOHN  (1764-1831),  au 
eminent  surg^eon,  was  bom  in  I>ondon  \\  April 
1764,  the  son  of  John  Abemethv,  a  Lonuon 
merchant  belon^ug  to  an  Irisli  family  of 
Scotch  extraction,  whose  father  and  grand- 
father, both  of  the  same  name,  were  Irish 


VOL.  I.  B 


Abernethy 


50 


Abernethy 


nonconformist  divines,  the  second  in  descent 
especially  being  of  some  eminence.    Claims 
have  been  made  both  for  Ireland  and  for 
Scotland  as  the  native  country  of  Aber- 
nethy ;  but  his  baptismal  certificate,  dated 
24  April  1766,  at  St.  Stephen's,  Walbrook, 
is  given  by  Macilwain  (lAfe  of  Abernethy ^  i. 
16),  who  states  other  facts  on  the  authority  of 
Abernethy  himself.  He  was  educated  at  the 
Wolverhampton  Grammar  School  under  Dr. 
Robertson,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen  was  ap- 
prenticed to  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  Charles) 
blicke,  surgeon  to  St.  Bartholomew's  Hos- 
pital.    He  followed  the  surgical  practice  of 
the  hospital  and  also  the  course  on  surgery 
(the  only  lectures  then  given  there)  of  Mr. 
Pott.    At  the  same  time  he  attended  the 
lectures  on  anatomy  given  at  the  London 
Hospital  by  Dr.  Maclaurin  and  Sir  William 
Blizard,  the  latter  of  whom  by  his  instruc- 
tions, and  further  by  appointing  Abernethy 
prosector  for  his  lectures,  gave  him  his  first 
impulse  to  the  study  of  anatomy.     In  1787 
he  was  elected  assistant-surgeon  to  St.  Bar- 
tholomew's, and  held  this  appointment  for 
twenty-eight  years  till  he  succeeded  as  full 
surgeon.    He  then  began  to  lecture  on  ana- 
tomv  at  his  house  in  Bartholomew  Close, 
and  speedily  attracted  a  laive  class,  the 
numbers  of  which  were  swol&n  when  Dr. 
Marshall,    the     most    popular    anatomical 
teacher  in  the  city,  ceased  to  lecture.    Aber- 
nethy's  success  was  one  of  the  causes  which 
induced  the  governors  of  St.  Bartholomew's 
to  build  a  lecture  theatre,  where  in  1791  he 
began  to  lecture  on  anatomy,  physiology, 
ana  surj^ery,  and  thus  became  the  founder  of 
the  medical  school  attached  to  that  ancient 
hospital    About  this  time  he  was  himself  a 
diligent  attendant  at  the  lectures  of  John 
Hunter,  with  whom  he  had  also  private 
conferences  on  scientific  matters,  and  whose 
influence  greatly  determined  the  bent  of  his 
mind. 

Throughout  this  period  Abemethv  was 
much  occupied  with  anatomical  and  physio- 
logical observations,  and  published  three  short 
papers  on  anatomical  subjects  in  the  *"  Philo- 
sophical Transactions'  from  1798  to  1798. 
In  1796  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Koyal 
Society.  In  1814  he  was  appointed  to  lecture 
on  anatomy  and  physiology  at  the  College  of 
Surgeons  (there  was  no  regular  professorship), 
and  held  the  office  till  1817.  His  lectures 
were  mainly  devoted  to  explaining  the 
Hunterian  museum,  then  lodged  in  the  col- 
lege, and  to  expounding  the  views  of  John 
Ilunter,  of  whose  theory  of  life  Abernethy 
constituted  himself  an  ardent  champion. 

In  1800  he  married  Miss  Anne  Threlfall, 
of  Edmonton,  by  whom  he  left  a  family. 


Abemethy's  scientific  reputation  and  his 
popularity  as  a  teacher  grew  rapidly,  and  big 
pnvate  practice  was  sul^equentiy  \eiy  large. 
In  1815  he  became  full  surgeon  to  St.  Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital,  and  resigned  this  ap- 
pointment in  1827.  He  died  after  a  lingei^ 
ing  illness  at  Enfield  28  April  1831. 

Abernethy  enjoyed  dunug  his  lifetime 
the  highest  reputation  as  a  surgeon,  anato- 
mist, and  physiologist,  and  exercised  great 
influence  on  his  profession.  Thou^  his 
reputation  has  not  quite  stood  the  test  of 
time,  his  influence  is  still  felt  in  certain  de- 
partments of  practice.  In  anatomy  he  did 
no  original  work  of  any  value,  but  was  a  veir 
brilliant  lecturer,  ana  as  such  instructed 
most  of  the  eminent  men  of  the  coming 

feneration.  As  a  physiologist  he  became 
nown  for  some  desultory  and  not  very  im- 
portant researches,  but  chiefly  as  the  defender 
of  John  Hunter,  whose  views,  after  his  death 
and  before  the  posthumous  publication  of  his 
lectures,  Abemethv  had  almost  a  monopoly 
in  expounding.  As  an  operating  surgeon 
Abernethy  early  became  distin^piished  for 
extending  John  Hunter's  operation  for  the 
cure  of  aneurism  (by  li^ture  at  a  distance) 
by  tying  the  external  iliac  arteij.  This  was 
in  1/97,  but  he  afterwards  attained  no  ffreat 
fame  as  an  operator — a  fact  which  may  have 
been  partly  aue  to  his  long  tenure  01  office 
as  assistant-surgeon  where  few  opportunities 
were  allowed  him.  In  later  life  ne  became 
extremely  averse  to  operate.  His  other  chief 
contributions  to  practical  surgery  were  a 

Saper  on  injuries  to  the  head,  in  which  he 
eprecated  the  indiscriminating  use  of  the 
trephine,  which  was  at  that  time  customar]^; 
ana  an  important  improvement  which  he  m- 
troduced  in  the  opening  of  lumbar  abscesses 
by  early  incision  without  admitting  air.  His 
memoir  on  the  Classification  of  Tumours 
deserves  perhaps  more  attention  than  it  has 
received.  It  is  a  rough  but  masterly  sketch, 
quite  in  the  spirit  of  recent  investigations,  and 
had  it  been  more  carefully  worked  out  inight 
have  been  of  great  value.  But  the  work  by 
which  he  was  best  known,  and  on  which  he 
would  himself  have  rested  his  fame,  is  the 
Essay  on  the  Constitutional  Origin  of  Local 
Diseases,  which  has  profoundly  influenced 
surgical  practice.  The  title  implies  a  truth 
little  recognised  when  the  essay  first  ap- 

E eared,  though  now  universally  admittea; 
ut  the  scope  of  the  work  does  not  bear  out 
the  title.  At  the  present  day  the  constitu- 
tional origin  of  diseases  is  conceived  of  in  a 
different  and  far  wider  sense  than  it  was  by 
Abernethy,  whose  work  deals  almost  entirely 
with  the  relations  of  local  diseases  to  certain 
disorders  of  the  digestive  system.    The  first 


sketch  of  tliia  p^T  upiH'an)H  in  ■  SuikiiuiI 
Obeervatiou,' part  ii.  (IW)fi);  it  wa*  iifl«P- 
wuds  piibliahea  in  a  more  completK  furm  in 
SiugicAl  Works,"  vol.  i,  (1811).  In  it  he 
>.howa  thttt  on  thtr  oiii.'  hand  local  irrilatioii 
will  pTodnoe  disorders  of  the  digestive  or- 
gans. Mid  thnl  this  takes  plac«  hy  a  reflected 
operation  ihrouf^h  the  nervous  e^em  (jip. 
ti-10).  On.  the  DtLer  band,  he  iusists  u{H>n 
ttw  variety  of  diseases  which  may  rei«ull. 
bom  dieorderB  of  the  digestive  organs,  such 
S4  ■  diminution  of  I  he  funirtians  of  the  brain, 
or  delirium,  partial  nervoiu  inactivity  and 
inten«bility,  muscular  weakness,  tremon. 
palsy,  cunvalsions  .  .  .'  '  ,Uso  local  diseases 
in  audi  a  eonstilution  will  become  peculiar 
in  their  nature  and  difficult  of  cure'  (p.  61). 
Although  evincing  great  power  of  generaliaa- 
cion,  these  viaws  were  clearly  extravagant 
and  one-sid^  '  Id  his  lectures  and  praclice,' 
Myg  a  witness  of  the  liifchest  authority  )^4ir 
James  Paget),  Aberuethy  •simplified  slill 
more,  and  «e«mad  to  hold  only  that  alt  local 
diseaiee  which  ore  not  the  immediate  conse- 
[iuenc«  of  accidental  injur}'  ore  the  results  of 
diaordem  of  the  digestive  organs,  and  are  iiU 
lo  be  cured  by  attention  to  the  diet,  by 
smaU  do*es  of  mercury,  and  by  pu^i^tives.' 
Tkeiie  views  were  not  only  imparted  by 
Ab«rnethy  to  the  profession,  but  impreswed 
upon  hia  private  patieuls.  who  were  referred 
lo  'page  seventy-two  of  my  book,  published 
by  Ursbib.  Longman  ;'  while  the  medicinal 
treatment  indicated  nbovo,  which  has  become 
known  all  over  the  world  as  characteristic  of 
English  practice,  suited  admimbly  the  well- 
fed  and  free-li-ring  Tiondnners  who  crowded 
faie  consuIting-riMim.  On  the  surgeons  of  hJH 
time  the  'system'  hod  a  happv  effect  in 
leading  them  to  study  the  general  health  of 
their  patients,  and  it  maybe  said  to  have 
introduced  a  new  principle  into  surgical 
practice  in  EnKlaud. 

The  secret  of  Abemethy's  ascendency  over 
the  profession  is  not,  however,  to  be  found  in 
hi«  bonks,  which,  tbou^ h  clearly  written,  are 
Himsy  in  texture.  They  contain  fewer  valu- 
able obserrationB  than  those  of  many  men 
who  have  made  much  le^a  hgurein  the  world, 
and  are  quite  wanting  in  that  beet  orinnality 
which  is  based  upon  thnrouchneee  of  inves- 
tigation. •Indeeu.'saj'sSir  James  Paget, 'for 
(he  obtwrvation  of  particular  facts,  and  for 
the  Dtrict  induction  of  general  truths  from 
I  hem,  hia  mind  was  altogether  unauited :  for 
he  wa*  naturally  indolent,  and  early  success 
rendered  ind  ustiy  unnecessary.'  So  that  to 
a  gtndeot  of  the  present  day  Abemethj's 
writings  ar<?  disappointing,  and  his  celcbnty 
an  enigma. 

The  solution  of  the  mystery  is  to  be  found 


rigorous  and  attractive  per«OQulity,  and 
in  a.  power  of  exposition  to  which  cont«mpo- 
mriea  have  borne  striking  testimony.  Sir 
Benjamin  Brodie  writes: '  Mr.  .^bemHlhj  was 
un  iid[nimblet«aclier.  He  kept  up  our  atten- 
tion so  that  it  never  llugged  ;  and  (hat  which 
he  told  us  could  not  be  forgotten,  He  did 
nut  tell  us  so  much  as  other  lecturers,  but 
what  he  did  he  told  us  well-  His  lectures 
were  full  of  originnl  thought,  of  luminous 
id  ulmoBi  poetical  illustrations,  the  Tedious 


detiuls  of  d 


e  anatomy  being  ncca- 


Hiunalty  relieved  by  appropriate  and  omusing 
anecdotps.  .  .  .  Like  most  of  Uis  jiupils,  I 
learned  to  look  upon  him  as  a  being  of  a 
superior  order'  (BroDib's  Autobiography, 
p.  23).  lie  seems,  indeed,  to  have  possessed 
enough  of  the  arte  of  the  advocate  and  the 
actor  to  secure  unheaitatin?  acceptance  fur 
whatever  he  ehose  to  put  forth.  '  He  re- 
ser^ed  all  his  enthusiasm,'  says  Dr.  Latham, 
■for  his  peculiar  doctrine.  He  bo  reasoned  it, 
so  acted,  so  dramalised  it,  and  then  in  his 
own  droll  way  he  so  disparaged  the  more 
laborious  searchers  after  truth,  calling  them 
contemptuously  "  the  Doctors,"  and  so  dis- 
ported himself  with  ridicule  of  every  system 
but  his  own,  that  we  accepted  his  doctrine 
in  aU  its  fulness.  We  should  have  been 
oshamed  to  do  otherwise.  We  voted  our- 
selves by  acclamation  the  profoundeat  of 
medical  philosophers  at  the  easy  rate  of  one 
half-hour's  instniction.  ...'We  never  left 
his  lecture-room  without  thinking  him  the 
prince  of  pathologists,  and  ourselves  only 
just  one  degree  below  him.' 

To  this  should  be  added  that  such  admira- 
tion was  not  wosted  on  an  unworthy  cha- 
racter, Alwrnelhy  was  a  man  of  blameless 
life,  highly  honourable  in  all  his  dealings, 
generous  to  those  in  need  of  help,  incapable 
of  meanness  or  servility.     His  olunt  inde- 

Sendence  and  horror  of  'humbug'  were 
ouhtless  among  the  factors  uf  that  rudeness 
and  even  brutality  of  manner  for  which  he 
was  notorious,  and  of  which  many  stranffe 
stories  are  told.  Thisdefectwas  fostered  tn 
a,  physical  irritability  probably  connected 
witSi'thelatent  heart-disease  which  ul  1  imalely 
closed  his  life.  In  the  end  it  seems  to  have 
become  a  wilful  and  almost  calculated  eccen- 
tricity, in  which  he  was  confirmed  by  the 
experience  that  a  mnaterly  roughness  com- 
manded the  confidence  of  his  parienta  even 
belter  than  an  amiability,  posubly  suggestive 
(if  wenhneas.  would  have  conciliated  it. 

The  following  is  a  condensed  list  of  Aber- 
nethy's  writings.  .4.11  but  one  are  in  octavo, 
and  ^published  in  London:  1.  'Surgical  and 
Physiological  Essays.'  Part  i.  On  Lumbar 
Abscess,  kc,  1793;  Part  ii.  On  Matter  p^r- 


Abershaw  52  Abington 


spired,  &c.,  by  the  Skin,  1 793 ;  Part  iii.  Injuries  On  Monday,  3  Aug.  1795,  Abershaw  was 

ofthe  Head,  &c.,  1797.   2. '  Surgical  Ob8er\'a-  banged  on  Eennington  Common;  his  body 

tions  on  Tumours,*  &c.,  1804.     Part  ii.  Dis-  was  afterwards  set  on  a  gallows  on  Putney 

orders  of  the  Digestive  Organs,  &c.,  1806.  Common.  The  coolness  with  which  Aber- 
3.  *  Surgical  Works '  (containing  the  surgical ,  sliaw  met  his  death  prolonged  his  notoriety, 

papers  of  the  above,  with  additions),  2  vols,  and   Ids  name  was  commonly  used  as  t 

1811,  and  later.  4.  'Account  of  Disease  in  synonym  for  a  daring  thief  in  the  early 
the  Upper  Maxillary  Sinus '  (Transactions  of   years  of  the  present  centurjr.    He  received 

Society  for  Improvement  of  Medical  and  Sur-  nis  sentence  with  extraordinary  mngfrwiy 

gical  Knowledro,  1800).   5.  *  An  Inquiry  into  ,  putting  on  his  own  hat  at  the  same  moment 

Mr.  Hunter's  Theory  of  Ijife/  1814.  6.  *  Phy-  as  the  juds^  assiuned  the  black  cap,  and 

Biological  Lectures,  1817.     7.  *  Introductory  •  'obser^'ing  nim  with  contemptuous  looks' 

Lecture  exhibiting  Mr.  Hunter  s  Opinions  '  while  pronouncing  judgment.    The  few  day* 

res][)ectin|^  Life  and  Disease,*  1819.     8.  The  that  inter>*ened  between  his  conviction  and 

'Iiunterian   Oration,*   1819,   4to.     9.    *Re-  execution  he  spent  in  sketching  with  cherrieft 

flections  on  Gall  and  SpurzheimV  System  on   the  walls  of  his  cell  scenes  from  his 

of    Physiognomy    and    Phrenology,'    1821.  daring  exploits  on  the  road.     While  being 

10.  ^Ijectures  on  Surgery,*  1830;  also  in  driven  to  the  gallows  he  '  appeared  entirely 
*Ijancet,*  1824-5;  reprinted  1828.  (All  the  unconcerned,  had  a  flower  in  his  mouth  .  .'. 
above,  except  three  early  phvsiological  papers,  and  he  kept  up  an  incessant  conversation 
are  included  in  the  *  t\  orfcs,*  4  vols.  1830.)  with  the  persons  who  rode  beside  the  cart, 

11.  Three  Memoirs  in  *  Philosophical  Trans-  frequently  laughing  and  nodding  to  others 
actions:*  *0n  Two  Malformations,*  1793;  of  his  acquaintances  whom  he  perceived 
*  On  Anatomy  of  the  Whale,*  1796;  *  On  in  the  crowd,  which  was  immense  '  (Orod^ 
the  Foramina  Thebesii,*  1798.  12.  *  Memoir  and  Public  Advertiser,  Tuesday,  4  Aug. 
on  a  Case  of  Heart-disease  *  in  *  Medico-  1795).  In  a  pamphlet  on  his  career,  en- 
Chirurgical  Transactions,'  vol.  i.  1806.  titled  *  Hardened  Villany  Displayed,'  whieh 

[Macilwain's  Memoirs  of  John  Al.ernethy,  T^  published   soon  after  his   death,  he  is 

London,  1853,  where  a  portrait  is  given;  Biog.  described  as  *a   good-looking  younj  man, 

Diet,  of  Useful  Knowledge  Society  (memoir  by  only  1>2  years  of  age.     Anecdotes  of  Abei^ 

James  Paget) ;  Latham's  Lectures  on  Clinical  shaw  credit  him  with  the  rude  generosity 

Medicine,  London,  1836,  p.  75.]           J.  F.  P.  commonly  ascribed  to  men  of  his  vocation. 

On  one  November  night,   it   is   said,  after 

ABERSHAT^     or     AVERSHAWE,  several  hours  spent  upon  the  road,  he  was 

LOUIS  JEREMIAH  (1773?-179o),  gene-  taken  ill  at  the  *  Bald-faced  Stag/  and  t 

rally  known  as  Jerry  Abershaw,  was  a  no-  doctor  was  sent  for  from  Eongston.    Aber- 

t^rious  highwayman,  and  was  for  many  years  shaw  entreated  the  doctor,  who  was  in  igno- 

the  terror  of  the  roads  between  liondon,  ranee  of  his  patient's  name,  to  travel  oadc 

Kingston,  and  Wimbledon.     An  inn  near  under  the  protection  of  one  of  his  own  men, 

Kingston  named  the  '  Bald-faced  Stag  *  ob-  but  the  gentleman  refused,  declaring  that 

tained  an  unenviable  reputation  as  \\\^  head-  he  feared  no  one,  even  should  he  meet  with 

quarters,  and  few  who  nassed  by  it  escaped  Al)ershnw  himself.   The  story  was  frequently 

Abershaw*s  violence.     \\Tien  in  hiding  he  re])eated  by  the  highwayman,  as  a  testimony 

frequented   a    house    in   Clerkenwell    near  to  thf*  eminence  he  had  gained  in  his  piofes- 

Sanron  Hill,  known  as  the  *  Old  House  in  sion. 

West  Street,*  which  was  noted  for  its  dark  [Knapp  and  Bald^-in's  Newgate  Calendar,  iii. 
closets,  trap-doors,  and  shdmg  panels,  and  ,  241-3  :  Criminal  Recorder  (1804).  i.  28-32;  The 

had  often  formed  the  asylum  of  Jonathan  Oracle  and  Public  Advertiser  for  31  July  1796 
Wild  and  Jack  Sheppard  (Pink*s  History  of '  and  4  Anp.  1795 ;  Hon.  G.  C.  Grantley  Berkeley** 

Clerkentveli,  ed.  Wood,  p.  365).     All  efforts  Life  and  Recollections,  i.  198 ;  BrayleyandMan- 


to  brin^  Abershaw  to  justice  for  a  time 
proved  mtile,  but  in  January  1795  he  shot 
dead  one  of  the  constables  sent  to  arrest 
him  in  Southwark,  and  attempted  to  shoot 
another;  for  these  crimes  he  was  brought 
to  trial  at  the  Surrey  assizes  in  July  of  tlie 
same  year.  Although  a  legal  flaw  in  the 
indictment  invalidated  the  case  of  murder 
against  him,  he  was  convicted  and  sentenet*d 
to  death  on  the  second  charge  of  feloniou;; 
shooting. 


teir.s  History  of  Surrey,  iii.  66  ;  TimWs  £nglirii 
Ecctmtrics  (1875),  p.  546  ;  Gent.  Mag.  (4th  series) 
iv.  79 ;  Walford's  Old  and  New  London,  vi.  885, 
497.1  S.  L.  L. 

ABINGDON,  Earl  of.     [See  Berhb.] 

ABINGER,  Baron.    [See  Scarlett.] 

ABINGTON.    [See  HABiNeTON.] 

ABINGTON,  FRANCES  (1787-1815), 
actress,  was  of  obscure  origin.  Her  maiden 
name  was  Frances  or  Fanny  Barton.     OT 


Abington 


53 


Abington 


3ther  she  knew  nothing;  her  father, 
'  served  as  a  private  soldier  in  the 

Guards,  kept  a  cobbler's  stall  in 
IT  Yard;  her  brother  was  an  ostler 
away  Yard.  After  she  had  risen  to 
nd  prosperity,  her  descent  was  traced 
certain  Christopher  Barton,  Esq.,  of 
L,  Derbyshire,  who  at  the  accession  of 
m  ELI  left  four  sons,  a  colonel,  a  ranger 

of  the  royal  parks,  a  prebendary  of 
linster,  anci^the  grandfather  of  Frances 
i.     She  at  first  sold  flowers  and  was 

as  *  Nosegay  Fan.'  Then  singing  in 
eets  or  reciting  at  tavern  doors,  she 
metimes  carried  within  the  Bedford 
azza  coffee-houses,  to  amuse  the  com- 
ith  the  delivery  of  select  passages  from 
ts.  She  became  the  servant  of  a  French 
r  in  Cockspur  Street,  from  whom  she 
d  a  taste  in  dress  and  a  knowledge  of 
..  She  was  afterwards  cookmaid  in  the 
I  ruled  by  Robert  Baddeley,  admired 
'.er  date  for  his  performance  upon  the 
f  foreign  footmen,  Jews,  and  *•  broken- 
1 '  parts.  Frances  Barton  underwent 
igrnoble,  painful,  and  vicious  experi- 

*  Low,  poor,  and  vulgar  as  she  had 
I  contemporary  critic  writes,  *  she  was 
anxious  to  acquire  education.  .  .  .  She 
Q  acquainted  with  the  French  authors, 
«ad  and  speak  French  with  facility, 
lid  converse  in  Italian.'  In  the  sum- 
756  theHaymarket  was  opened  under 
[lagement  of  Theophilus  Gibber.  On 
f.  the  comedy  of  the  'Busybody' 
esented,  the  bills  announcing  '  the 
er  of  Miranda  by  Miss  Barton,  being 
b  essay."  She  appeared  subsequently 
I  Jenny  in  the  *  Provoked  Husband,' 
!emona,  as  Sylvia  in  the  *  Recruiting 
'  and  in  other  parts.  For  more  than  a 
e  was  absent  from  London,  fulfilling 
nents  at  Bat  h  and  Richmond.  She  re-  : 
d  in  November  1 756,  as  a  member  of  the 
-Ane  company,  engaged  at  the  recom- 
ion  of  Samuel  Foote,  and  personated 
liant  in  the  *  Double  Dealer,'  and  va- 
ther  characters.  In  1759  she  was 
icribed  in  the  bills  as  Mrs.  Abington : 
become  the  wife  of  her  music-master, 
the  royal  trumpeters.  The  marriage 
an  unliappy  sort.  Soon  terms  of  se- 
I  were  agreed  iipon,  and  the  husband 
e  lived  apart.  She  paid  him  annually 
iated  sum,  upon  condition  that  he 
to  approach  her.  At  Drury  Lane 
Hngton  advanced  but  slowly.  Mrs. 
rdand  Mrs.  Olive  enjoyed  possession  of 
parts  in  the  dramatic  repertory,  while 
iger  actresses,  Miss  Macklin  and  Miss 
ra,  inherited  claims  to  the  considera- 


tion of  the  managers.    Mrs.  Abington  left 
England  for  Ireland,  and  was  absent  five 
years.    Her  success  in  Dublin  was  very  great, 
and  her  Lady  To wnley  drew  the  most  crowded 
houses  of  the  season.    Hitchcock,  the  histo- 
rian of  the  Irish  stage,  writes :  '  So  rapidly 
did  this  charming  actress  rise,  and  so  highly 
was  she  esteemed  by  the  public — even  so 
early  did  she  discover  a  taste  in  dress  and  a 
talent  to  lead  the  ton — that  several  of  the 
ladies'  most  fashionable  ornaments  were  dis- 
!  tinguished  by  her  name,  and  the  '^  Abington 
cap  "  became  the  prevailing  rage  of  the  day.' 
She  returned  to  Drury  Lane  upon  the  press- 
'  ing    in\'itation   of  Garrick,   and    for   some 
:  eighteen  years  continued  a  member  of  the 
I  company,  the  most  admired  representative 
I  of  the  grand  coquettes  and  queens  of  comedy, 
greatly  successml  as  Beatrice,  LadyTownJey, 
,  Lady  Betty  Modish,  IVIillamant,  and  Char- 
lotte in  the  *  Hypocrite.'    She  was  not  con- 
fined to  impersonations  of  this  class,  however. 
She  could  descend  to  country  girls,  romps, 
hoydens,    and    chambermaids.      Reynolos's 
best  portrait  of  her  exhibits  her  as  Miss  Prue 
in  *  Love  for  Love.'    She  could  appear  either 
as  Lucy  Lockit  or  Polly  Peachum,  as  Biddy 
Tipkin  or  Mrs.  Termagant,  as  Miss  Prue  or 
as  Miss  Hoyden.     Her  Shakespearian  cha- 
racters were  Portia,   Beatrice,  Desdemona, 
Olivia,  and  Ophelia.     Murphy  dedicated  to 
her  his  comeay  of  the  *W'ay  to  keep  him,' 
in  recognition  of  her  genius,  and  oi  those 
*  graces  of  action '  which  had  endowed  his 
play  with  brilliancy,  and  even  with  an  air  of 
novelty,  twenty-five  years  after  its  first  pro- 
duction.   She  appeared  on  some  occasions  as 
Lydia  languish,  and  she  was  the  original 
representative  of  Lady  Teazle  in  1777,  the 
actress  being  then  but  a  few  years  the  junior 
of  the  performer  of  Sir  Peter.    No  one  com- 
plained, however,  that  her  Lady  Teazle  lacked 
youth  or  grace  or  charm.     Horace  Walpole, 
who  had  bidden  her  welcome  to  Strawberry 
Hill,  with  as  many  friends  as  she  might  choose 
to  bring  with  her,  described  her  acting  in 
Lady  Teazle  as  equal  to  the  first  of  her  profes- 
sion— as  superior  to  any  effort  of  Garrick's ; 
she  seemed  to  him,  indeed,  *  the  very  person.' 
In  1782  she  closed  her  long  connection  with 
Drury  Lane,  and  transferred  her  ser\'ices  to 
Coveiit  Garden.     Between  1790  and   1797 
she  was  absent  from  the  stage,  and  it  was 
believed   that  her  professional   career  had 
closed.     She  reappeared  for  a  season,  how- 
ever,  and  was   warmly  welcomed  by  the 
public.     Boaden  wrote  of  her  return  to  the 
st^e :  *  Her  person  had  become  full,  and  her 
elegance  somewhat  unfashionable;   but  she 
still  gave  to  Shakes])eare's  Beatrice  what  no 
other  actress  in  my  time  has  ever  conceived : 


Abington 


54 


Abney 


and  her  old  admirers  were  still  willing  to 
fancy  her  as  unimpaired  by  time  as  the  cha- 
racter itself.'  Takinff  no  formal  leave  of 
her  public,  she  enjoyed  no  farewell  benefit, 
and  was  seen  upon  the  stage  for  the  last  time 
on  12  April,  1799,  when  she  J^ay^d  Lady 
Racket  in  the  after-piece  of  *  Three  Weeks 
after  Marriage,'  the  occasion  being  the  benefit 
of  Pope,  her  fellow-player  during  many 
seasons.  She  is  descrioed  as  possessed  of  a 
singularly  elegant  figure,  whicn,  towards  the 
close  of  her  career,  acquired  proportions  too 
matronly  for  the  youthful  characters  she  still 
assumed,;  she  was  of  graceful  address,  with 
animated  and  expressive  gestures.  Her  voice 
was  not  by  nature  musical,  but  her  elo- 
cutionary skill  was  very  great,  and  her 
articulation  was  so  exact  that  every  syl- 
lable she  uttered  was  distinct  and  harmo- 
nious. Her  taste  in  dress  was  admitted  to 
be  supreme  by  the  many  ladies  of  quality 
whose  friendship  she  enjoyed.  Garrick  wrote 
of  her,  on  the  back  oi  one  of  her  letters, 
that  she  was  *  the  worst  of  bad  women.'  Of 
his  merits  as  an  actor  she  spoke  enthusiastic- 
ally ;  but  she  pronounced  nim  as  a  manager 
inconsiderate,  harsh,  and  resentful.  She 
maintained  ^nth  him  a  long  and  acrimoni- 
ous correspondence.  He  complained  of  her 
pee%4sh  letters,  of  her  want  of  zeal  for  the 
interests  of  the  theatre,  of  her  incessant 
querulousness.  She  alleged  that  he  caused 
her  to  be  attacked  in  the  newspapers,  that 
his  harshness  affected  her  health  and  spirits, 
that  he  spoke  ill  of  her  wherever  he  went. 
Again  and  again  she  asked  that  her  engage- 
ment might  be  cancelled,  and  that  she  might 
be  released  from  the  inconvenience  and  dis- 
tress of  her  position  at  Drury  Lane.  Upon 
one  occasion  it  was  necessary  to  take  coun- 
seFs  opinion  as  to  the  proper  night  to  be 
devoted  to  Mrs.  Abington's  benefit.  Her 
salanr  at  Drury  Lane  was  12/.  per  week, 
'with  a  benefit 'and  60/.  for  clothes.'  She 
was  rarely  called  upon  to  play  more  than 
three  nights  a  week.  Mrs.  Abington  had 
conquered  for  herself  a  distinguished  position 
in  society.  The  squalor,  the  misery,  and 
the  errors  of  her  early  life  were  forgotten  or 
forgiven  in  the  presence  of  her  signal  success 
upon  the  stage,  her  personal  beauty,  wit,  and 
cleverness.  Boswell  relates  that  in  1775, 
when  Mrs.  Abington  begged  Dr.  Johnson  to 
attend  her  benefit,  he  was  *  perhaps  a  little 
vain  of  the  solicitations  of  this  elegant  and 
accomplished  actress,'  and  that  he  mentioned 
the  fact  because  *  he  loved  to  bring  forward 
his  having  been  in  the  gay  circles  of  life.'  He 
sat  in  the  boxes,  and  at  such  a  distance  from 
the  stage  that  he  coidd  neither  see  nor  hear. 
*  Why,  then,  did  you  go  ? '  asked  Boswell. 


*  Because,  sir,  Mrs.  Abington  is  a  favourite 
of  the  public ;  and  when  the  public  cares  a 
thousandth  part  for  you  that  it  does  for  her, 
I  will  go  to  your  benefit  too.'  He  supped 
with  Mrs.  Abington,  met  certain  personfi  of 
fashion,  was  'much  pleased  witk  having 
made  one  in  so  elegant  a  circle,'  and  after- 
wards piqued  Mrs.  Thrale  by  saying '  Mrs. 
Abington  8  jelly,  my  dear  laay,  was  better 
than  yours.  Mrs.  Abington  retired  upon  t 
comfortable  independence,  which  it  was  said 
she  much  redu(^  by  her  losses  at  cards. 
John  Taylor,  of  the  '  Sun '  newspaper,  in  hia 

*  liecords  of  my  Life,'  states  that  he  remem- 
bered her  *  keeping  a  very  elegant  carriage, 
and  living  in  a  large  mansion  in  Glar^ 
Street.'  He  had  seen  her,  on  the  occasion 
of  her  benefit,  surprise  the  audience  by 
playing  the  low-comedy  part  of  Scrub  in  the 
'Beaux's  Stratagem.'  He  once  witnessed 
her  performance  of  Ophelia  to  the  Hamlet 
of  Garrick,  when  she  appeared  '  like  a  mac- 
kerel on  a  gravel  walk.*  He  had  met  her 
at  Mrs.  CoswaVs,  in  Stratford  Place,  when 
she  was  treated  with  much  respect  by  the 
company ;  but  she  chiefly  confined  her  con- 
versation to  General  Paoli.  She  lived  at 
one  time  in  Pall  Mall.  In  1807  she  was 
occupying  two  rooms  in  the  house  No.  19 
Eaton  Square.  Taylor  further  states  that  he 
had  seen  her,  long  after  her  retirement  from 
the  stage,  attired  m  a  common  red  cloak,  and 
with  the  air  and  demeanour  of  the  wife  of  an 
inferior  tradesman.    She  died  4  March  1815. 

[Secret  History  of  the  (Jrcen  Rooms,  1790; 
Genest  8  Historj'  of  the  Stage,  1832 ;  Boaden's 
Life  of  Mrs.  Jordan,  1831 ;  Hours  with  the 
Pbiyers,  1881.]  D.  C. 

ABNEY,  Silt  THOMAS  (1640-1722), 
lord  mayor  of  London,  was  bom  in  Januax^' 
1639-40  at  Willesley,  Derbyshire,  where  his 
ancestors  had  enjoyed  an  estate  for  upwards 
of  five  hundred  years,  now,  with  Willesley 
Hall,  in  the  possession  of  Charles  Edward 
Abney-Hastings,  earl  of  Loudoun.  Sir 
Tliomas  was  the  fourth  and  youngest  son  of 
James  Abney,  Esq.,  who  was  high  sherifi*  of 
his  county  in  1656,  by  his  first  wife,  Jwae 
Mainwaring.  His  mother  died  during  his 
infancy,  and  he  was  sent  to  school  at  Lough- 
borough, in  Leicestershire,  in  order  that  he 
might  be  under  the  observation  and  control 
of  l^dy  Bromley,  the  widow  of  Sir  Edward 
Bromley,  knight,  one  of  the  barons  of  the 
exchequer  in  the  reigns  of  James  I.  and 
Charles  I.  The  date  of  the  commencement 
of  Abney's  career  in  London  is  not  recorded ; 
but  we  are  told  that  *  in  early  life  he  cast  hia 
lot  with  the  nonconformists,  and  joined  the 
church  in  Silver  Street  under  the  care  of  Br. 


Abney  5S  Abney 

and  afterwards  of  the  learned  Mr.  |  died  at  Theobalds  on  the  niffht  of  Tuesday, 
me*  (Wnsoir,  History  of  Dissentinff  6  Feb.  1722,  in  the  eighty-third  year  of  his 
r,  i.  297).  In  his  marriage  license,  !  age,  and  ten  days  after  was  buried  at  St. 
Aug.  1668,  he  is  described  as  *of  All  \  Peter's,  Comhill.  His  widow  sur\'ived  till 
in  the  Wall,  London,  citiaeen  and  \  25  Jan.  1750.  Dr.  Watts  resided  with  her 
per'  (Mabshaix,  Genealogist^  1881,  j  until  his  own  death,  which  took  place  on 
Le  married  Sarah,  a  younger  daughter  ;  25  Nov.  1748. 


ildren,  of  whom  six  died  in  infancy    last  surviving  child  and  ultimate  sole  heir- 
fouth ;  whilst  only  one  son,  Edward  '  ess  of  her  f&tner  and  mother,  was  '  lady  of 
gentleman 'ofveiy  promising  hopes,'  ;  the  manor  of  Stoke  Newington,'  and  died 
to  manhood  and  died  in  October  1704  '  unmarried  in  August  1782  at  the  age  of  78. 
ITS  of  age.    Lady  Abney  herself  died  -  By  her  will  she  directed  that  on  her  death 
1 1608,  and,  like  all  her  children,  was  '  the  lease  of  the  estate  of  Abney  Park,  to- 
i  St.  Peter's,  Comhill.    Abney  was  |  gether  with  the  rest  of  her  property  in  Stoke 
ilderman  of  Vintir  Ward,  5  Dec.    Newington,  should  be  sold,  ana  the  proceeds 
lich,  on  15  June  1716,  he,  being  then  '  of  the  same  distributed  amongst  poor  indi- 
her  of  the  City,'  left  for  the  repre-  i  Aiduals  or  corporate  charities.    Since  1840 
lofBridjje  Without.     Abney  ser>'ed    Abney  Park  has  been  *a  general  cemetery 
)  of  sheriff  of  London  and  Middlesex  ,  for  the  city  of  London ; '  and  Abney  House 
4.    His  shrievalty  was  illustrated    was  pulled  down  in  1845. 
corporation  of  the  Bank  of  England,        An  elder  brother  of  Sir  Thomas  Abney, 
he  was  one  of  the  earliest  promo-    and  the  eldest  8ur\'iving  son  and  heir  of  his 
in  whose  charter,  27  July  IC^,  his    father,  was  Sir  Edward  Abney,  LL.D.,  an 
nirs  as  one  of  the  ori^nal  directors,    eminent  civilian  and  M.P.  for  the  borough 
robably  with  a  special  reference  to  '  of  Leicester  in  the  parliaments  of  1690-95 
»s  in  this  connection  that  he  was    and  1695-98,  who  was  bom  6  Feb.  1631, 
byKing^yilliamIII.     Sir  Thomas    knighted  at  Whitehall  2  April   1678,  and 
asalsopresident,  during  many  of  the    who  died  3  Jan.  1728,  having  nearly  com- 
irs  of  his  life,  of  St.  Thomas's  Hos-    pleted  his  ninety-seventh  year, 
which  he  was  a  considerable  bene-        [Jeremiah   Smith's   Miraoire  of  Sir  ThoniuH 
id  to  which  he  contributed  an  *  ad-    Abney,  in  *  Tho  Magistrsite  and  the  Christian/ 
gift'   of  200/.    in    honour   of   his    8vo,  London,    1722;  Bibliotheca  Topojp^phica 
y  (GoLDING,  Historical  Account  of   Britannica  (1790),  vol.  ii. ;  Nichols's  History  of 
Ui^s  Hospital,  8vo,  London,  1819).    ^be  County  of  Leict^ster,  iii.  part  2,  fol.  London, 
lord  mayor  in  1700-1,  having  been     ^^^^  5  Wihjon's  History  of  Dissenting  Churches 
>me  years  in  advance  of  his  turn  for    *"^*  Meeting  Houses  in  London,  Westminster, 
Bon  the  recognition  of  the  Pretender    *"^  ^^outhwark  (1808),  i.  296-7;  Orriclges  Cit  i- 
;X1V.     Sir  Thomas  Abney  carried    ^en^  of  Ixmdon  and  thei^^ 

#5 -1  ,•         ot\  a     ^     and  Walfonls  Old  and  New  London,  v.  c.  44; 

*?.  frt«»  t^e  corporation,  30  Sept.    MarshaU's  Genealogist  (1881).  vol.  y.] 
William  m,  assuring  him  of  their  o      \         /»  V  H  Cr 

operation  against  his  enemies,  and  ' 

t  of  the  validity  of  his  title  to  the  ABNEY,  Sir  THOMAS  (d.  1750),  justice 
[n  the  parliament  from  30  Dec.  1701  of  the  common  pleas,  was  the  younger  son 
f  1702  Sir  Thomas  Abney  was  one  of  Sir  Edward  Abney,  elder  brother  of 
smbers  for  the  city  of  London.  Sir  Tliomas  Abney,  lord  mayor  of  London, 

Aug.  1700  Sir  Thomas  Abney  mar-  by  liis  second  wife,  Judith,  daughter  and  co- 
his  second  wife,  Mary,  the  eldest  heir  of  Peter  Barr,  of  London.  He  became 
of  John  Gunston,  Esq.,  upon  whom,  in  November  1740  a  baron  of  the  exchequer, 
ath  of  her  only  brother  and  co-heir,  and  in  Februaiy  1743  a  justice  of  the  com- 
hinaton,  on  11  November  following,  ,  mon  pleas.  Abney  fell  a  victim  to  the  gaol 
the  lease  of  the  manor  of  Stoke  '  distemper  at  the  '  Black  Sessions '  at  the  Old 
m,  with  a  mansion  not  yet  perfectly  Bailey  in  May  1750,  when,  *of  the  judges 
and  with  grounds,  afterwards  of  in  the  commission,  only  the  chief  justice 
1  beauty,  incompletely  laid  out.  It  (Lee)  and  the  recorder  (Adams)  escaped, 
bney  House,  alternately  with  their  Those  who  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  pestilence 
Btreat  at  Theobalds,  Hertfordshire,  were  Mr.  Justice  Abney,  who  diea  19  May; 
Watts  found  a  home  for  the  last  Mr.  Baron  Clarke,  who  died  on  the  17tfi ; 
yeATSofhialife.  Sir  Thomas  Abney  |  Sir  Samuel  Pennant,  lord  mayor ;  and  alder- 


Aboyne  5^  Acca 

man  Sir  Daniel  Lambert ;  besides  several  of  j  cia,  Acca  shared  in  his  labours.  He  was  made 
the  counsel  and  jurymen.'  :  by  Wilfirid  abbot  of  Hexham  (Ebdius^  cL 

[Fo88*8  Judges  of  England,  viii.  96-7.  8vo.    62)»  and  on  Wilfrid's  death  in  709  Acca  was 
London,  1864. J  A.  H.  G.      '  chosen  to  succeed  his  master. 

As  bishop  of  Hexham,  Acca  faithfiiillv 

ABOYNE,  ViscoiTNT  and  Eabl  of.  [See  carried  out  the  work  which  Wilfrid  bad  be- 
GoBDON.]  gun.    Wilfrid  brought  to  the  adomment  of 

ABRAHAM,  ROBERT  (1773-1850),  a  ™^^  "^  ^J?  .^^^^i^^^t^o^  Yi^  ^  ^ 
T      jltr   «.!,•*    I  7u  i     vni        gathered  from  his  loumeys  on  the  Gontment. 

A^  '^h^^'  ^"  *•**  ^"^  f Z^*^^^''  He  buat  the  moiMter/church,  which wm 
III  .:™  '^^  ■*  .  '^tl?r-  \^  *  *  '^""  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew,  and  three  others- 
elusion  of  the  war  in  1&15  when  an  im-  St.  Mary's,  St.  Peter's,  and  St.  Michwsr.ipto. 
netus  was  given  to  architecture  by  Nash  in  „,  „''     „  ^oy  '  -n.«„  l,„iW5««  A«« 


a  high  position  as  an  architect  He  ob-  ;  ^^^  ^  j^  ^  Jj,  ^^^^^  Eddi  Jcch!^) 
tamed  an  mtroduction  to  some  of  the  chief  •  „„^^  .,  „.  .i  „„  ^^^  „«i««j;j  «.:*i,  ^\a  »^a 

Roman  catholic  families  in  Engknd,  and  !  *f,y*  *''**  *^*y  T^tw  2n^^^^ 

,i,,-i       ..  ^-^A  '  silver  and  precious  stones,  and  ^urere  arapea 

much  valuable  private  connection.  Among  ^  j^  pu^i/a„d  silks.  A^a  procui«l  h^ 
his  works  may  be  mentioned  the  conserva-  .,^^J^  i^^.^.  ^„  j  ^i  ^ui^^  needed  for  the 
tories  and  garden  buildings  for  the  Earl  of ,  "^Trhis'lSi^^ 

Norfolk  House,  for  the  Dui  of  Norfolk,  the  X^L^h^d  ^^  in^^^.^H^  s'^^S 
Svnago^e  near  tJie  Haymarket  and  the  to  Hexham  a  famous  singeV,  Maban  by  mmie, 
Westmins^    Bridewell.       Abraham    died  i  ^^^  j^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^ 

11  i^ec.  loou.  descendants  of  those  whom  St.  Qr^^ory  had 

[The  Builder,  viii.   598,  602 ;   Art  Journal    sent  to  instruct  in  ritual  the  barbarous'Eng- 

(1851),  44  ;  Redgrave's  Diet,  of  Artists  (1878).]    ligh.    Maban  abode  in  Hexham  twelve  years, 

"^^  ^*        till  he  had  trained  a  choir.    Nor  was  Acca 

ABYNDON,     RICHARD    de.        [See    s^tis^^  ^^^^  ™f  «b' P/oviding  for  outwij^ 

Richard.]  magnificence.  He  carefully  brought  together 

I  a  large  and  noble  library,  consisting  of  theo- 
ACCA  (d.  740),  fifth  bishop  of  Hexham  logical  works  and  lives  of  the  saints. 
(709-732),  was  a  native  of  Northumbria,  In  administering  his  diocese,  Acca  was  a 
and  was  brought  up  from  childhood  in  the  strict  upholder  oi  ecclesiastical  discipline, 
household  of  Bosa,  who  was  made  bishop  of  and  showed  a  worthy  example  to  his  clergy 
York  in  678  in  the  place  of  Wilfrid.  Wilfrid  and  people.  He  was  renowned  for  his  theo- 
was  deposed  from  his  see  because  he  refused  logical  learning,  and  his  advice  was  freely 
to  assent  to  the  subdivision  of  the  Northum-  sought  by  students.  His  library  at  Hexham 
brian  diocese  according  to  the  plan  of  Arch-  was  probably  of  great  service  to  Bede,  with 
bishop  Theodore.  It  would  seem  that  Acca  '  whom  Acca  stood  in  intimate  relations, 
sympathised  with  Wilfrid.  He  transferred  1  Their  friendship  began  soon  after  Acca's 
mmself  to  Wilfrid's  service,  accompanied  him  ,  coming  to  Hexnam,  as  Bede  dedicated  his 
in  his  wanderings,  and  stood  high  in  his  con-  '  *  Ilexameron '  to  Acca  while  still  abbot.  Bede 
fidence  and  affection  till  his  death.  He  was  \  mentions  Acca  as  Iiis  authority  for  several 
with  Wilfrid  in  his  missionary  journey  among  I  things  which  he  narrates  in  his 'History* 
the  South  Saxons  (Bede,  H.  JS.  iv.  14-15).  |  (iii.  13,  iv.  14).  Eddius,  in  liis  preface  to 
He  went  with  Wilfrid  to  Friesland,  and  \  his  'Life  of  W^ilfrid,*  savs  that  he  undertook 
visit«d  St.  Willibrord  (H.  JS.  iii.  13).  He  .  the  work  at  Acca's  instigation.  Acca  seems 
further  accompanied  Wilfrid  to  Rome.  On  '  to  have  acted  as  an  adviser  and  patron  to 
their  return  in  70o  W^ilfrid  was  seized  with  I  men  of  letters.  He  was  in  constant  corre- 
sickness  at  Meaiix,  and  lay  as  though  dead,  spondence  with  Bede  about  his  '  Commenta- 
but  was  restored  by  a  vision  of  St.  Michael,  ries  on  the  Scriptures,*  and  encouraged  him 
On  recovering  consciousness  his  first  question  ,  to  proceed  with  his  work.     Bede's  Commen- 


was,  *  Ubi  est  Acca  presbyter  ? '  and  to  Acca 
alone  he  narrated  his  vision  (Eddius,  ch.  54). 
When  Wilfrid,  on  his  return  to  Northumbria 
in  705,  settled  in  his  favourite  monastery  of 
Hexham,  and  became  bishop  of  the  see, 
which  embraced  the  southern  part  of  Bemi- 


tanes  on  Genesis,  on  St.  Mark's  Gospel,  and 
on  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  are  all  dedicated 
to  Acca ;  and  a  poem  of  Bede  on  the  Last 
Judgment,  addressed  to  Acca,  is  interpolated 
into  Simeon  of  Durham's  *  Chronicle '  (Twrs- 
DEN,  96,  &c.).    In  the  prologue  to  his '  Com- 


Accum  57  Acherley 

mentary  on  the  Act«/  Bede  writes  to  Acca :  Ackermann,  the  art  publisher,  in  order  to  in- 
*  Accepi  creberrimas  beatitudinis  tu®  literas,  troduce  into  Englana  the  liffhtingof  towns  by 
quibus  me  oommonere  digpatus  es,  ne  mentis  gas ;  and  in  1810,  when  the  London  Chartered 
acumen  inerti  otio  torpere  et  obdormire  per-  ,  Gaslight  and  Coke  Company  was  fornfied, 
mittam.'  One  only  of  these  letters  of  Acca  Accimi  was  nominated  one  of  its  engineers, 
has  come  down  to  us  (Bed^  Op,  ed.  1563,  t.  It  is  said  that  the  prompt  adoption  of  this 
175 ;  also  Raike's  Prwry  of  Hexham,  i,  83).  mode  of  lighting  in  London  ana  other  large 
In  this  letter  Acca  beseeches  Bede  to  write  '  cities  was  greatly  due  to  his  *  Practical  Trea- 
a  commentary-  on  St.  Luke's  Gbspel ;  he  tise  on  Gas  Light,'  which  was  published  in 
combats  the  plea  that  the  work  has  been  suf-  London  in  1815  (8rd  edit.  1816),  and  speedily 
ficiently  done  by  St.  Ambrose ;  he  urges  the  translated  into  derman,  French,  and  Italian, 
need  ot  a  simpler  commentary,  and  humor-  A  second  work  by  Accum  on  the  same  sub- 
ously  exclaims, '  Beatum  Lucam  luculento  ,  ject,  entitled  '  Description  of  the  Process  of 
sermone  expone.'  '\  manufacturing  Coal  Gas/  api)eared  in  1819 

The  end  of  Acca's  life  is  obscure.  In  732  |  (2nd  edit.  1820).  He  was  made  librarian  of 
he  was  driven  from  the  see  of  Hexham.  AVe  the  Royal  Institution  in  Albemarle  Street, 
do  not  know  the  reason ;  probably  it  was  but  a  charge  of  embezzlement  was  brought 
some  cause  connected  with  the  still  uncertain  against  him  shortly  afterwards,  and  he  was 
organisation  of  the  Northumbrian  dioceses,  dismissed.  On  being  brought  to  trial,  he  was 
It  cannot  have  been  for  any  reason  disgrace-  acquitted :  but  he  immediately  left  England 
fill  to  him,  since  he  was  revered  by  the  monks  for  Berlin.  There,  in  1822,  lie  obtained  a 
of  Hexham  as  a  saint.  Richard  of  Hexham  professorship  at  the  Technical  Institute, 
(p.  35)  records  a  story  that  Acca  spent  the  which  he  retained  till  his  death  on  28  June 
years  of  his  exile  in  organising  the  new  dio-  1838.  Accum  published  *  Chemical  Amuse- 
cese  of  Whithem,  in  Galloway.  However  I  ment  *  (London,  1817, 4th  edit.  1819),  which 
this  may  be,  Acca  returned  to  Hexham  be-  was  translated  into  German  in  1824,  and 
fore  his  death  in  740.  He  was  buried  out-  into  French  in  1827  ;  and  *  Adulterations  of 
side  the  east  wall  of  the  church,  and  two  Food  and  Culinary  Poisons  *  (London,  1820, 
stone  crosses  of  elaborate  workmanship  were  ;  2nd  edit.  1820),  wliich  was  translated  into 
erected  over  his  grave  (Simeon,  inTwysden,  German  in  1822.  In  1826  he  published  a 
101).  One  of  these  crosses  has  been  identi-  :  work  in  two  volumes  at  Berlin  on  the  phy- 
fied  by  Raine,  and  is  engraved  in  the  *  Priory  I  sical  and  chemical  qualities  of  building  ma- 
of  Hexham '(i.  p.  xxxiv).  The  remains  of  Acca  terials  (Physische  und  chemische  Beschafftm- 
were  twice  translated,  once  in  the  eleventh  heit  der  Banmaterialen).  He  also  wrote  on 
century  and  again  in  1154.  He  is  comme-  *  Crystallography*  (London,  1813);  on  *Che- 
morated  in  the  Calendar  on  19  Feb.  His  mical  Reagents '  (London,  1816),  translated 
miracles  are  recorded  by  Simeon  of  Durham,  into  Italian  in  1819;  on  the  *  Chalybeate 
s.  a.  740,  and  by  Aelred,  abbot  of  Rievaux  •  Spring  at  Thetford  '  (1819) ;  on  *  Brewing* 
(Raihb,  i.  184).  (London,  1820);    on   the   *  Art  of  making 

[Bede,  Hif^oria  Ecclesiastics,  book  v.  chaps.  \Vine*(I^)ndon,  1820),  translated  into Frencli 
19,  20  ;  Edditis,  Vita  Wilfridi,  in  Gale's  Scrip-  in  1821 ;  on  *  Culinary  Chemistr\'*  (Ix)ndon, 
tores,  i.  53,  &c. ;  Simeon  of  Durham,  De  Gestis  1821)  ;  and  on  the  **Art  of  making  whole- 
Regnm  Anglorum,inTwy8den,  Decem  Scriptores,  gome  Bread  '  (London,  1821). 
94,  &a  ;  ako  ed  G.  Hiiide  for  Surtees  S<^ety,  [Allgemeine  Deutsche  Biogmphie  (1876); 
s^a  740 ;  Richard  of  Hexham,  in  Raine  s  Pnory  ^l^^^  Da«  gelehrte  Teutschland  ;  Neuer  Ne- 
of  Hexham  (hurtees  Society),  k  18.     'Hie  best    ^j      ^^^  Deutschen,  xvi.  628.]         G.  F.  R. 

modem  account  is  given   in   Raines  Preface,  ^ 

-xxxiv.]  M.  C.  AOHEDUN.     [See  Actox.] 


ACCUM,  FRIEDRICH  CHRISTIAN;  ACHERLEY,  ROGER  (1665  P-1740), 
(1769-1888),  chemist,  was  bom  in  Bucke-  lawj-Qr,  constitutional  writer,  and  politician, 
bouTg,  in  Westphalia,  in  1769.  In  1793  he  was  the  son  and  heir  of  John  Acherley 
came  to  London,  and  engaged  in  some  science  of  Stanwanline,  or  Stottesden,  Shropshire, 
work,  which  led  to  the  delivery  of  a  course    where  he  was  tlie  re/present  at  ive  of  a  long- 


of  lectures  on  chemistry  and  physics  in  1803 
At  the  Surrey  Institute,  and  to  the  publica- 
tion in  that  and  the  following  years  ot  several 
treatises  on  chemistry  and  mineralogy,  in- 
cluding a '  System  of  Chemistry '  in  1803,  an 
^ Essay  on  tlie  Analysis  of  Minerals'  in  1804, 
and  a  '  Manual  of  Analytical  Mineralocnr '  in 
1806.  He  afterwarda  associated  himself  with 


established  family.  Roger  was  admitted  a 
Student  of  the  Inner  Temple  on  6  March 
168o,  and  called  to  the  bar  on  24  May  1691 
(Inner  Temple  Retji^ter),  He  married  Eliza- 
beth, only  daughter  of  Richard  Vernon,  Esq., 
of  Hanbury,  Worcestershire,  and  sister  of 
Thomas  Vernon,  Esq.,  a  celebrated  lawyer, 
known  especially  for  his  *  Reports,*  ^joatkvv- 


Acherley 


58 


Ackermann 


mouslj  published,  on  the  *  Cases  argued  and 
ndjudged  in  the  Hiffh  Court  of  Chancery.' 
For  some  years  Acherley  was  engaged  in  dis- 
puting the  will  of  Thomas  Vernon,  who  died 
in  17 2 1,  by  which  the  wife  of  the  former  in- 
herited an  annuity  of  200/.,  and  his  daughter 
I^etitia  received  a  legacy  of  6,000/.  The  case 
was  finally  given  against  Acherley,  on  an 
appeal  before  the  House  of  I^ords,  on  4  Feb. 
1.25. 

Acherley  was  probably  the  first  person  who, 
in  1712,  advised  the  moving  of  the  \iTit  for 
bringing  over  the  electoral  prince,  afterwards 
Greorge  il,  to  take  his  place  in  the  House  of 
Lords  as  Duke  of  Cambridge;  but  the  in- 
trigues in  which  he  indulged  for  the  further- 
ance of  this  object  were  cut  short  bj'  the 
death  of  Queen  Anne,  1  Aug.  1714.  There- 
after he  pressed  Barons  Leibnitz  and  Bothmei^ 
for  professional  advancement  in  recognition 
of  his  admitted  services  to  the  house  of 
Hanover.  Down  to  1731,  however,  he  met 
with  no  substantial  reward,  and  he  appears 
to  have  passed  his  later  years  as  an  obscure 


21  March  1740). 

Acherley 's  reputation  rests  upon  his  politi- 
cal, legal,  and  constitutional  treatises,  which 
have  now,  by  lapse  of  time  and  the  develop- 
ment of  methods,  been  largely  superseded. 
He  believed  in  an  extreme  form  of  the  '  social 
contract '  theory.  The  most  elaborate  of  his 
works  is  *The  Britannic  Cimstitution:  or, 
the  Fundamental  Form  of  Government  in 
Britain,' fol.  London,  1727,  which  was  wTitteii 
to  demonstrate  the  constitutional  fitness  of 
the  accession  of  William  III,  and  of  the 
Hanoverian  succession;  a  second  edition, 
issued  in  1759,  incorporated  *  lleasrms  for 
Uniformity  in  the  State,  Ijoinga  Supplement 
to  the  Britannic  Constitution,'  which  firsc 
appeared  in  1741.  Another  work  of  Aeher- 
loy's  is  entitled  *  I'^ree  Parliaments ;  or,  an 
iVrg^ment  on  their  Constitution:  proving 
some  of  their  powers  to  be  independent.  To 
which  is  added  an  Appendix  containing  seve- 
ral original  Letters  and  Papers  which  passed 
lietween  the  Court  of  Hanover  and  a  gentle- 
man at  London,  in  the  years  1713  and  1714, 
touching  the  right  of  the  Duke  of  Cambridge 
to  reside  in  England  and  sit  in  Parliament. 
By  the  author  of  the  Britannic  Constitution,' 
8vo,  London,  1731.  Also  Acherley  is  cre- 
dited with  the  authorship  of  an  anonymous 
pamphlet  of  forty-six  pages,  called  *The 
Jurisdiction  of  the  Chancery  as  a  Court  of 
Equity  researched,'  8vo,  London,  1733,  third 
i-dition,  1736. 

[Appeals  to  the  House  of  Lords,  1725;  A|>- 


pendix  to  AcherlcyV  Vrw  I^irliamentif,  1781; 
Nash's  History  and  Ant  iquitiet»  of  Worcestershire, 
1781,  vol.  i. ;  Kcnibles  State  Papers  and  Corre- 
spondence, London,  18d7.]  A.  H.  G. 

ACKERMANN,  RUDOLPH  (1764- 
1834),  fine-art  publisher  and  bookseller,  was 
bom  20  April  1764,  at  Stolberg  in  Saxony. 
His  father,  a  coach-builder  and  hame«- 
maker,  removed  in  1775  to  Schneeberg, 
where  Rudolph  received  his  education  and 
entered  his  fathers  workshop.  But  he  did 
not  long  follow  this  occupation.  After 
visitinff  l)resden  and  other  German  towns, 
he  settled  for  some  time  in  Paris,  whence  he 
proceeded  to  London.  Here  for  about  ten 
years  he  was  engaged  in  making  designs  for 
many  of  the  principal  coach-builders.  In 
1795  he  married  an  Englishwoman  and  set 
up  a  print-shop  at  96  Strand,  removing  the 
following  year  to  No.  101,  where  he  had 
already  revived  a  drawing-school  established 
by  Wm.  Shipley,  the  founder  of  the  Society 
of  Arts.  In  consequence  of  the  increase  of 
Ackermann's  publisning  business  the  school 
was  closed  in  1806,  being  at  that  time  fre- 
quented by  eighty  pupils  whose  instruction 
was  attended  to  by  three  masters.  His  exten- 
sive trade  in  fancy  articles  had  given  employ- 
ment for  some  years  to  many  Inrench  Snuffrit, 

Ackermann's  ingenuity  and  enterprise  were 
not  directed  to  fine-art  matters  alone.  In 
1801  he  patented  a  method  to  render  paper, 
cloth,  and  other  substances  wat^rprooi,  and 
erected  a  factory-  at  Chelsea.  He  was 
am(mg  the  first  Of  private  individuals  to 
illuminate  his  place  of  business  with  ffas,  and 
between  1818  and  1820  was  occupied  with  a 
patent  for  movable  carriagt*  axles.  The  Re- 
paration of  Lord  Nelson's  funeral  car  (l«y5> 
was  entrusted  to  his  skill.  The  establish- 
ment of  lithography  as  a  fine  art  in  this 
country  is  due  to liim.  Having  been  intro- 
duced as  a  mechanical  process  by  Mr.  Andrfo 
of  Offenbach  in  1801  (Bepontory  ofArU,  4^., 
1817,  p.  225),  it  was  chiefly  used  for  copying 
purposes  until  1817,  when  Ackermann  set 
up  a  press,  engaged  Prout  and  other  eminent 
artists,  and  made  large  use  of  lithoarraphy  in 
his  *  Repositor}- '  and  other  publications. 
*  A  complete  Course  of  Lithography,  by  J.  A. 
Senefelder,  translated  from  tne  German 
by  A.  S[chlichtegroll],'  4to,  was  issued  in 
1819  by  Ackermann,  who  had  visited  the 
inventor  the  year  before,  and  who  narrates 
in  a  preliminary  *  advertisement '  his  exne- 
rience  of  tht^  method.  Tlie  volume  includes 
sp^^cimens  of  drawings  executed  at  his  press. 

The  distn'Hs  in  Germany  after  the  battle 
of  l^'ipzig  gave  rise  to  a  movement  for  the 
relief  of  the  sutterers,  mainly  founded  by 
Ackermann :  and  for  two  years  he  devoUd 


Ackermann  59  Acland 


Ing  labour  towards  organising  the  dis- 
m  of  over  200,000/.,  of  which  more  than 
If  was  contributed  by  public  subscrip- 
he  remainder  consisting  of  a  special 
rom  parliament.  For  this  service  he 
d  from  the  king  of  Saxony  the  order 
1  Merit,  but  modestly  declined  the 
xpressions  of  popular  grratitude  offered 
man  towns  in  the  course  of  a  subse- 
visit  to  the  Continent  (see  A  short 


*  University  of  Cambridge/  1815,  2  vols. 
4to;  'Colleges  of  Winchester,  Eton,  West- 
minster, &c.,'  1816,  4to.  W.  H.  Pyne  and 
William  Combe  supplied  the  text  tor  these 
antiquarian  works,  the  plates  being  drawn 
by  A.  Pugin,  Rowlandson,  Nash,  and  others. 
His  remarkable  series  of '  Picture8C]^ue  Tours ' 
in  elephant  4to  includes  *  The  Rhine,'  by  J. 
G.  von  Geming,  1820;  'Buenos  Aires  and 
Monte  Video,'  by  Vidal,  1820;   'English 


t  of  the  successful  Exerti(ms  [of  R,  \  Lakes,*  by  Fielding  and  Walton,  1821 ;  '  The 


utnn]  on  behalf  of  the  Fatherless  and 

s  trfter  the  War  in  1814,  Oxf.  priv.  pr. 

6mo).  In  1815  he  collected  and  distri- 

large  sum  for  the  succour  of  wounded 


Seine,'byPuginandGendall,1821;  'The Gan- 
ges ana  Jumna,'  by  C.  R.  Forrest,  1824 ; 
'  India,' by  R.  M.  Gnndl^  (atlas  folio),  1826: 
and  '  The  Thames,'  by  Westall  and  Owen, 
n  soldiers  and  their  relatives.  About  '  1828.  The  'World  in  Miniature,'  43  vols, 
me  period  the  Spanish  exiles,  like  12mo,  637  plates,  was  commenced  in  1821 
ench  SnUgris  of  a  quarter  of  a  cen-  bv  T.  Rowlandson,  and  finished  in  1826  by 
jfore,  found  in  him  a  generous  em-  W .  H.  Pyne.  He  introduced  from  Germany 
He  also  printed  and  published  I  the  fashion  of  the  illustrated  annual,  upon 
Spanish  translations  and  original  which,  between  1822  and  1856,  English  pub- 
and  formed  branch  depots  in  several  lishers  expended  large  sums  for  illustrations 
American  cities.  Ackermann's  Wed-  and  literary  contributions.  In  the  first  rank 
evening  *  Literary  Meetings '  during  j  of  these  popular  gift-books  stood  his  '  For- 
and  April  had  become  from  1813  get-me-not,  first  brought  out  in  1825  in  a 
feature  in  the  literary  and  artistic  manner  unapproached  for  typographical  and 
In  1827  he  returned  to  premises  at  artistic  ment.  It  was  continued  imtil  1847 
nd,  designed  by  J.  B.  Papworth.  He  under  the  editorship  of  F.  Shoberl. 
I  a  second  time,  and  in  1830  ex-  '  [Notes  and  Queries*,  4th  s«erie8,  iv.  109,  129, 
ed  an  attack  of  paralysis  which  pre-  5th  series,  ix.  346,  x.  18;  Didaskalia  (Frankf.  a. 
him  thenceforward  from  attending  to  Main),  No.  103,  13  April  1864;  Gent.  Mag.  1834, 
9.  He  died  at  Finchlev  on  30  March  i.  560 ;  Annual  Biography,  1835.]  H.  R.  T. 
Qd  was  buried  at  St.  Clement  Danes.  ACKLAND,  THOMAS  GILBANK 
58t  son,  Rudolph,  carried  on  a  fin^art  (1791.I844)  divine,  was  educated  at  the 
8  m  Regent  Street,  and  died  m  1868.  charterhouse  and  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
^  of  his  numerous  fine-art  publications  t^^dge.  He  became  B.A.  in  1811,Til.A.  in 
lined  m  the  two  exceUent  articles  bv  igil  ^nd  in  1818  was  instituted  to  the 
1  Pfapworth]  in  *  Notes  and  Queries  ^^^  ^f  g^  Mildred's,  Bread  Street,  which 
J.  The  name  of  Ackeraiann  IS  mti-  ^^  ^^{^  ^^u  his  death,  20  Feb.  1844  He 
associated  with  the  'Repository  of  published  by  subscription, in  1812,a  volume 
^terature,  lashions,  Manufactures,  ^f  misceUaneous  poems  in  the  style  of  the 
hich  at  once  became  so  succe^ful    preceding  centurj-f    He  is  also  the  author  of 

^''^^^^^^^^Z.^Kr'''^^^^    ifewsemons.    ^ 

ned  3,000  subscribers.     It  regularly        m    *   tlt       xro       •   -cat 

d  until  1828,  when  forty  volumes  had  1      [^"°'-  ^*«-  N*^'  ™-  ^^^^ 

reduced  in  monthly  a?.  M.  parts,  1      ACLAND,   Lady  CHRISTIAN  HEN- 

ihe  editorship  of  F.  Shoberl.     Wm.    RIETTA    CAROLINE,    generally    called 

was  a  large  contributor,  and  Row-  .  Lady  Harkiet  (1750-1815),  was  the  third 

supplied  many  of  the  plates.  The  surviving  daughter  of  Stephen,  first  earl  of 
tions  of  fashions,  mostly  by  well-  Hchester,  and  was  bom  on  8  Jan.  1749- 
artist^,  supply  valuable  materials  for  50.  In  Nov.  1770  she  was  married,  at 
ory  of  costume.  Many  of  the  contri-  Redlynch  Park,  Somersetshire,  to  John 
to  the 'Repositonr*  were  reissued  sepa-    Dyke  Acland   [see  Acland,  John  Dyke]. 

'Dr.  Syntax's  Tour  in  search  of  the  TN^hen  her  husband  was  ordered  to  attend 
nue' first  appeared  in  Ackermann's  his  regiment  to  Canada  in  1776,  he  was 
u  Magazine,  1809-11,  under  the  title  accompanied  by  Lady  Harriet  Acland,  and 
'Schoolmaster's  Tour.'  Among  his  the  narrative  of  her  sufierings  during  the 
iblications  may  also  be  mentioned  campaign,  which  has  been  often  printed  in 
crocosm  of  London,'  1808-11, 3  vols,  both  England  and  America,  forms  one  of  the 
'cMBtminater  Abbey,'  1812, 2  vols.  4to ;  1  brightest  episodes  in  the  war  with  the  Ameri- 
wity  of  Oxford/  1814,  2  vols.  4to ;  !  can  people.  He  was  taken  ill  in  Canada,  and 


Acland 


60 


Acland 


she  nursed  him.  On  his  partial  recoverjr  his 
pervices  were  required  at  tlie  attack  of  Ticon- 
deroga ;  but  at  the  express  injunction  of  her 
husband  she  remained  behind.  During  the 
conflict  he  received  a  dangerous  wound,  and 
his  heroic  wife  hastened  to  join  him,  and  to 
bestow  upon  the  sufferer  the  most  devoted 
care  and  attention.  Her  husband  commanded 
the  British  grenadiers,  and  his  corps  was 
often  at  the  most  advanced  post  of  the  army. 
( )n  one  of  these  occasions  tiie  tent  in  wliich 
they  were  sleeping  caught  fire,  and  both  of 
them  had  a  narrow  escape  of  their  lives.  A 
few  weeks  afterwards  tiie  troops  under  the 
command  of  General  Burgoyne  were  defeated 
in  the  second  battle  of  Saratoga  (7  Oct.  1777), 
when  Major  Acland  was  badly  wounded  in 
both  legs  and  taken  prisoner.  With  the  pro- 
tection of  a  letter  from  Burgoyne  to  General 
Gates,  and  in  the  company  of  an  artillery 
chaplain  and  two  servants,  she  proceeded  in 
an  open  boat  up  the  Hudson  River  to  the 
<^nemy.  When  she  arrived  at  the  outposts  of 
the  American  army,  the  sentinel  threatened 
to  fire  into  the  boat  if  its  occupants  stirred, 
and  for  eight  *  dark  and  cokl  hours,'  according 
to  one  account,  though  this  is  denied  in  the 
American  papers,  she  remained  waiting  for 
the  break  of  davlight,  and  for  permission  to 
join  her  husband.  On  her  return  to  England, 
says  the  *  Gentleman's  Magazine,'  her  portrait, 
as  she  stood  in  the  boat  with  a  white  hand- 
kerchief in  her  hand  as  a  flag  of  truce,  was  ex- 
hibited at  the  Royal  Academv  and  engraved. 
Some  copies  of  the  print  are  still  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Aclana  familv.  Tlie  storv  that 
her  husband  died  in  a  duel,  that  she  became 
temporarily  insane,  and  afterwards  remarried, 
has  no  foundation  in  fact.  She  was  left  a 
widow  in  1778  with  two  surviving  children, 
her  son,  John,  succeeding  to  the  baronetcy, 
and  her  daughter,  Elizabeth  Kitty,  marrying 
Jjord  Porchester,  afterwards  second  earl  of 
Carnarvon.  By  this  marriage  the  Acland  pro- 
l»erty  near  Dulverton  andTaunton  ultimately 
passed  to  the  Carnarvon  family.  Lady  Har- 
riet Acland  died  at  Tetton,  near  Taunton,  on 
'21  July  1815.  Her  remains  were  interred 
at  Broad  Clvst  on  28  July.  Her  portrait, 
painted  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  in  1771-72, 
and  the  property  of  the  present  head  of  the 
Acland  tamily,  was  engraved  by  S.  W.  Rey- 
nolds. The  painting  was  exhibited  at  Bur- 
lington House,  at  the  Winter  Exhibition, 
1882,  and  the  face  was  that  of  a  woman  of 
great  determination  of  character.  Several 
years  before,  whilst  a  little  girl,  aged  seven, 
she  had  been  painted  by  the  same  artist  stand- 
ing at  her  mother's  knee. 

[Gent.  Maff.  1815,  pt.  ii.  p.  186;  Burgoyne's 
State  of  the  Expedition  from  Canada  (1780); 


Mag.  of  AmericHii  Hist.  vol.  iv.  p.  49;  Leslie 
and  Taylor'H  Life  of  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  i.  439; 
Lippin(M>ttV  Mag.  xxiv.  452-8  (1879);  E.  B.  de 
Fonbbiiique'8  Political  and  Military  EpisodeH 
from  Corruspondonce  of  (Jen.  Burgoyne  (1876), 
pp.  301-302 ;  Travels  in  America  by  an  Officer 
(i.e.  Lieut.  Anlmn-y),  1789,  ii.  61-63.]  W.  P.  C. 

ACLAND,  Sir  JOHN  {d.  1613),  was 
the  second  son  of  John  Acland,  of  Acland  in 
Landkey,  Devonshire,  who  married  Mary, 
daughter  and  coheir  of  Hugh  Keddiff  of 
Stepney.  From  his  mother  he  obtained  con- 
siderable landed  property  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  London,  and  increased  his  fortune  by 
many-ing  Elizabeth,  the  daughter  of  Geoige 
llolle,oi  Stevenston,in  Devon,  and  the  widow 
of  Robert  Mallet,  of  WooUeiffh  in  the  same 
county.  On  her  death  he  took  another  rich 
widow  as  his  second  wife,  Margaret,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Sir  Henrj'  Portman  of  Somerset,  who 
had  been  previously  married  to  Sir  Qabriel 
Ilawley.  He  was  knighted  by  James  I  on 
15  March  1603-4  in  the  Tower  of  London, 
and  at  a  bye-election  (27  Jan.  1606-7),  in 
the  first  parliament  of  that  monarch,  became 
knight  of  the  shire  for  Devon.  His  charitable 
gifts  were  numerous.  He  settled  on  the 
mayor  and  town  council  of  Exeter  the  rec- 
torial endowments  of  two  parishes  in  that 
part  of  his  native  county  which  is  known  by 
the  name  of  the  South  1  lams,  in  order  that  the 
annual  proceeds  might  be  distributed  among 
the  poor  of  several  parishes  in  Exeter  and  in 
other  parts  of  the  couiitv.  When  he  acquired 
the  estate  of  Columl>>fohn,  in  Broad  Clyst, 
about  four  miles  from  Exeter,  he  built  in  the 
mansion  a  chapel  for  the  use  of  the  tenantry, 
and  endowed  it  with  a  rent-charge  for  the 
support  of  the  minister.  A  new  nail,  with 
cellars  underneath,  was  erected  by  Exeter 
College,  Oxford,  shortly  before  his  death,  at 
a  cost  of  about  1,0(X)/.,  and  Sir  John  Acland 
gave  towards  the  expenditure  the  large  sum 
of  800/.  Two  scholarships,  each  of  the  annual 
value  of  S/.,  were  founded  by  him  at  the  same 
college.  He  died  in  1613,  and  lies  buried  in 
Broad  Clyst  church,  where  a  richly  carded 
monument,  with  the  figures  of  himself  and 
his  wives,  preserves  his  memory. 

[Prince's  Worthies  of  Devon;  Visitations  of 
Devon  and  Somerset ;  Boase's  Exeter  College.! 

W.  P.  C. 

ACLAND,  JOHN  (/.  1753-1 796),  author 
of  a  pamphlet  on  pauperism,  was  the  second 
son  of  John  Acland,  of  AVoodly,  Yorkshire, 
M.P.  for  Callington,  and  the  younger  bro- 
ther of  Sir  Hugh  Acland,  sixth  bim>net  of 
C5olumb-John,  co.  Devon.  He  was  instituted 
to  the  vicarage  or  rectory  of  Broad  CJlyst  (PoL- 
whelf/s  Hii*tory  of  Devomhire^  1 793,  ii.  197), 


Acland 


6i 


Acland 


m  his  own  petition,  in  1753.  In  1786  Acland 
>ublished  *  A  Plan  for  rendering  the  Poor  in- 
iependent  on  Public  Contributions,  founded 
>n  the  basis  of  the  Friendly  Societies,  com- 
monly called  Clubs, by  the  Kev.  John  Acland, 
>ne  of  His  Majesty's  Justices  of  the  Peace 
for  the  County  of  Devon.  To  which  is  added 
ft  Letter  from  Dr.  Price  containing  his  senti- 
ments and  calculations  on  the  subject.  Tua 
res  agitur,  Exeter  and  London,  1786.'  From 
allusions  in  this  pamphlet  it  seems  that 
Acland's '  plan '  was  suggested  to  him  by  the 
failure  of  prexious  legislation  for  the  en- 
couragement of  friendly  societies  in  Devon- 
shire. An  act  of  parliament  had  provided 
that  the  funds  of  friendly  societies  might  be 

3^emented  by  grants  in  aid  from  the  pro- 
of the  poor-rate ;  it  provided,  amongst 
other  things,  for  the  payment  of  sums  of 
money  on  the  marriages  of  members  and 
the  births  of  their  children.  In  consequence 
of  the  burden  entailed  on  the  ratepayers  for 
pa3rments  on  these  accounts,  the  act  was  re- 
pealed. Acland  desired  a  modified  applica- 
tion of  the  principle.  He  proposed  that 
'  there  should  be  established,  by  the  authority 
of  parliament,  throughout  the  whole  of  the 
kingdom  of  England,  one  general  club  or 
society '  for  the  support  of  the  poor  in  sick- 
ness, in  old  age,  and  when  out  of  work.  With 
certain  exceptions,  every  adult  male  or  female 
receivinff  a  certain  wage  was  to  be  compelled 
to  contru>ute  to  this  frind,  and  a  similar  obli- 
gation was  imposed  on  the  bulk  of  the  com- 
munity. In  this  way  pauperism  was  to  be 
gradually  extinguished,  and  the  recipients  of 
aid  from  the  frind  might  regard  themselves 
as  members  of  a  State  Friendly  Society. 
There  is  an  abstract  of  Acland's  crude  plan 
in  Eden's '  State  of  the  Poor '  (i.  373-80).  It 
excited  considerable  attention  at  a  time  when 
the  increase  of  the  poor-rate  was  causing 
general  anxiety.  A  bill  based  on  Acland's 
plan  was  introduced  into  the  House  of  Com- 
mons ^see  Thomas  Gilbert's  speech  there,  10 
Dec  1787),  but  came  to  nothing.  Of  a  se- 
cond pamphlet  by  Acland,  in  refutation  of 
Edward  King's  attempt  to  prove  the  public 
utility  of  the  nationsd  debt,  the  'GTentle- 
man's  Magazine'  for  November  1796  contains 
a  brief  and  approving  notice.  There  is  no 
copy  of  this  pamphlet  in  the  library  of  the 
British  Museum. 

[Family  Commimications;  Adand's  Pamphlet; 
Parliamentary  History,  xxi.  1279.]  F.  £. 

ACLAND,  J9HN  DYKE  {d,  1778), 
soldier  and  politician,  was  the  eldest  son 
of  Sir  Thomas  Acland,  who  married  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  and  heir  of  Thomas  Dyke  of 
Tetton,  in  Somerset.    In  the  parliament  of 


1774,  which  returned  a  large  majority  of 
representatives  zealous  for  a  continuance  of 
the  struggle  with  the  American  colonies,  he 
took  his  seat  for  the  Cornish  borough  of  Cal- 
lington,  and  soon  became  prominent  among 
the  supporters  of  Lord  North's  minority  for 
his  warm  advocacy  of  strong  measures  of 
war.  When  the  prime  minister,  to  the  dis- 
may of  his  more  resolute  friends,  made  a 
conciliatory  motion,  substantially  allowing 
the  colonies  to  tax  themselves.  Colonel  Acland 
stepped  forth  from  the  ranks  and  announced 
that  he  could  not  support  the  government 
in  their  action  (20  Feo.  1776).  The  minis- 
terial resolutions  were  carried  in  committee 
by  274  votes  to  88 ;  but  on  the  question  that 
the  house  should  agree,  he  again  interposed 
and  condemned  them  as  ^  nugatory  and  hu- 
miliating.' In  the  following  August  he  sug- 
gested to  Lord  North  that  several  new  corps 
should  be  raised ;  but  George  III,  though 
highly  approving  his  '  laudable  sentiments  as 
a  citizen  and  soldier,'  discountenanced  any 
such  measure,  but  suggested  that  Colonel  Ac- 
land  should  raise  in  the  west  the  200  men 
required  for  the  augmentation  of  the  33rd  foot, 
which  he  had  joined  as  ensign,  23  March 
1774,  and  in  wnich,  through  the  interven- 
tion of  the  king,  he  purchased  a  company 
(23  March  1775).  At  tne  opening  of  the  new 
session  (26  Oct.)  he  moved  the  address  of 
thanks  for  the  king's  speech,  and  about  the 
same  time,  as  colonel  of  the  first  battalion  of 
Devonshire  militia,  he  presented  to  the  king 
an  address  from  that  IxKly,  the  language  of 
which  was  severely  criticised  by  Dunning, 
Fox,  and  Burke  (2  Nov.).  Fox  adverted  to 
this  address  at  a  later  date  (22  Nov.),  when 
Acland  retorted  that  he  was  no  adventurer 
or  place-hunter,  but  a  gentleman  of  inde- 
pendent fortune,  and  Fox  fiercely  replied  that 
this  was  the  first  time  any  one  had  taken  liber- 
ties  in  the  house  with  his  fortune,  *  whether 
real  or  ideal,'  and  would  have  continued  in 
his  invective  had  not  the  members  interposed 
and  put  an  end  to  the  altercation.  In  the 
same  month  of  November  he  a^n  pressed  his 
plans  upon  the  king,  who  told  the  minister 
that  he  did  not  see  his  way  to  promoting 
Colonel  Acland  in  Ireland,  but  that  a  majority 
might  perhaps  be  got  for  him  by  purchase. 
On  the  whole  George  III  was  of  opinion 
that  Acland, '  though  a  spirited  young  man,' 
was  of  such  exorbitant  pretensions  tnat  he 
should  be  employed  in  the  civil  line.  In  De- 
cember of  the  same  year  he  became  major  of 
the  20th  foot,  and  went  with  General  Bur- 
goyne's  ill-fated  expedition  to  America,  where 
he  acquitted  himself  with  great  bravery.  His 
adventures  are  sufficiently  described  in  the 
memoir  of  his  wife.  Lady  Harriet  Acland. 


Acland 


62 


Acland 


<  )u  his  return  to  England  the  same  fierceness 
of  disposition  was  conspicuous.  He  was  en- 
gaged in  a  duel  on  Bampton  Down,  in  Devon- 
shire, and  although  he  escaped  without  a 
wound,  the  exposure  brought  on  a  severe 
cold,  from  the  effects  of  which  he  died  at 
Pixton  Park,  near  Dulverton,  31  Oct.  1778. 
When  a  young  man  he  had  made  the  grand 
tour  with  Mr.  Thomas  Townshend,  after- 
wards Jjord  Sydney ;  and  their  portraits,  as 
archers,  were  painted  by  Sir  Joshua  Revnolds 
in  the  summer  of  1769  as  a  record  of  their 
friendship.  Before  it  could  be  finished,  how- 
ever, the  friends  quarrelled,  and  neither  of 
them  would  pay  the  artist  or  take  away  the 
picture.  At  a  subsequent  date  he  was  painted 
alone  by  Sir  Joshua,  and  the  picture,  which 
is  now  in  the  possession  of  Sir  T.  Dyke 
Acland,  was  exhibited  at  Burlington  House 
in  1882.  The  well-known  painting  of  the 
*  Archers  *  is  the  property  of  Lord  Carnarvon, 
and  was  shown  at  the  same  place  in  the  pre- 
vious year. 

[Corresp.  of  George  III  and  Lord  North,  i. 
262, 300 ;  Hansard  for  1775 ;  Leslie  and  Taylor's 
lloynolds,  i.  348,  357.]  W.  P.  C. 

ACLAND,  Sir  THOMAS  DYKE  (1787- 
1871),  politician  and  philanthropist,  was  the 
ehlest  son  of  Sir  Thomas  Dyke  Acland,  who 
married  the  only  daughter  of  Sir  Richard 
Tloare,  and  was  bom  in  London  on  29  March, 
1787.  His  father  died  when  the  boy  was  in 
his  ninth  year,  and  he  became  the  heir  to  the 
familv  estates.  He  was  educated  at  Christ 
Church,  Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of 
B.A.  on  23  March  1808,  and  became  M.A. 
16  June  1814.  On  15  June  1831,  he  re- 
ceived the  honorary'  degree  of  D.C.L.  During 
his  undergrraduate  days  at  Oxford  he  aidea 
in  founding  Grillon's  Club,  of  which  many 
eminent  politicians  were  members.  In  Octo- 
ber 181 2  ne  was  returned  to  parliament  in  the 
tory  interest  as  meml)er  for  the  county  of 
Devon,  but  lost  his  seat  in  1818,  when  the 
yeomanry  brought  forward  Lord  Ebrington 
as  their  champion,  and  remained  out  of  par- 
liament until  he  was  again  returned  for 
Devon  m  1820.  ^Vhen  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington declared  himself  in  favour  of  catholic 
emancipation,  he  ^found  an  energetic  sup- 
porter in  Sir  Thomas  Acland.  This  offended 
his  former  friends,  but  drew  to  his  side  in 
the  election  of  1830  the  whigs  of  Devon, 
who  split  their  votes  between  him  and  his 
old  antagonist.  Lord  Ebrington.  By  this 
time  Sir  Thomas  Acland  had  spent,  it  was 
believe<l,  over  80,000/.  in  his  parliamentary 
contests.  His  new  friends  were  displeased 
at  his  vote  for  General  Gascoyne*s  motion, 
.  which  caused  the  rejection  of  the  first  Reform 
Bill,  and  the  loss  o^  his  seat  was  the  penalty 


which  he  paid  for  his  conduct.  From  1831  to 
1837  he  was  without  a  seat  in  parliament ; 
but  from  the  latt«r  year  imtil  1857  he  repre- 
sented the  division  of  North  Devon  in  the 
conservative  interest.  He  stood  by  protec- 
tion until  1840,  but  voted  steadily 'with  Sir 
Robert  Peel  through  all  the  divisions  which 
were  forced  on  by  Lord  G^rge  Bentinck 
and  Mr.  Disraeli.  On  7  April  1808  he  married, 
at  Mitcham,  Lydia  Elizabeth,  only  daughter 
of  Henry  Hoare,  of  Mitcham  Grove,  nead 
partner  in  the  banking  firm  of  Messrs.  Hoare, 
and  an  active  supporter  of  all  church  work 
at  home  and  in  the  colonies.  In  the  house 
of  his  father-in-law  he  passed  many  happy 
days,  and  there  he  met  many  zealous  churco- 
men.  His  interest  in  religious  progress  is 
shown  by  the  references  in  the  first  volume 
of  Bishop  Wilberforce's  life  and  by  a  passage 
in  Sir  Walter  Scott's  diary  for  1828,  where 
Sir  Thomas  Acland  is  styled  '  the  head  of 
the  religious  party  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons.' Alexander  Knox  and  Bishop  Jebb 
were  also  numbered  among  Sir  Thomas  Ac- 
land's  friends,  and  he  is  frequently  men- 
tioned (under  the  initials  of  Sir  T.  A.)  in 
their  thirty  years'  correspondence.  Lady 
Acland  died  in  1856,  and  m  the  next  year 
her  husband  withdrew  into  retirement.  His 
name  was  often  on  men's  lips  as  the  type  of 
an  independent  politician  and  a  thorough 
gentleman,  and  in  1861  a  statue  of  him  by 
Stephens  was  erected  in  Northemhayy  Exeter, 
as  a  '  tribute  of  affectionate  respect  for  pri- 
vate worth  and  public  integrity.  His  death 
occurred  suddenly  at  Killerton,  Broad  Clyst, 
22  July  1871. 

[J.  B.  Sweet's  Life  of  Henry  Hoare ;  Exeter 
Western  Times.]  W.  P.  C. 

ACLAND,  Sir  WROTH  PALMER, 
K.C.B.  (1770-1816),  lieutenant-general,  was 
son  of  Arthur  Palmer  Acland,  of  FaiiAeld, 
and  nephew  of  Sir  Thomas  Acland,  Bart., 
and  entered  the  army  in  1787  as  ensign  in 
the  17th  regiment.  He  became  lieutenant 
in  1790,  and  captain  in  1791,  and  was  then 
placed  on  half  pay.  On  the  breaking  out  of 
the  war  with  France  all  officers  were  required 
for  active  service,  and  Captain  Acland  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  3rd  regiment  or  Buffs  in  May 
1793.  He  served  in  Flanders  under  the 
Duke  of  York,  and  in  1795  was  promoted 
major,  and  purchased  the  lieutenant-colonelcy 
of  the  19th  regiment.  In  1796  he  accom- 
panied his  regiment  to  Ceylon,  and  in  1799 
became  by  exchange  captain  and  lieutenant- 
colonel  in  the  2nd  or  Coldstream  guards, 
with  which  he  served  in  Egypt.  He  became 
colonel  in  1803,  and,  after  serving  at  the 
battle  of  Maida,  was  appointed  brigadier- 
general,  and  ordered  to  taice  command  of  a 


Acontius 


63 


Acontius 


rigade  fittinff  out  at  Harwich  for  Portu^l 
a  1808.  His  Drigade  sailed  in  company  with 
ne  under  Brigadier-Greneral  Anstruther  in 
lay,  and  on  reaching  the  Douro  found  orders 
rom  Sir  Arthur  WeUesley  to  proceed  to  Ma- 
eira  Bay.  Here  WeUesley  covered  the  dan- 
nerous  disembarkation  of  Acland*s  brigade, 
nd  then  drew  up  the  two  bri^^es  with  the 
est  of  his  army  in  a  strong  position  at  Vimeiro. 
^.eland's  brigade  was  posted  on  the  left  of  the 
hurchyard,  which  formed  the  key  of  the 
^Inglish  position,  and  which  would  have  been 
k  post  of  much  dangerif  Sir  Arthur  WeUesley 
tad  not  perceived  Junot's  plan  of  turning  the 
English  lefty  and  sent  the  brigades  on  his 
»wn  right  to  take  position  on  Acland's  left. 
Ls  it  was,  Adana  by  a  flank  fire  helped 
Lnstruther  to  drive  down  the  main  French 
ttaeking  column,  which  was  his  chief  im- 
portant service.  lU-health  made  it  necessary 
or  him  to  leave  Portugal  soon  after  the 
lattle,  and  deprived  him  of  the  ^lorv  of 
erving,  like  Anstruther,  under  Sir  .tohn 
Aoore.  In  1810  he  was  promoted  major- 
;eneral,  and  commanded  a  division  in  the 
txpedition  to  the  Scheldt,  where,  however, 
ittle  glorj-  was  to  be  won.  In  1814  he  was 
iromot«d  Ueutenant-general,  and  on  the  ex- 
ension  of  the  order  of  the  Bath  made  one 
)f  the  first  K.C.B.'s.  In  1815  he  was  made 
iolonel  of  the  first  battalion  of  the  60t.h 
egiment,  and  in  1816  died  from  the  recur- 
ipnce  of  the  fever  which  had  threatened  his 
ife  in  Portugal. 

[For  Grenersl  Acland*8  f-ieryioes  see  Philippart's 
ioyal  Military  Calendar,  1st  edition,  1815;  and 
or  the  battle  of  Vimeiro,  Napier's  Peninsular 
^ar,  book  ii.  chap,  o.]  H.  M.  S. 

ACONTIXJS^  JACOBUS,  latmized  from 
VooKssio,  AcoNCio,  or  Ck)xcio,  Jacopo  (1500  ?- 
.506  ?),  jurist,  philosopher,  theologian,  and 
ingineer,  was  bom  at  Trent  in  tne  Tyrol 
kbout  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
Little  is  known  of  him  before  his  coming  to 
his  country,  except  what  is  told  in  the  'Ep. 
id  Wolfium,'  from  which  we  learn  that  he 
le voted  many  years  to  the  study  of  the  law, 
hat  he  passed  some  of  his  time  in  courts, 
md  that  ne  applied  himself  to  literature  late 
n  life.  There  is  no  authority  for  the  state- 
nent  that  he  was  in  orders.  His  attachment 
o  ideas  too  Uberal  for  his  sjte  and  country 
nade  it  expedient  for  him  in  1557  to  take  up 
ua  abode  in  Bile,  at  that  time  the  home  of 
Amo  Gelso,  Celio  Secundo  Curio,  and  many 
ither  Italian  protestants.  He  had  been  pre- 
teded  two  months  by  his  Mend  Francesco 
iettiy  to  whom  was  dedicated,  in  the  most 
JfiBCtionate  tenns,  his  first  work  'De  Me- 
hodo '  printed  at  Bftle  in  the  following  year 


by  Pietro  Pema,  a  protestant  refugee  from 
Lucca  of  merit  and  learning,  who  also  brought 
out  the  first  Latin  and  French  editions  of 
the  *  Stratagemata  Satanee.'  The  treatise 
*  De  Methodo '  is  written  with  elegance  and 
precision.  It  was  the  commencement  of  a 
much  larger  work,  which  had  long  occupied 
the  thoughts  of  the  writer.  Its  object  is  to 
urg^  the  importance  of  methodising  existing 
knowledge.  If  thirty  years  were  to  be  de- 
voted by  a  youth  to  purposes  of  study,  the 
writer  would  recommend  that  the  first 
twenty  should  be  applied  to  investigating 
the  principles  of  method. 

Betti  and  Acontius  afterwards  went  to 
Zurich,  where  the  latter  made  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Simler,  Frisius,  and  Jo.  Wolfius.  He 
visited  Strasburg,  and  came  to  England  in 
or  before  1559.  He  was  well  received,  and  at 
once  showed  the  practical  bent  of  his  mind 
in  a  petition  addressed  to  Elizabeth  in  De- 
cemlJer  of  that  year,  stating  that  having  dis- 
covered many  useful  contrivances,  such  as 
new  kinds  01  wheel  machines,  furnaces  for 
dyers,  brewers,  &c.,  he  prayed  for  a  patent 
to  secure  him  against  imitators  using  them 
without  his  consent.  The  request  was  not 
granted,  but  on  27  Feb.  1560  he  was  aUowed 
an  annuity  of  60/.,  which  was  the  cause  of  the 
subse<][uent  dedication — DiwB  JSlizabethre, 
the  *mscription  canonisante'  of  Bayle — 
of  his  *  Stratagemata.'  Acontius  is  careful 
to  point  out  in  the  *  Ep.  ad  Wolfium  *  that 
his  merits  as  an  engineer  gained  for  him  the 
pension ;  but  although  he  admits  that  it 
aUowed  him  leisure  for  study  he  refers  to  it 
in  terms  of  measured  gratitude.  Letters  of 
naturalisation  were  issued  to  him  on  8  Oct. 
1561. 

Like  other  foreign  nonconformists  he 
attached  himself  to  the  Dutch  church  in 
Austinfriars.  In  1559  Adrian  Hamstedius, 
the  minister,  was  excommunicated  by  Bishop 
Grindal  for  favouring  certain  Dutch  ana- 
baptists and  refusing  to  renounce  their  errors. 
He  found  a  supporter  in  Acontius,  who, 
having  been  forbiaden  the  sacrament  by  the 
bishop,  addressed  a  long  '  Epistola  Apolo- 
getica '  to  the  congregation  in  defe  ice  of 
himself  and  Hamstedius. 

The  '  Epistola  ad  Wolfii'm '  was  written 
in  December  1562,  although  not  published 
until  1565.  It  is  fuU  of  useful  precepts  for 
would-be  authors,  but  is  chiefly  interesting 
from  its  autobiographical  nature. 

Theology  andliterature  were  not  his  sole 
occupations.  Mazzuchelli  styles  him  '  inten- 
dente  di  fortificazione.'  It  was  represented 
to  parliament  in  5  Eliz.  that  Jacobus  Acon- 
tyus,  servant  of  the  queen,  had  undertaken 
to  recover  at  his  own  cost  2,000  acres  of  land 


Acontius 


64 


Acontius 


inundated  by  the  Thames  in  the  parishes  of 
Krith,  Liesnes,  and  Plumstead,  and  an  act 
was  passed  decreeing  that  he  should  have  as 
a  reward  one  half  of  all  such  land  recovered 
by  him  within  four  years  from  10  March 
1562.  He  also  petitioned  the  queen  on  the 
8ubject,  and  obtained  a  license  on  24  June 
1563  to  take  up  workmen.  By  8  Jan.  1566, 
a  tract  of  600  acres  had  been  won  from  the 
river.  A  portion  was  tigoin  lost,  and  then  he 
entered  into  a  partnership  with  G.  B.  Casti- 
fflione  and  some  English  tradesmen  to  make 
further  efforts. 

He  enjoyed  the  patronage  of  the  Earl  of 
lieicester,  to  whom,  in  August  1564,  he  pre- 
sented a  remarkable  treatise  on  the  use  and 
study  of  history,  which  still  remains  in 
manuscript. 

In  1565  he  brought  out  his  famous  *Strata- 
gemata  Satanse,'  printed  at  B&lc  in  Latin  and 
French  by  his  friend  Pema.  He  dist  inguishes 
between  the  fundamental  and  accessory  dog- 
mas of  Christianity,  and  reduces  the  number 
of  the  former  to  very  few,  among  wliich  are 
not  reckoned  those  of  the  Trinity  and  Real 
Presence.  The  apostles'  creed  contains  all 
necessary  doctrines,  and  the  numerous  con- 
fessions of  faith  of  different  communions  are 
the  ruses  of  the  Evil  One,  strata^/emata 
Safa/ue,  to  tempt  man  from  the  truth.  Or- 
thodox divines  have  objected  to  the  danger- 
ously catholic  spirit  displayed  in  this  book, 
and  the  writer  has  been  styled  Arian,  So- 
cinian,  and  even  Deist.  His  Arianism  can 
scarcely  be  doubted;  his  theological  career 
in  England  certainly  favours  the  charge. 
But  he  deserves  all  honour  for  the  strong 
protests  against  capital  punishment  for  heresy 
and  for  the  liberal  reasoning  in  favour  of 
toleration  which  give  the  book  its  permanent 
place  in  ecclesiastical  literary  history.  It 
attracted  great  attention.  Three  editions  of 
the  original  text  appeared  in  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  eleven  (three  being  in  England) 
in  the  seventeenth  century,  besides  French, 
English,  (German,  and  Dutch  translations. 
'  Stratagemata  Sathanie '  is  placed  in  the 
appendix  to  the  Tridentine  *  Index  Libb. 
Prohibb.'  (1569)  among  anonymous  books. 
Evidently  the  title  alone  was  suflicieut  to 
condemn  the  book.  The  Koman  Index  of 
1877  describes  it  with  fitting  bibliographical 
accuracy.  The  opinions  of  theologians  on 
the  work  have  oeen  collected  by  Crussius 
(Crtmii  Animadc.  pt.  ii.  32)  and  Ancillon 
( Milange  critique.,  i.  24-9). 

Acontiu8*8  heterodox  religious  opinions 
were  once  more  to  bring  him  into  trouble. 
Tlie  last  we  hear  of  him  is  from  a  letter 
dated  6  June  1566,  in  answer  to  a  charge  of 
Sabellianism.    He  is  believed  to  have  died 


shortly  afterwards,  leaving  his  papers  under 
the  charge  of  G.  B.  Castiglione,  the  queen*» 
master  of  Italian  and  groom  of  the  privr 
chamber,  who  published  the  'Timor  & 
Dio.' 

The  following  is  a  bibliographical  list  of 
his  works: — 1.  *J.  Acontius  de  Methodo^ 
h.  e.  de  recta  investig^andarum  tradendamm- 
que  scientiarum  ratione,'  Basilese,  ap.  P. 
Femam,  1558.  First  edition,  reprinted  it 
Geneva  in  1582  ap.  Eustathium  Vi^n, 
'  multo  quam  antea  castigatiua:/  affam  at 
Lugd.  Bat.  1617,  sm.  8vo,  and  in  *(&.  f,Yoma 
et  aliorum  de  studiorum  ratione  opnscalt,^ 
Ultraj.  1651,  sm.  8vo.  2.  *  Satanfe  StTatag&> 
mata  iibri  octo,  J.  Acontio  authore,  aocewit 
eruditissima  epistola  de  ratione  edendorum 
librorum  ad  Jonannem  Vuolfium  'ngurinum 
eodem  authore,' Basileae,  ap.P.  Pemam,1565, 
4to.  The  genuine  first  edition,  of  extreme 
rarity.  Bibliographers  are  unaware  of  the 
existence  of  two  editions  of  this  year.  The 
one  usually  quoted  is  in  smaller  type,  and  is 
entitled  '  Stratagematum  Satanse  bbri  octo,' 
&c.  Basilefle,  ap.  P.  Pemam,  1665,  am.  8vo. 
Reprinted  BasileaB,  1582,  8vo,  and  *  curante 
Jac.  Grassero,'  ib.  1610,  8vo,  ib.  ap.  Wald- 
kirchium,1616,ib.  1618,  ib.  1620,  Amst.  1624, 
Oxon.  G.  Webb,  1631,  sm.  8vo,  Lond.  1648, 
Oxon.  1650,  Amst.  Jo.  Kavenstein,  1652, 
sm.  8vo,  ib.  1674,  sm.  8vo,  Neomagi,  A.  ab. 
Hoogenhuyse,  16i61,  sm.  8vo.  Hie  Prendi 
translation  is  *  Les  Riizes  de  Satan  receuil- 
lies  et  comprinses  en  huit  liures,'  Basle,  P. 
Perne,  1565, 4to ;  printed  with  the  same  type 
as  the  first  Latin  4to,  wanting  the  'Ep.  ad 
Wolfium'  and  the  index.  The  first  issue  of 
the  English  translation  is  called  'Satan'a 
Stratagems,  or  the  Devil's  Cabinet-Council 
discovered  .  .  .  together  with  an  epistle 
written  by  Mr.  John  Goodwin  ana  Mr. 
Durie's  letter  concerning  the  same,'  Lon- 
don, J.  Macock,  sold  by  J.  Hancock,  1648, 
4to.  The  date  of  Thomason's  copy  (British 
Museum)  has  been  altered  by  him  to  1647 ; 
he  purchased  it  on  14  Feb.  The  translator 
announces  that  if  the  work  found  favour 
he  would  finish  it,  but  only  the  first  four 
books  were  published.  There  are  three  de- 
dications— one  to  the  parliament,  one  to  Fair- 
fax and  Cromwell,  and  one  to  John  Warner, 
lord  mayor.  The  stock  seems  to  have  been 
sold  to  W.  Ley,  who  issued  it  with  a  new 
title,  *  Darkness  Discovered,  or  the  Devil's 
Secret  Stratagems  laid  open,'  &c.,  London, 
J.  M.  1651,  4to,  with  a  doubt fujly  authentic 
etching  of  *  James  Acontius,  a  Reverend  Di- 
uine.'  Thomason  dated  his  copy  July  7.  A 
German  translation  came  out  at  BAle  in  1647, 
sm.  8vo,  and  a  Dutch  version,  Amst.  1662, 
12mo.    3.  *  Eruditissima  epistola  de  ratione 


Acontius  6s  Acton 


dendorum  librorum  ad  Johannem  Vaolfium 
'igurinuin.'  Dated  Londiaiy  12  kal.  Dec. 
562,  first  Dublished  in  the  Latin  '  Strata- 
emata '  15o5,  and  to  be  found  in  the  sub- 


Books  &c.  of  Dutch  Charch  at  QuildhaU ;  Barn's 
Hist,  of  French  &c.  Refugees  ;  Dugdale's  Hist, 
of  Imbanking ;  Cal.  of  State  Papers  (Dom.  1647- 
80,  1601-3,  and  App.]  H.  R.  T. 


equent  editions,  but  in  none  of  the  transla-        ACTON,     CHARLES      JANUARIUS 
ions ;  printed  separately  Chemnitz,  Mauke,    EDWARD  (1803-1847),  cardinal,  was  the 
791,  8vo.    4.  '  Una  essortazione  al  Timor  j  second  son  of  Sir  John  Francis  Acton,  the 
li  Die,  con  alcune  rime  italiane,nuovamente    sixth  baronet,  of  Aldenham  Hall,  near  Bridg- 
neese  in  luce  fda  G.  B.Castiglione],'  Londra,  ;  north,  Shropshire,  by  his  marriage  (for  which 
ippreaso  G^.  Wolfio,  s.a.,  8yo.  Dedicated  to    a  papal  dispensation  had  been  obtained)  with 
Sxsabeth.     Chaufepi6  is  the  only  person  ,  Mary  Anne,  daughter  of  liis  brother,  Joseph 
who  seems  to  have  seen  this  very  rare  little  !  Edward  Acton,  a  lieutenant-general  in  the 
>iece.     The  printer  learnt  his  art  in  Italy.  ■  ser\'ice  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  and  governor  of 
Se  worked  between  1579  and  1600,  and    Gaeta.    The  family  had  long  been  connected 
Mought  out  many  Italian  books.    5.  '  Epi-    with  Naples,  and  the  father  of  the  future  car- 
^ola  apologetica  pro  Hadr.  Haemstadio  et    dinal  became  commander-in-chief  of  the  land 
uo  aeipea'    Written  in  1562  or  1563,  says  j  and  sea  forces  of  that  kingdom,  and  a  knight 
ierdes,  who  reprinted  it   (Scrintujn  Anti-    of  St.  Januarius,  and   he   was  also  prime 
^Mornfm,  vii.  part  i.  123)  from  the  archives  I  minister  of  Naples  for  several  years.    Charles 
>f  the  Dutch  church,  now  in  the  Guildhall  .  Januarius  Edward  was  bom  in  the  city  of 
library ;  contains  much  information  respect-  '  Naples  6  March  1803,  and  on  the  death  of 
ing  Hamstedius,  the  Dutch  church,  ana  the    his  father  in  1811  he,  with  his  elder  brother 
irriter.     6.  '  Epistola  .  .  .  Londini  8   idus  i  Sir  Richard,  was  sent  to  England  for  educa- 
Junii,  1566.'    Keproduced  from  the  archives  I  tion.    First  he  was  placed  at  a  school  kept 
df  the  Dutch  church  by  Crussius  {Cremi   by  the  abb6  Qu^^n^  at  Parsons  Green,  near 
Animadv,  ii.  131).  It  is  not  known  to  whom    London,  from  wiiicli  he  was  removed  to  a 
the  letter  was  addressed.    7.  *  Ars  munien-    protestant  school  at  Isleworth.     Next  he  was 
donun  oppidorum.'    Acontius  refers  to  this  ^  sent  to  Westminster  School,  which  he  was 
in  his   '  £p.   ad  Wolfium '  as  having  been  j  soon  obliged  to  quit  on  religious  grounds, 
first  written  in  Italian  and  afterwards  trans-    He  subsequently  resided  with  a  protestant 
lated  into  Latin  while  in  England.     Mazzu-  .  clergyman  in  Kent,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Jones,  as  a 
chelli  says,  *  Ital.  et  Lat.  Genevae,  1585,'  but  ;  private  pupil.    Aft^r  this,  in  1819,  he  pro- 
no  such  book  can  be  traced.     8.  A  manu-    ceeded  to  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and 
script   on  the  use  and  study  of   history,    became,  under  Dr.  Neville,  an  inmate  of  Mag- 
written  in  Italian,  and  presented  by  Acontius    dalen  College,  where  he  finished  his  secular 
to  the  Earl  of  Leicester  in  August  1564,  is    education  in  1823.    This  was  indeed,  as  Car- 
preserved  at  the  Record  Office.    It  is  not    dinal  Wiseman  observes,  a  strange  prepara- 
spoken  of  by  any  of  the  authorities,  although    tion  for  the  Roman  purple.    However,  young 
made  use  of  in  the  following  interesting  '  Acton,  having  a  strong  vocation  to  the  eccle- 
little  octavo  volume,  dedicated  to  the  Earl    siastical  state,  entered  the  college  of  the  Ac- 
of  Leicester :  '  The  true  order  and  methode    cademia  Ecclesiastics  in  Rome,  which  he  left 
of  wryting  and  reading  hysterics,  accord-    with  the  rank  of  prelate.     Leo  XII  made  him 
ing  to  the  precepts  of  Francesco  Patricio    one  of  his  chamberlains,  and  in  1828  appointed 
and  Accontio  Trioentino,  by  Thomas  Blun-    him  secretary  to  Monsignor  (afterwards  Car- 
deyil,'  Lond.  W.  Seres,  1574.    The  compiler    dinal)  Lambruschini,  the  nuncio  at  Paris. 
states  that  he  *  gathered  his  work  partly  out    Shortly  afterwards  he  was  nominated  vice- 
of  a  little  written  treatyse,  which  myne  olde    legate  or  governor  of  Bologna.     He  was  re- 
friende  of  good  memone,  Accontio,  did  not    moved,  however,  from  this  arduous  situation 
many  yeares  since  present  to  your  Honour    before  the  revolution  which,  soon  after  the 
in  the  Italian  tongue.*    9.  *  Liber  de  Dia-    death  of  Pius  VIII,  broke  out  there  and  in 
lectica.*     An   immiished  work  with    this  j  the  neighbouring  provinces.    On  the  acces- 
title  is  referred  to  in  the  *  Epistola  ad  Wol-  '  sion  of  Gregory  X V I  lie  was  made  secretary 
fiuxn,'  with  the  remark  that  the  world  was    to  the  congregation  entitled  the  Disciplina 
soon  to  enter  upon  a  much  more  enlightened    Begolare,  the  duties  of  which  are  to  prevent 
era.  and  correct  all  violations  or  relaxations  of 

rOflidM.  Sneeimen    Italia   Reform  •    eiusd  •  discipline  in  religious  communities.     Next 
i!rSSL  EflLlcno  Tl«f  .  MiuKnchftlH.  Seritl    ^^  ^as  nominated  auditor  of  the  apostolic 


Oiig.  Ecdas.  m  Belgio  Ref. ;  Mazzachelli,  Scrit- 
tori  dTtalia;  TirabcMchi,  Storia  della  Lett.  It.  vii. 
375,474;  BayleJMetioniiaire Critique;  Chaofepi^, 
NouTcan  Diet.;  Gnidiazd,  Hist,  da  Socinianisme ; 
HaDam^B  lit.  Hist. ;  Stiype's  Grindal;  Cat.  of 


chamber,  or  first  judge  of  the  Roman  civil 
courts,  and  on  24  Jan.  1842  he  was  pro- 
claimed cardinal-priest  of  tlie  title  of  Santa 
Maria  della  Pace.     He  was  also  protector  of 


▼OL.  I. 


« 


Acton 


66 


Acton 


the  English  college  at  Rome.  Cardinal  Acton 
was  the  interpreter  and  only  witness  of  Ghre- 
gory  XVI  in  the  important  interview  which 
took  place  in  1845  between  that  pontiff  and 
the  emperor  Nicholas  I  of  Russia.  Imme-  ' 
diately  after  the  conference  the  cardinal  wrote 
down,  at  the  pope's  request,  a  minute  account 
of  it;  but  he  never  allowed  it  to  be  seen. 
Every  affair  of  consequence  relating  to  Eng- 
land and  its  dependencies  was  referred  by  the 
pope  to  Cardinal  Acton,  and  to  his  zeal,  pre- 
viously to  his  elevation  to  the  sacred  college, 
was  mainly  due  the  division  of  this  country 
(in  1840)  into  eight  catholic  districts  or  vi- 
cariates apostolic.  Previously  there  had  been 
only  four  vicariates  created  by  Innocent  XI 
in  1688 ;  and  it  may  be  mentioned  that  the 
increase  in  their  number  was  the  prelude  to 
the  restoration  of  the  Roman  catholic  hier- 
archy by  Pius  IX  in  1850.  Cardinal  Acton's 
health,  never  very  strong,  began  to  decline, 
and  he  sought  refuge  first  at  Palermo  and 
then  at  Na^es,  where  he  died  in  the  Jesuits' 
convent  23  June  1847. 

[Catholic  Directory  (1843),  149  (with  por- 
trait) ;  Card.  Wiseman's  Recollectioiis  of  the  last  | 
four  Popes  (1858),  476-480  ;  Ferdinando  Ama- 
rante,  Sonnetti  dcdicati  a  Miledi  Marianna  Ac- 
ton, madre  del  Cardinale ;  British  Catholicity, 
its  Position  and  Wants,  addressed  to  Cardinal 
Acton  (Edinb.  1844);  Gent.  Mag.  N.  S.  xxviii. 
670;  Foster's  Peerage  (1881),  9;  Lodge's  Ge- 
nealogy of  the  Peerage  and  Baronetage  (1859), 
592.]  T.  C. 

ACTON,  EDWARD  (d.  1707),  captain  in 
the  navy,  presumably  a  grandson  of  Sir  Ed- 
ward Acton,  the  first  baronet,  attained  that 
rank  in  October  1694,  and  continued  in  active 
service  through  the  war  that  was  then 
raging.  In  1702  he  went  out  to  the  West 
Indies  in  command  of  the  Bristol,  and  in 
the  following  spring  was  sent  home  with  the 
three  captains,  Kirkby,  Wade,  and  Constable, 
the  two  former  of  whom  had  been  sentenced 
to  death  for  their  misconduct  towards  Vice- 
Admiral  Benbow.  Orders  in  anticipation 
had  been  sent  down  to  the  several  ports  that 
the  sentence  was  to  be  carried  into  execution 
without  delay;  and  the  two  culprits  were 
accordingly  shot  on  board  the  Bristol  on 
18  April  1703,  two  days  after  her  arrival 
in  Plymouth  Sound.  In  1704  Acton  com- 
manded the  Kingston  of  sixty  guns,  and  took 
part  in  the  capture  of  Gibraltar  and  the  battle 
of  Malaga  [see  Rooke,  Sib  Gboboe].  On 
this  last  occasion,  having  expended  the  whole 
of  his  ammunition,  he  drew  out  of  the  line, 
for  doing  which  he  was  afterwards  tried  but 
fully  acquitted,  and  the  following  year  com- 
manded the  Grafton  in  the  Mediterranean 
under  Sir  Cloudesley  ShoveL    Towards  the 


end  of  1706  he  returned  to  Eiu^landy  and  his 
ship  having  been  refitted  he  joined  the  squa- 
dron imder  Captain  Clements  in  the  Hamp- 
ton Court,  which  sailed  from  the  Downs  on 
1  May  1707  with  the  Lisbon  and  West  India 
trade  in  convoy.  On  the  next  day  off  Dunge- 
ness  they  fell  in  with  a  numencally  supe- 
rior French  squadron  of  frigates  ana  privar 
teers,  commanded  by  the  Coimt  Forbin.  Of 
the  three  English  ships  the  Grafton  and 
Hampton  Court  were  boarded  by  several  of 
the  enemy,  and  carried  hj  force  of  numbers, 
Captain  Acton  being  killed,  and  Captain 
Clements  mortally  woimded,  shot  through  a 
port  by  Forbin  himself.  The  Koyal  Oak 
made  ^^ood  her  escape  in  an  almost  sinking 
condition ;  but  several  of  the  merchant  ships 
were  captured. 

[Official  letters,  &c.,  in  the  Public  Becord  Of- 
fice; M^moires  du  Comte  de  Forbin  (17291  ii. 
231.]  J.  K.  L 

ACTON.  ELIZA  (1799-1859),  authoress, 
daughter  or  John  Acton,  brewer,  of  HastingB^ 
afterwards  of  Ipswich,  Suffolk,  was  bom  at 
Battle,  Sussex,  17  April,  1799.  She  was  of 
delicate  health  in  her  youth,  and  was  taken 
abroad.  Whilst  in  Paris,  she  became  en- 
^iged  to  be  married  to  an  officer  in  the 
French  army;  but  this  marriage  did  not  take 
place,  and  she  returned  to  England,  where 
she  published,  by  subscription,  a  volume  of 
poems,  at  Ipswich,  in  182o.  A  second  edition, 
again  of  500  copies  and  by  subscription,  was 
published  in  1827.  In  1835  Miss  Acton  con- 
tributed a  poem,  *  The  Two  Portraits,'  anony- 
mously, to  the  '  Sudbury  Pocket  Book.'  In 
1836,  in  the  same  annual,  she  published 
*  Original  Poetry  by  Miss  Acton,  author  of 
the  "Two  Portraits."'  In  1837  she  was 
living  at  Bordyke  House,  Tunbridge;  and 
on  the  arrival  oi  Queen  Adelaide  in  that  town 
shortly  aft«r  the  death  of  William  IV,  Miss 
Acton  presented  the  queen  with  some  verses 
commemorating  her  devoted  attendance  on 
her  husband  during  his  last  illness.  In  1838 
she  published  the '  Chronicles  of  Castel-Fram- 
lingnam '  in  *  Fulcher's  Sudbury  JoumaL'  In 
1 842  she  published  another  poem, '  The  Voice 
of  the  North,'  a  welcome  to  Queen  Victoria 
on  her  first  Scotch  visit.  In  1845,  after 
further  fugitive  poems.  Miss  Acton  had  conn 
pleted  the  popular  work,  *  Modem  Cookery,' 
with  which  she  is  chiefly  associated ;  a  second 
and  a  third  edition  of  it  were  called  for  the 
same  year ;  a  fourth  and  fifth  in  1846 ;  with 
numerous  editions  in  successive  years.  In 
May  1857  she  brought  out  her  last  work, 
<  The  English  Bread-Book,'  treating  of  the 
various  ways  of  making  bread,  ana  of  the 
constituent  parts  of   various  bread-stufiB. 


Acton  67  Acton 

At  this  date  Eliza  Acton  was  living  at  these  preferments.     In  1348  he  is  found  hold- 

Snowdon  House,  John  Street,  Hampstead,  ing  the  prebend  of  Welton  Ryval  (Le  Neye, 

and  there,  after  much  illness,  she  died  in  Fastiy  ii.  233).    In  his  books  he  is  described 

February  1869.  as  canon  of   Lincoln.     He  died  in  1350. 

[Clarke's  History  of  Ipswich,  p.  445 ;  Gent.  His  name  is  variously  spelt  Achedune,  De 

Bfag.    1859 ;   Sufiblk  Garland ;    private  corre-  Athona,  Athone,  Aton,  and  Katon. 
spondenoe.]                                              J.  H.  Acton's  chief  vsrork  was  a  commentary  on 

A  f^rrw  TTWKTDv  n ion  i q «q\  »»;4^<>*;««  ^^  ecclesiastical '  constitutions '  of  Otho  and 

ACTON,  BffiNRY  (1797-1843),  unitw^^^  Ottobone,  papal  legates  in  England  in  the 

divine,  was  bom  at  Lewes,  Sussex,  10  March  ^x^-^^^A  \»J«*„wJ^    Ti.^n^  <  «««-*u„*;«««  > 

1797   where  his  father  wm  nftrish  rlerk  at  "iirteenth   century.     Tliese     constitutions 

qI   T  T^r^S  was  pansh  clerK  at  ^  ^^  ^  ^^  English  canon 

St.  John's.    He  was  apprenticed  in  his  six-  j        ^  Acton's^filll  and  leamef  notes  were 

teenthyeartoMr.  J  Baxter,aLewespnn^^^^^  beld  by  the  lawyers  of  his  own  time  to  be 

and  l«came  a  member  of  a  literary  society  in  i^^^iJ^^j^    j^    4eir    interpretation.     Very 

""^^^T^^  t^     '>^P^"  ^''^  "^"f"      f  n^any  manuscript  copies  oi^  Acton's  com- 

mired.     The  two  unitarian  congregations  of  ^^„r„^  „^  •    ^.Jl  «^ii^^  i:v.-««:^  «♦  r^•^ 3 

o     *!.  J  Tk'-L  I.T  X*      •      u-««  mentary  are  in  the  college  libraries  at  Oxlord. 

Southover  and  Ditchling  agreed  to  give  him  ^^^  .   i    .,  ^  n^^\.^A^  TT«:,r«— u^  i  :u— ^ 

m,  a  year  jointly  (TgSit  of  10/.  being  ^t  '^  ^,  ^^^  Cambridge  University  Libniry 

jj  J /dr^  A    TT  "'•i.    •  '^  17     jv  r  '  ^  and  another  among  the  Lansdowne  MSS.  at 

added  fiom  tie  Unitanan  Fund)  for  serving  ^^^  ^^.^.^^  Museum.     Acton's  work  w«« 
tl^ir  chapels  on  dteniate  Sundays  with  a       .^^  ^    ^^^  ^^^  ^^^  j^  ^^^  ^  ^,^^^ 

f^owHipprentice,  ^  Ulmm  Browne ;  and  his  \^  ^^^^^  .^  ^y;,,;^  Lyndewood-^s '  l4ov&,- 

indentuies  with  Mr.  Baxter,  the  printer,  ^j^j^ ,     gj,  jj  g^j^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^ 

being  set  aside  W  arrapgement,  he  placed  Acton's commenta^' u/his '  Concilia.'  Many 

5ril^  ^  «  •  w       '  •'"  ]    \  "°1f  ft  of  his  notes  are  translated  in  Johnson's  <  Cof- 

Morell,  the  Brighton  minister,  then  head  of  j     j^    j.  j^^i^i^tical  Laws,'  1720,  and  are 

^^^^'t^  academy  at  Hove.    Acton  ^^^^^       j^  '  Otho's  Ecclesiastical  Laws,' 

Studied  Qreek,  Latin,  and  mathematics  at  ' 

Hove,  and  walked  to  one  or  other  of  his 

entitled  'Quicstiones  et  not; 

constitutiones  * 


rtudied  Greek,  Latin,  and  mathematics  at  translated  by  J.  W.  mite  in  1844.  In  the 
Hove,  and  wriked  to  one  or  other  of  his  y^  ^^  ^^  g„^,,  C^jj  j^  ^  manuscript 
smaU  coMpregations  on  Sundays,  returning,    ^^^itl^l  'Qua>stiones  et  notabilia  Johannes 


'f-S^Vi''*'  T*  ^^i.  k""  '>«^»«  ""'"Ift?'  Athonis  (Actoni)8upra  dictas  c 
at  Walthamstow  in  Febrwiry  1821,  and  in  ^  ^^^^  OttoWi],  whi. 
1823  co-pastor  with  the  Rev.  James  Man-    V. ._■» _,    .  -i >. 


he  marned,  became  second  master  ot  a  pr^  C^^j^^j  library  at  Cambridge.    Pits  gives 

pnetary  daseiod  schwil  at  Mount  Radford  ^^^  „^^  ^^  ^  \^^  ^^^^^  legafbooks  ascSbed 

in  the    neighbourhood,  and  made  himself  ^^  ^          ^^^  ^„tj,i       -^  »„^  ascertainable 

Srominent  as  an  untiring  worker  till  his  ^  them 
eath,  from  apoplexy,  on  16  Aug.  1843,  in 
his  forty-sixth  year.   He  published  many  ser-  [Tanner's  Bibliotheca  BriUnnico-Hibemica ; 
mons,  pamphlets,  lectures,  and  statements,  Coxes  Ut.  MSS. ;  prefaces  to Lyndwood's  Pro- 
of whidi  a  full  list  te  given  in  James's  '  Me-  '«°«'"le]                                          *>•  ^  ^■ 
moir'  (p.  xcvii)     They  were  delivered  by  ^croN,   Sib  JOHN    FR.4.NCIS    ED- 
him  at  vanoua  mtervali.  from  1833,  some  in  ^ARD,  sixth  baronet  (1736-1811),  prime 
wntrovCTiiy withPhilteott»,Bi8^^^  ^^^^^^  ^  j^    1^  ^^^^  Ferdiniii<f  IV, 
Acton  also  e«t»blisheJ  and  edited"  <  The  Gos-  ^^  descended  from  an  old  family  who  from 
pd  Advo«te,'  of  whjch  four  volumes  a^  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century 


were 


neand.    He  wm  an  effective  preacher,  and  ^^  „f  Aldenham   Hall,  Shroiehire. 

l^  oveijome  the  disadvantages  of  his  de-  gj^  ^^^^      ^^e  son  of  a  goldsmith  iiLon- 

^^rfucation.    He  left  a  widow  and  six  j^„^  while  accompanying  the  father  of  Ed- 

~~^°*  -M-       .        JO               /^  •    •     X.  ward  Gibbon   the    historian  as  physician, 

[James,  Memoir  and  Sermons ;  Christian  Re-  grayed  a  few  days  at  Besan^on,  where,  find- 

former^  604,  666.  766 ;  Mmntee  of  the  Uni-  •       ^  favourable  opening  for  his  profession, 

tanan  Fund,  8  Aug.  1818.]                      J.  H.  he  settled  permanently  and  married  a  French 

ACTON,  JOHN  (A  1850),  writer  on  the  lady ;  and  there  Sir  John  Acton  was  bom 

canon  law,  is  stated  oy  Leland  to  have  been  in   1736,  the  date   of  his   baptism  being 

educated  at  Oxford,  and  to  have  taken  there  3  June  (Blakbwat,  The  Sheriffs  of  Shrop- 

the  degree  of  LL.D.    In  1329  he  was  '  pro-  shire).    Under  the  auspices  of  his  unde  he 

Tided  'hy  the  pope  to  a  oanoniy  and  a  prebend  enteied  the  naval  ser\*ice  of  Tuscany.  While 

in  Lincoln  Ckthednl,  bat  some  years  appear  captain  of  a  frigate  in  the  joint  expedition  of 

to  hftve  elapsed  before  he  actnidly  obtained  Spain  and  Tuscany  against  Algiers  in  1776, 

n  1 


Acton 


68 


Acton 


he  performed  some  daring  exploits  in  cover- 
ing the  retreat ;  and  he  haa  risen  to  high 
command,  when  his  merits  became  known 
to  Prince  Caramanico,  a  favourite  of  Queen 
Caroline  of  Naples.  On  the  advice  of  Cara- 
manico  she  induced  her  brother,  the  Grand 
Duke  Leopold  of  Tuscany,  in  1779  to  permit 
Acton  to  undertake  the  reorganisation  of 
the  Neapolitan  navy.  Acton  thus  became 
<issociatea  with  Neapolitan  affairs  at  a  very 
critical  period  of  the  country's  history.  The 
direction  both  of  the  internal  administration 
and  the  foreign  policy  of  the  kingdom  was 
soon  entirely  in  his  hands.  It  was  abso- 
lutely necessary  that  he  should  seek  to  carry 
out  the  ambitious  purposes  of  the  queen,  but 
apart  from  the  question  as  to  the  wisdom  of 
these  purposes,  his  general  administration  of 
affairs  was  exceptionally  able.  By  a  succes- 
sion of  rapid  steps  he  reached  in  a  few  years 
the  highest  pinnacle  of  power.  To  rid  him- 
self of  the  dangerous  rivalry  of  Oaramanico, 
he  sent  him  ambassador  to  London,  then  to 
Paris,  and  finally  got  him  promoted  viceroy 
of  Sicily.  The  sudden  death  of  Oaramanico 
in  1794  aroused  suspicions  both  of  foul  play 
at  the  hands  of  the  emissaries  of  Acton,  and 
of  suicide  from  mortification;  but  the  suppo- 
sition that  he  died  from  other  than  natural 
causes  was  never  substantiated. 

The  aim  of  the  Queen  of  Naples  was  to  play 
a  prominent  part,  in  the  politics  of  Europe — 
an  aim  which  rendered  the  reorganisation  of 
the  navy  and  army  a  prime  necessity.  The 
skill  of  Acton  as  minister  of  marine  led  to 
his  appointment  as  minister  of  war ;  and 
he  was  also  promoted  generalistimo  of  the 
sea  and  land  lorces.  The  fleet,  which,  when 
he  entered  the  service  of  Naples,  had  prac- 
tically no  existence,  comprised  in  1798  as 
many  as  120  sail  with  1,200  cannon,  while 
the  lund  forces  were  increased  from  16,000 
to  60,000.  To  devise  methods  for  meeting 
the  increased  expenses  of  the  kingdom,  he 
was  chosen  minister  of  finance,  and  ulti- 
mately his  paramount  influence  was  formally 
recognised  by  appointing  him  prime  minister. 
It  was  undoubtedly  in  a  great  measure  due 
to  him  that  the  ascendency  of  Spain  in  Nea- 
politan affairs  was  overthrown,  and  an  alli- 
ance was  concluded  in  1793  with  Austria 
and  England  against  France.  In  no  degree, 
however,  were  the  interests  of  Naples  pro- 
moted by  the  vainglorious  policy  thus  in- 
augurated, and  it  speedily  resulted  in  disas- 
ter. Acton  had  set  himself  to  extend  the 
commerce  of  the  country  by  increasing  the 
facilities  of  internal  communication  and  re- 
storing some  of  the  principal  ports,  but  the  in- 
creased taxation  required  to  support  the  army 
and  navy  more  than  counterbalanced  these 


efforts,  and  caused  acute  distress  and  general 
discontent.  The  introduction  of  foreign 
officers  into  the  services  aroused  also  the  re- 
sentment of  the  upper  claases,  which  was 
further  augmented  when  the  fleet  was  placed 
under  the  orders  of  Nelson.  After  the  suc- 
cess of  the  French  arms  in  the  north  of 
Italv,  Acton  with  the  king  and  queen  and 
the  ]l5nglish  ambassador  escaped  in  December 
1798  on  board  the  Encrlish  fleet,  and  went  to 
Palermo,  whereupon  tne  citizens  and  nobles 
with  the  aid  of  the  French  established  the 
Parthenojpeian  republic.  When,  five  months 
afterwards,  the  king  was  restored  with  the 
help  of  a  Calabrian  army  under  Cardinal 
Ruffo,  Acton  established  a  reign  of  terror, 
and,"  at  the  instance  of  an  irresponsible 
authority  called  the  Junta  of  State,  many 
prominent  citizens  were  thrown  into  prison 
or  sent  to  the  block.  In  1804  Acton,  on  the 
demand  of  France,  was  removed  from  power, 
but  in  accordance  with  his  advice  Feromand, 
while  agreeing  to  an  alliance  with  Napo- 
leon, permitted  Russian  and  English  troops 
to  land  at  Naples.  Shortly  afterwards  the 
minister  was  recalled,  but  when  the  French 
entered  Naples  in  1806,  he  with  the  royal 
family  took  refuge  in  Sicily.  He  died  at 
Palermo,  12  Aug.  1811.  A  Latin  epitaph  on 
his  tomb  commemorates  his  services. 

In  1791  Acton  succeeded  to  the  family 
estates  and  title  on  the  death  of  his  cousin 
in  the  third  de^ee.  Sir  Richard  Acton  of  Al- 
denham  Hall.  In  1800  he  married,  by  papal 
dispensation,  Mary  Anne  Acton,  his  niece, 
daughter  of  his  brother  Joseph  who  was  also 
engaged  in  the  Neapolitan  service,  and  is  often 
confounded  with  him.  Joseph  was  bom  in 
October  1737,  the  date  frequently  given  for 
the  birth  of  Sir  John  Acton,  and  died  in 
1808. 

[Blftkeway's  Sheriffe  of  Shropshire  (18JU 
pp.  175-6  ;  CoUetta's  Storia  del  Beame  di  Napoli 
dal  1734  sino  al  1825  (2  vols.  1834,  several  sub- 
8fH)uont  editions  and  English  translation,  1858); 
Memoirs  of  General  Pepe  (1846) ;  Freiherr  von 
Helfert's  Konigin  Karolina  (1878) ;  and  the  ▼»- 
rious  Lives  of  Lord  Nelson,  especially  his  Bes- 
patchcs  and  Letters  edited  by  Sir  Harris  Nicolas, 
7  vols.  (1844-46).]  T.  F.  H. 

ACTON,  RALPH  (14th  cent.),  an  Eng- 
lish theologian  and  philosopher,  is  assigned 
by  Leland  and  his  followers  to  the  firstWf 
of  the  fourteenth  century.  Of  the  details  of  his 
life  nothing  definite  is  known,  for  the  sketch 
given  by  Bale  and  Pits  is  so  vague  as  to  sug- 
gest that  it  is  chiefly  made  up  of  inferences. 
According  to  these  writers  Ralph  received  his 
early  education  in  country  schools,  whence  in 
due  time  he  proceeded  to  Oxford.  After  taking 
his  mast«r*s  degree  in  philosophy  and  theology 


■ 

Acworth 


69 


Adair 


at  this  uniyeni^  he  was  appointed  head  of 
a  famous  church  ('  rector  cujusdam  insignis 
ecclesiie '),  and  henceforward  devoted  himself 
in  the  retirement  of  his  parish  to  the  study 
of  the  Scriptures  and  the  care  of  his  flock. 

His  writings  consist  of '  HomilisB  in  quatuor 
Evangelia,'  *  Commentarii  in  Epistolas  Pau- 
linas, 'Illustrationes  in  Petrum  Langobar- 
dum,*  and  other  works  of  a  similar  kind.  Two 
manuscripts  of  this  author  are  still  preserved 
in  the  library  of  Lincoln  College,  Oxford — 
the  one  written  in  an  early  fifteenth-century 
hand ;  the  other  the  g^ft  of  Robert  Flem- 
minff,  a  near  kinsman  of  Richard  Flemming, 
the  founder  of  this  college  (1427).  We  thus 
get  a  date  later  than  which  our  author  can- 
not have  flourished ;  and  Leland,  Bale,  and 
Pits  conjecturally  assiga  him  to  the  reign  of 
Edward  EI  (1320).  Other  manuscripts  of ! 
Acton*s  works  are  said  by  Tanner  to  be  m  the 
Bodleian  library  and  that  of  Peterhouse, 
Cambridge. 

[LeUnd's  Comment.  367;  Bale,  393 ;  Pits,  412; 
Tanner's  Bibl.  Brit.;  Coxe'sCat.  MSS.  (Lincoln, 
62,  63).]  T.  A.  A. 

ACWORTH,  GEORGE,  LL.D.  (d. 
1578?),  civilian  and  divine,  was  educated  at 
Peterhouse,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the 
dc^pree  of  B.A.  in  1552-^.  He  was  admitted 
a  fellow  of  his  college  26  Jan.  1553-4,  and 
gradoated  M.A.  in  1555,  subscribing  the 
Roman  catholic  articles  imposed  in  that 
year  upon  all  graduates.  During  the  reign 
of  Queen  Mary  he  resided  abroad,  studying 
the  civil  law  in  France  and  Italy.  On  the 
acceasion  of  Queen  Elizabeth  he  returned  to 
England,  and  was  elected  public  orator  of 
the  university  of  Cambridge  in  1559.  At 
the  close  of  that  year  he  obtained  a  prebend 
in  the  church  of  Southwell,  which  he  resigned 
in  1566.  He  was  admitted  an  advocate  in 
1662,  and  created  LL.D.  of  Cambridge  in  the 
following  year.  Dr.  Acworth  was  cluncellor 
and  vicar-genend  to  Home,  bishop  of  Win- 
chester. About  1570  he  became  a  member 
of  the  household  of  Archbishop  Parker.  He 
was  employed  in  a  visitation  of  the  church 
and  diocese  of  Canterbury  in  1573,  and  we 
find  him  holding  the  rectory  of  Wroughton, 
in  Wiltshire,  on  4  May  1575,  when  he  had 
a  faculty  to  hold  another  benefice  at  the 
Mme  time.  Though  a  man  of  consider- 
able talent,  he  was  idle,  addicted  to  drink- 
ing, and  otherwise  of  dissolute  habits.  On 
this  account  he  lost  all  his  preferments  in 
England,  but  on  18  March  1576-7  was  con- 
itituted  master  of  the  fiiculties  and  judge  of 
the  pren^gative  court  in  Ireland.  The  last 
notice  we  have  found  of  him  is  dated  20  Dec. 
1678^  when  letters-patent  were  issued  to  him 


and  Robert  Ghurvev  to  exercise  ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction  in  Ireland. 

Dr.  Acworth  is  the  author  of:  1.  *Em- 
stola  de  Ratione  Studiorum  suorum,'  15o0. 
MS.  in  the  library  of  Corpus  Chnsti  C^oUege, 
Cambridge.  2.  'Oratio  encomiastica  in  resti- 
tutione  Buceri  et  Fagii,'  printed  in  Bucer's 
'Scripta  Anglicana.'  3.  'De  visibili  Ro- 
manarchia,  contra  Nich.  SanderiMonarchiam 
trpo\tyofi€voVf  Libri  duo,'  Lond.,  1573,  4to. 
4.  Preface  to  the  second  book  of  Bucer's 
Works.  Dr.  Acworth  also  assisted  Arch- 
bishop Parker  in  the  compilation  of  his  cele- 
brated work,  'De  Antiquitate  Britannicss 
Ecdesiffi.' 

[Tanner's  Bibl.  Bnt. ;  Coote's  Civilians,  46 ; 
Index  to  Strype's  Works ;  MS.  Cotton.  Titus  B, 
xiii.  256 ;  Cooper's  Athense  Cantab,  i.  381,  566 ; 
Nasmith's  Cat.  C.C.C.  MSS.  169.]  T.  C. 

ADAIR,  JAMES  (d.  1798),  serjeant-at- 
law  and  recorder  of  London,  was  educated 
at  Peterhouse,  Cambridge,  where  he  gradu- 
ated B.A.  in  1764,  and  M.A.  in  1767.  He 
was  subsequently  called  to  the  bar  at  Lin- 
coln's Inn.  In  the  quarrel  between  Wilkes 
and  Home  Tooke  in  1770,  he  intervened  on 
the  side  of  Wilkes,  who  publicly  replied  in 
Adair's  behalf  to  the  attacks  made  upon  him 
by  Tooke,  and  the  notoriety  that  he  thereby 
acquired  was  of  material  service  to  him  in 
his  professional  career.  In  1771  he  took  a 
prominent  part,  as  one  of  the  counsel  for 
the  defence,  in  certain  legal  proceedings  that 
followed  the  great  trial  of  the  printers  and 
publishers  of  Junius's  letters.  Eight  years 
later,  his  support  of  the  popular  cause  se- 
cured for  him  the  office  of  recorder  of  London, 
and  he  continued  in  that  position  until  1789. 
His  resignation  of  the  post  in  that  year  was 
due  partly  to  his  many  professional  enga^ 
ments  in  the  court  of  Common  Pleas,  which 
left  him  little  time  to  attend  to  the  aifairs  of 
the  city,  and  partly  to  his  political  A^ews. 
The  members  of  the  London  corporation  had 
transferred  their  political  allegiance  between 
1779  and  1789  from  the  whigs  to  the  tories 
under  the  younger  Pitt,  and  with  the  latter 
Adair  had  at  the  time  nothing  in  common. 
From  1780  until  his  death,  he  sat  in  parliament 
as  the  whig  representative  first  of  Cocker- 
mouth  and  afterwards  of  Higham  Ferrars. 
Ilis  temporary  connection  withWilkes  gained 
him  for  a  time  the  reputation  of  being  a 
Wilkite,  but  in  truth  he  was  a  rather  timid 
whig.  He  was  for  some  years  a  member  of 
the  famous  whig  club ;  but  on  the  outbreak 
of  the  French  revolution  he  parted  company 
with  Fox,  with  whom  he  had  previously  been 
connected.  As  kin^s  Serjeant  he  was  asso- 
ciated, in  1794,  with  the  attorney-general 


Adair 


70 


Adair 


Sir  John  Scott,  afterwards  Lord  Eldon,  in 
the  prosecution  of  Thomas  Hardy  and  his 
old  enemy  Home  Tooke ;  in  1796  he,  with 
the  Hon.  Thomas  Erskine,  afterwards  lord 
chancellor,  was  assigned  hy  the  court  as 
counsel  for  the  defence  of  William  Stone, 
charged  with  high  treason  as  a  champion  of 
the  French  revolution,  and  the  prisoner's  ac- 
quittal was  doubtless  in  some  measure  due 
to  Adair's  energetic  conduct  of  his  case  {State 
TriaUf  xxv.  1820  et  seq.).  Adair's  horror  of 
the  French  revolution  did  not,  however,  di- 
minish with  his  years;  at  an  advanced  age  he 
joined  a  force  of  London  volunteers,  raised 
m  1798,  when  England  was  menaced  with 
invasion.  The  fati^nff  discipline  to  which 
he  thus  subjected  himself  shortened  his  life. 
He  died  suddenly  while  returning  from  shoot- 
ing exercise  on  21  July  1798,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Bunhill  Fields  burying-ground,  near 
his  parents'  graves.  At  the  time  of  his  death 
he  was  king%  prime  serjeant-at-law,  M.P.  for 
Higham  Ferrars,  and  cnief  justice  of  Chester. 
Adair  is  the  reputed  author  of:  1.  ^  Thoughts 
on  the  Dismission  of  Officers,  civil  and  mili- 
tary, for  their  conduct  in  Parliament,'  1764, 
8vo.  2.  *  Observations  on  the  Power  of 
Alienation  in  the  Crown  before  the  first  of 
Queen  Anne,  supported  by  precedents,  and 
the  opinions  of  many  learned  judges,  together 
with  some  remarks  on  the  conduct  of  Admi- 
nistration respecting  the  case  of  the  Duke 
of  Portland,'  1786,  8vo.  3.  *  Discussions  of 
the  Law  of  Libels,'  1786,  8vo.  Almon  in 
his  'Anecdotes'  fullv  summarises  the  first 
two  of  these  pamphlets,  and  applauds  '  the 
learned  Serjeant's  regard  for  the  constitu- 
tion,' his  ability  as  a  lawyer,  and  his  honesty 


as  a  man. 


[Gent.  Mag.  Ixviii.  part  ii.  720-1 ;  Chalmers's 
Biog.  Diet. ;  Almon's  Anecdotes  ( 1 797),  i.  82-92 ; 
Junius  printed  by  Woodfall  (1872),  iii.  380  et 
seq.]  J.  M.  R. 

ADAIR,  JAMES  MAKITTRICK(1728- 
1802),  originally  named  James  Makittriok, 
was  a  native  of  Inverness,  and  took  the  degree 
of  M.D.  at  Edinburgh  in  1766.  He  practised 
before  and  after  that  date  at  Antigua,  and 
one  of  his  works,  with  the  title  of  *  Un- 
answerable Arguments  a^nst  the  Abolition 
of  the  Slave  Trade,'  was  m  vindication  of  the 
manners  of  its  residents.  His  medical  writings 
enjoyed  a  considerable  reputation  on  the  Con- 
tinent ;  his  degree  thesis  on  the  yellow  fever 
of  the  West  Indies  was  reprinted  in  Baldin- 
ger's  collection  of  medical  treatises  (Got- 
tinoen,  1776),  and  his  '  Natural  History  of 
Body  and  Mind '  was  also  translated  abroad. 
After  returning  from  Anti^a  he  followed  his 
profession  at  Andover,  Guildford,  and  Bath, 


and  wrote,  for  the  benefit  of  those  resorting 
to  the  latter  place,  a  volume  of  medical  cau- 
tions for  invalids.  Wlierever  he  went  he 
provoked  animosity.  At  one  time  he  was  in 
Winchester  gaol  for  sending  a  challenge  to  a 
duel ;  at  another  period  he  was  ensiled  in 
controversy  with  Dr.  Freeman  and  Philip 
Thicknesse.  Thicknesse  published  an  an^prr 
letter  to  him  in  1787,  ana  Adair  replied  with 
an  abusive  dedication  to  a  volume  of  essays 
on  fashionable  diseases.  When  Thicknesse 
wrote  his  '  Memoirs  and  Anecdotes,'  his  op- 

Sonent  replied  with  a  list  of '  Facts  and  Aneo- 
otes'  which  he  pretended  that  Thicknesse  had 
omitted.  He  assumed  the  name  of  Adair 
about  1783;  it  was  probably  his  mother's 
maiden  name,  but  Thicknesse  asserted  that 
it  was  stolen  from  a  physician  at  Spa.  His 
death  occurred  at  Harrogate,  24  April  1802. 

[Adair's  works ;  Gent.  Mag.  1802,  bccii.  part  i. 
476.  682.]  W.  P.  C. 

ADAm,  JOHN  (d,  1722),  an  eminent 
Scottish  surveyor  and  map  maker,  lived 
during  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury and  the  first  quarter  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  The  earliest  known  mention  of  his 
name  is  by  Sir  Robert  Sibbald,  his  patron^ 
from  whom  Adair  received  his  first  public 
employment.  In  *  An  Account  of  the  Scot- 
tish Atlas,'  a  kind  of  prospectuspublished  in 
Edinburgh,  1683,  we  read :  *  The  Lords  of 
His  Majesties  Privy  Council  in  Scotland  gave 
commission  to  John  Adair,  mathematician 
and  skilfull  mechanick,  to  survey  the  shires. 
And  the  said  John  Adair,  by  taking  the  dis- 
tances of  the  seuerall  angles  from  the  adjacent 
hills,  had  designed  most  exact  maps,  and  hath 
lately  made  an  hydrographical  map  of  the 
river  of  Forth  geometrically  surueyed;  where- 
in, after  a  new  and  exact  way,  are  set  down 
all  the  isles,  blind-rocks,  shelves  and  sandfly 
with  an  exact  draught  of  the  coasts,  with  all 
its  bayes,  headlands,  ports,  havens,  towns, 
and  other  things  remarkable,  the  de]^ths  of 
the  water  through  the  whole  Frith,  with  the 
courses  from  each  point  [of  the  compass], 
the  prospect  and  view  01  the  remarltable 
islands,  headlands,  and  other  considerable 
landmarks.  And  he  is  next  to  survey  the 
shire  of  Perth,  and  to  make  two  maps  there- 
of, one  of  the  south  side,  and  another  of  the 
north.  He  will  likewise  be  ready  to  design 
the  maps  of  the  other  shires,  that  were  not 
done  before,  providing  he  may  have  sufficient 
allowance  thereof.  And  that  those  who  are 
concerned  maybe  the  better  perswaded  there- 
to, there  is  joyned  with  this  account  the  map 
of  Clackmannan  Shire  taken  ofi*  the  copper 
plate  done  for  it,  where  may  be  seen  not  only 
the  towns,  hills,  rivers,  and  lakes,  bat  also 


Adair 


71 


Adair 


the  different  face  of  the  grounds,  which  are  Adair,  late  Geogprapher,  having  given  upon 
arable,  and  which  mooriah ;  and  by  conve-  |  oath  an  Inventory  of  all  Maps  and  Papers 
nientmarka  you  may  know  the  houses  of  the  1  belonging  to  her  late  Husband,  in  pursuance 
nobility  and  ffentiy,  the  churches,  mills, !  of  the  Lord  Justices  Sign  Manual,  dated  21st 
woods,  and  panes'  (p.  4).  '.  June  past,  Ord^  that  the  same  be  lodged  in 

For  the  better  enabling  Adair  to  carry  on    the  Rem^"  Office,  and  the  Precept  for  payment 
the  design  an  act  of  tunnage  was  passed  by  ;  of  her  allowance  of  £40  p^  an.  be  delivered 

Sarliament  14  June,  1686,  <  In  &vour  of  i  to  her/ 
ohn  Adair,  jroographer,  for  surveying  the  '  Some  of  Adair's  surveys  are  preserved  in 
kingdom  of  Scotland,  and  navigating  the  |  the  Advocates'  Librar}*,  Edinburgh ;  others, 
coasts  and  isles  thereof'  (Ist  Pan.  Ja.  VII,  ;  MS.  maps,  probably  copies,  are  preserved  in 
cap.  21).  At  this  period  it  would  appear  |  the  King's  Library,  British  Museum.  Ao- 
that  his  connection  with  Sir  R.  Sibbala  nad  cording  to  Gough,  other  sketches  remained 
ceased.  While  engaged  on  this  work  he  in  the  hands  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Doiurlas. 
was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society,  Oough  also  mentions  that  *  Mr.  Bryan 
30  Nov.  1688.  In  a  report  of  the  committee  shewea  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  in  1724, 
of  privy  council,  Aug.  1694,  *  The  Commit-    two  drawings  of  the  whole  coast  of  Scotland, 


tee  appointed  to  examine  the  progress  made 
by  John  Adair  in  the  maps  of  Scotland  doe 


upon  the  Frith  of  Forth  as  high  as  Stirling, 
and  of  the  Cluyd  to  Glasgow,  and  of  the  Sol- 


find  that  there  are  elleuen  maps  made  by  '  way  Frith  to  Carlisle,' by  the  late  John  Adair 
him  relating  to  the  land,  and  nyne  relate-  '  {British  Topography ^  vol.  ii.  p.  577). 
iiu^  to  the  sea.'  The  money  raised  in  favour  |  One  of  the  charts  found  in  his  *  Description 
or  Adair  by  the  act  of  1686  being  found  in-  1  of  the  Sea  Coasts  and  Islands  of  Scotland '  is 
sa£Eicient  to  cover  his  expenses,  a  new  act  of  of  peculiar  interest ;  it  bears  the  following 
tannage  was  passed  16  July  1695.  In  1703  ;  title :  *  A  true  and  exact  HydroCTaphical  De- 
was  published  his  '  Description  of  the  Sea  j  scription  of  the  Sea  Coast  and  Isles  of  Scot- 
Coasts  and  Islands  of  Scotland,  with  Larse  land  Made  in  a  \^oyage  round  the  same  by 
and  Exact  Maps  for  the  use  of  Seamen.  By  ,  the  great  and  mighty  prince  James  the  5th. 
John  Adair,  Geographer  for  that  Kingdom.  Pubushed  at  Paris  by  Nicolay  D'Aulplii- 
Edinburgh,  fol.'  Of  this  work  the  first  part  '  nois,  &  Cheif  Cosmographer  to  the  French 
only  was  printed;  it  is  now  rare.  The  Kiug,  anno  1583;  and  at  Edinburgh  by 
Mcond  part  was  never  published.  The  com-  '■  John  Adair,  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society, 
mittee  on  public  accounts,  in  their  report  anno  1688.  James  Moxon  sculp.  (Adair 
laid  before  parliament  21  July,  1704,  state  brought  '  Moxon  ane  engraver '  over  from 
'that  four  of  our  number  did  visit  Mr.  Holland  in  the  previous  year,  1687.)  This 
Adair^s  work,  who  told  us  it  was  far  ad-  '  chart  is  engraved  on  a  half  folio  sheet,  tlie 
vanced  and  deserved  encouragement '  {Acta  |  same  size  as  the  original,  which  is  extremely 
ParL  vol.  xi.  App.  p.  49).  Another  act  of ,  rare,  entitled  *  Vray  ot  exacte  description  Hy- 
tunnaffe  was  then  passed  in  his  favour,  8  Aug.  drographique  des  cotes  maritimes  u'Escosse, 
1706,  but  the  second  part  never  appeared,    &  ues  lies  Orchades,  Hebrides,  avec  partie 


and  his  papers  are  not  Known  to  have  been 
preserved. 
Adair  probably  died  in  London  towards 


d'Angleterre  et  d'lrlande,  servant  h  la  navi- 
gation. Par  N.  de  Nicolay  D'Aulphinois 
Sieur  d'Arfeville  et  de  Belar,  premier  Cos- 


the  end  of  1722,  tor  we  find  that  in  1723  his    mographe  du  Roy,  1583.'    This  again  occurs 


widow  obtained  from  government  some  re- 
muneration for  her  husband's  labours  and 
losses,  which  last  must  have  been  consider- 
able, as  Adair,  as  early  as  July  1694,  stated 
in  a  memorial  to  the  lords  of  the  privy 
council  that  these  losses  were  *  three  times 
more  than  ever  was  gotten  from  the  collectors 
upon  the  accompt  <S  Tunnage.'  Among  the 
records  of  the  court  of  Exchequer  is  an  '  In- 
ventory of  the  Maps  and  Papers  delivered  by 
Jean  Adair,  Relict  of  Mr.  John  Adair,  Geo- 
grapher, F.RS.,  to  the  Right  Hon^*«  the 
Banms  of  exchequer  in  persuance  of  a  War- 
rent  from  the  Loxds  Justices,  dated  2 Ist  June, 
1733; '  as  is  also  a  minute  of  the  Barons  of 
Exchec^ner,  Martis  19"  Nov.  1723,  to  the 
foUowing  efiect :  '  Mrs.  Adair,  Relict  of  Jn" 


in  a  book  equally  rare,  but  known  as  *  La 
Navigation  du  Roy  d'Ecosse  laques  cinqui- 
esme  du  Nom  .  .  .  par  Nicholay  d'Arf\'eiile.' 
Paris,  1583,  4to.  A  copy  of  this  book  with 
the  original  chart  is  preserved  in  the  Grenville 
Librar}',  British  Museum. 

The  remaining  documents  of  Adair  that 
call  for  notice  in  the  Inventory  are  as 
follows : 

'  Principal  Manuscripts  not  printed : — 

'  A  Journal  of  the  Voyage  made  to  the  North 
and  West  Islands  of  Scotland  by  John  Adair, 
Geographer,  in  the  year  1698,  consisting  of 
fifteen  full  sheets,  and  seems  to  be  the  original 
by  his  own  hand.' 

A  list  of  nine  maps  relative  to  the  said 
journal : — 1,  Channel  between  Hoy  and  Po- 


Adair 


72 


Adair 


mona;  2,  West  Coast  of  Ross;  S,  Island 
and  Port  of  Cana ;  4,  Scalpa,  with  the  Coast 
of  Harris ;  5,  East  Coast  of  Uist ;  6  and  7, 
Views  of  the  foresaid  Islands ;  8,  South  Coast 
of  Sky ;  9,  South  Islands  of  Orkney. 

[Sir  R.  Sibbald*8  Account  of  Scottish  Atlas, 
1683,  fol. ;  Rich.  Gough*8  British  Topography, 
1780,  Tol.  ii.,  4to ;  G.  Chalmers's  Caledonia,  toI. 
ii.  1810,  4to;  Watt's  Bibliotheca  Britannica 
(Authors),  vol.  i.  1824,  4to ;  Papers  relating  to 
John  Adair,  1686-1723,  printed  in  Bannat^e 
Miscellany,  vol.  ii.  1836,  4to;  Biographical 
Dictionary,  Soc.  D.U.K.  1842,  8vo.]     C.  H.  C. 

ADAIR,  PATRICK  (1625?-1694),pre8- 
byterian    minister,   was   of  the  family  of 
Adair  of  Galloway,  ori^aUy  Irish  (Fit«- 
geralds  of  Adare).    lie  is  usually  treated  as 
son  of  Rev.  William  Adair  of  Ayr  (who  ad- 
ministered the  solenm  league  and  covenant  in 
Ulster  1644),  but  was  prooably  the  third  son 
of  Rev.  John  Adair  of  Genoch,  Galloway.  He 
was  eyewitness,  *  being  a  boy,'  of  the  scene 
in  Edinburgh  High  Church,  23  July  1637, 
when  stools  were  flung  at  the  dean  and 
bishop  on  the  introduction  of  the  service-book. 
This  places  his  birth  about  1625.    He  entered 
divinity  classes  of  Glasgow  College  in  De- 
cember 1644,  and  was  ordained  at  Caimcastle, 
CO.  Antrim,  7  May  1646,  bjr  the  *  army  presby- 
tery' constituted  in  Carrickfergus  10  June 
1642  by  the  chaplains  of  the  Scottish  regi- 
ments m  Ulster.     In  1648  Adair  and  his  par 
tron,  James  Shaw  of  BallygaUy,  were  ap- 
pointed on  a  committee  to  treat  with  General 
>f onk  and  Sir  Charles  Coote,  tjie  parliamen- 
tary generals  in  Ulster,  for  the  establishment 
of  presbyterianism  in  those  parts.     But,  on 
the  beheading  of  Charles  I,  tne  presbyterian 
ministers  of  Antrim  and  Down  (Milton's 
*  blockish  presbyters  of  Clanneboye ')  broke 
with  the  parliament  and  held  a  meeting  in 
Belfast  (February  1649\  at  which  they  pro- 
tested against  the  king  s  death  as  an  act  of 
horror  without  precedent  in  history  *  divine 
or  human,'  and  agreed  to  pray  for  Charles  II, 
who,  for  his  part,  promised  to  establish  pres- 
byterianism m  Ulster,    llie  parliamentary 
generals  replaced  the  .presbyterian  by  inde- 
pendent and  baptist  ministers,  and  Adair  had 
to  hide  among  tne  rocks  near  Caimcastle.   In 
March  1652  he  took  part  in  a  public  discus- 
sion An  church  government  between  presby- 
i'lihu  and  independent  ministers  at  Antrim 
Castle.    He  was  the  mouthpiece  of  the  minis- 
ters who  declined  (October  and  November 
1652)  to  take  the  engagement  to  be  true  to 
the  commonwealth  against  any  king,  and  was 
one  of  two  ministers  appointed  to  wait  on 
General  Fleetwood  and  the  council  in  Dublin 
(Janoary  1653)  to  seek    relief  therefrom. 
Being  told  that  papists  might  plead  conscience 


aa  well  as  they,  Adair  drew  a  famoua  distinc- 
tion between  the  consciences  of  the  parties, 
'  for  papist  consciences  could  digest  to  kill 
protestant  kings.'    No  relief  was  obtained, 
and  commissioners  were  sent  from  Dublin  in 
April  to  search  the  houses  of  such  ministers 
as  had  not  sought  safety  in  flight.     Adair's 
papers  were  seized,  but  restored  to  him  through 
the  daring  act  of  a  servant-maid  at  Lame. 
The  commissioners  devised  a  plan  for  trans- 
planting the  Ulster  presbytenans  to  Tijmd' 
rary^  but  the  scheme  was  abortive ;  and  in 
April  and  May  1654  we  find  Adair  in  Dublin 
pleading  for  the  restoration  of  tithes  to  tiie 
presbyterian  ministers,  and  obtaining  instead 
a  maintenance  by  annual  salary  mie  first 
donum  to  Irish  presbyterians).    They  got 
100/.  a  year  apiece  till  the  Restoration,  but 
preserved  their  independence,  not  observing 
the  commonwealth  fasts  and  thanksgivings. 
Adair  was  one  t)f  eight  ministers  summoi^ 
to  the  general  convention  at  Dublin,  Febru- 
ary I60O,  at  a  time  when  there  were  hopes  of 
a  presbyterian  establishment,  soon  dispelled 
by  the  restoration  of  Charles  II.    Jeremy 
Taylor,  consecrated  bishop  of  Down  and  Con- 
nor 27  Jan.  1661,  summoned  the  presbyterian 
ministers  to  his  visitation,  and  on  their  not 
attending  declared  their  churches  vacant. 
Thus  Adair  was  ejected  from  Caimcastle 
parish  church.    He  went  to  Dublin  to  seek 
relief  for  his  brethren  from  the  Duke  of  Or- 
mond,  lord  lieutenant,  but  could  obtain  only 
permission  for  them  to  '  serve  God  in  their 
own  families.'    In  1653  he  was  apprehended 
and  sent  to  Dublin  on  a  charge  01  complicity 
in  Blood's  plot,  but  dischaiged  after  three 
months  with  a  temporary  indulgence  on  con- 
dition of  living  peaceably.    About  1668  a 
meeting-house  was  built  for  him  at  Caim- 
castle.   Adair  was  one  of  the  negotiators  in 
1672  for  the  first  regium  donum  granted  to 
presbyterians  by  Chdrles  H.     On  13  Oct. 
1674  the  Antrim  meeting  removed  Adair  to 
Belfast,  in  succession  to  Rev.  William  Keyes 
(an  Englishman),  not  without  opposition  from 
the  Donegal  family,  who  favoured  the  Eng- 
lish rather  than  the  Scottish  type  of  presm^- 
terianism.     After  the  defeat  of  the  Scottish 
covenanters  at  Bothwell  Brig  (June  1679) 
fresh  severities  were  inflicted  on  the  Ulster 
presbyterians;    their    meeting-houses   were 
closed  and  their  presbytery  meetings  held 
secretly  by  night.     James  IPs  declaration 
(1687)  gave  them  renewed  liberty,  which  was 
confirmed  by  the  accession  of  William  UI, 
though  there  was  no  Irish  toleration  act  till 
17 19.    Adair  headed  the  deputation  from  the 
general  committee  of  Ulster  presbyterians^ 
who  presented  a  congratulatory  address  to 
William  IH  in  London  1689,  and  obtained 


Adair 


73 


Adalbert 


from  the  king  a  letter  (9  Nov.  1689)  recom- 
mendiiu;  their  case  to  Duke  Schomberg.  Wil- 
liam, when  in  Ulater  in  1690,  amK)int^  Adair 
and  hia  son  William  two  of  the  trustees 
for  distributing  his  rectum  donum.  *  There 
has  been  no  minister,  at  any  period  in  the 
history  of  Irish  presbyterians,  engaged  in  such 
a  continued  series  of  important  transactions 
as  Patrick  Adair'  (Abmstrong).  Late  in 
life  he  drew  up  *  A  True  Narrative  of  the  Rise 
and  ProffresB  of  the  Presbyterian  Government 
in  the  North  of  Ireland/  extending  from  1623 
to  1670,  which  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  he 
did  not  finish.  For  the  religious  history  of 
the  period  it  is  invaluable.  Adair  died  in 
1694,  probably  at  its  dose,  as  his  will  was 
proved  6  July  1695.  He  married  first  his 
cousin  Jean  (died  1675},  second  daughter  of 
Sir  Robert  Adair  of  Ballymena;  second,  a 
widow,  Elizabeth  Anderson  (nSe  Martin). 
He  left  four  sons,  W^illiam  (ordained  at  Bally- 
eaaton  1681,  removed  to  Antrim  1690,  and 
died  1698),  Archibald,  Alexander,  and  Par 
trick  (minister  at  Carrickfergus,  died  June 
1717),  and  a  daughter  Helen. 

[Adair^B  True  Narrative,  ed.  Eillen,  1866 
(et,  correspondence  on  errors  of  this  edition  in 
Northern  Whig,  October  and  November  1867) ; 
Beid's  Hiat.  of  Presb.  Ch.  in  Ireland,  2nd  ed. 
1867 ;  Witherow's  Hist,  and  Lit  Mem.  of  Presb. 
in  Ireland,  4th  ser.  1879  ;  C.  Porter's  Cong.  Mem. 
Caimcastle,  in  Christ.  Unitarian,  May  and  June 
1865,  and  Ulster  Biog.  Sketches,  1883;  Arm- 
strong's Appendix  to  Ordination  Service,  James 
ICartineau,  1829,  p.  91 ;  Disciple  (Belf.),.Febru- 
aiy  1888;  Funeral  Register  (Presbyterian)  at 
Belfast.]  A  G. 

ADAIR,  Sib  ROBERT  (1763-1856),  the 
last  survivor  of  Charles  James  Fox's  friends, 
was  the  son  of  Robert  Adair,  sergeant-surgeon 
to  George  UI,  and  Lady  Caroline  Keppel.  He 
was  bom  on  24  May  1768,  and  was  sent  to 
Westminster  school,  and  thence  t  o  t  he  univer- 
sity of  Gtittingen,  where  Canning,  who  styled 
him  '  bawba-dara-adul-phoolah  and  many 
other  names,  satirised  him  as  fallii^  in  love 
with  '  sweet  Matilda  Pottingen.*  Before  he 
was  twenty  he  was  ranked  among  Fox*s  in-  j 
timate  friends,  and,  had  the  whig  minister 
gained  the  seals  of  the  foreign  office  in  1788, 
Adair  wduld  have  been  his  under-secretary. 
When  the  French  revolution  broke  out,  he 
visited  Berlin,  Vienna,  and  St.  Petersburg, 
to  study  its  effects  on  foreign  states,  and  to 
qualify  himself  for  diplomatic  office.  Some 
of  his  political  opponents  believed  that  he  had 
been  despatchea  by  Fox  to  Russia  to  thwart 
the  policy  of  Mr.  Pitt,  and  the  accusation 
was  reproduced  in  1821  in  the  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester's '  Memoir  of  Pitt/  which  brought 
about  an  angry  conespondence  in  print  be- 


tween the  bishop  and  Adair.  lie  sat  in  par- 
liament for  the  whig  boroughs  of  Appleby 
and  Camelford.  During  Fox's  tenure  of  of- 
fice in  1806  he  was  despatched  on  a  mission 
to  Vienna  to  warn  Austria  of  the  dangers  to 
which  she  was  exposed  from  the  power  of 
FVance,  and  on  his  return  from  Vienna  was 
sent  by  his  old  antagonist  Canning  to  Con- 
stantinople to  open  up  a  negotiation  for  peace 
with  the  Porte.  Memoirs  of  these  missions 
were  published  by  Sir  Robert  Adair  in  1844- 
1845.  From  1831  to  1835  he  was  enga^d 
on  a  special  mission  in  the  Low  Countries, 
where  nis  exertions  prevented  a  general  war 
between  the  Flemish  and  the  Dutch  troops. 
For  his  services  in  the  East  he  was  created  a 
K.C.B.  in  1809,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
he  was  the  senior  knight  of  the  order.  His 
successful  mission  in  1831  was  rewarded  by  his 
appointment  as  member  of  the  privy  council, 
and  the  grant  of  the  highest  pension  which 
could  be  awarded  to  him.  Among  his  other 
writings  are  a  reprint  in  1802  and  1853  of 
Fox's  *  Letter  to  tlie  Electors  of  Westminster 
in  1793,  with  an  application  of  its  principle  to 
subsequent  events,  and  a  sketch  of  the  cha- 
racter of  the  late  Duke  of  Devonshire  (1811). 
His  wife  was  Mile.  Ang61ique  Gabrielle, 
daughter  of  the  Marquis  d  Hazincourt.  His 
stores  of  recollection  of  diplomatic  and  po- 
litical life  made  him  a  frequent  guest  at  the 
chief  whig  houses  of  London,  and  his  name 
is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  diary  of  Tom 
Moore.  Full  of  years  and  honours  he  died  at 
Chesterfield  Street,  Mayfair,  on  3  Oct.  1855. 

[Gent.  Mag.  1856,  N.S.,  xliv.  p.  635;  Lord  Al- 
bemarle's Fifty  Years  of  Life,  i.  226  ;  Lord  John 
Russell's  Memorials  and  Correspondence  of  C.  J. 
Fox,  vol.  ii.  appendix.]  W.  P.  C. 

ADALBERT  Levita.  or  Diaconus  (>f. 
700),  an  earlv  English  saint,  was  the  con- 
temporary' of  "^St.  Willibrord  (658-738)  and 
his  fellow-worker  in  the  conversion  of  the 
Frisians.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
archdeacon  of  Utrecht,  and  to  have  been  des- 
patched by  "Willibrord  to  preach  the  gospel 
in  Kennemaria  (702),  where  he  built  a  cnurch 
at  Emnont,  near  Alkmaar,  in  North  Holland. 
The  date  of  his  death  is  given  by  Le  Cointe 
as  25  June  705.  This  Adalbert  was  patron 
saint  of  Egmont,  where  his  faithful  wo^^hip- 
per,  Theodoric  I,  count  of  Holland  (c.  wJi^, 
erected  a  shrine  for  his  relics.  At  the  bidding 
of  Egbert,  archbishop  of  Treves  and  grandson 
of  Theodoric  I,  who  oelieved  himself  to  have 
been  cured  of  a  fever  by  this  saint's  interces- 
sion, certain  *  monachi  Mediolacenses '  (Met- 
loch,  near  Saarbriick,  in  the  diocese  of  Treves) 
drew  up  in  the  tenth  century  a  life  of  Adal- 
bert. Tins  life,  together  with  another  account 


Adalbert 


74 


Adalbert 


written  by  a  monk  at  Egmont  in  tLajtwelfth 
century,  is  our  chief  authority  on  this  sub- 
ject. According  to  the  first  of  these  writers 
a  certain  Englisn  priest  named  Egbert,  beinff 
divinely  forbidden  to  undertake  a  personal 
mission  amonff  the  heathen  of  North  Gter-  j 
many,  despatcned  Willibrord,  Adalbert,  and  j 
ten  others  in  his  stead.  ' 

According  to  all  accounts  Adalbert  was  of 
noble  birth,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  he 
was  the  grandson  of  Oswala,  kin^  of  Deira, 
who  died  in  642.  For  MarcelEnus  (who 
claims  to  have  himself  been  one  of  the  above- 
mentioned  twelve),  in  his  life  of  St.  Swid- 
bert,  calls  Adalbert's  father  *  Edelbaldus  filius 
Oswaldi  r^s,*  and  we  know  from  Bede  that 
Oswald  did  leave  a  son  Edilwald,  Adilwald, 
or  Oidilwald,  who,  for  a  short  time,  reigned 
over  Deira  till  he  played  the  traitor  to  Oswy, 
and  lost  his  kingdom  with  the  overthrow  of 
Penda  (656).  Adalbert,  if  a  son  of  this 
Edilwald,  might  well  enough  have  been  a 
contemporary  of  St.  Willibrord  (658-738). 
Following  the  same  authority  we  find  Adal- 
bert's name  occurringamonf  a  list  of  preachers 
despatched  into  various  districts  of  West 
Germany  by  order  of  the  council  of  Utrecht 
(702),  with  Egmont  specially  mentioned  as 
the  scene  of  his  labours.  But  the  whole 
Question  is  involved  in  doubt,  as  this  *  Vita 
Swiberti,*  if  not  a  complete  forgery,  is  ex- 
tremely incorrect,  and  nas  been  subject  to 
large  interpolations.  The  BoUandist  fathers 
refuse  to  give  it  any  credit ;  but  Le  Cointe 
(iv.  204)  allows  that  it  may  contain  a  sub- 
stratum of  truth,  and  follows  it,  though  with 
some  hesitation. 

The  abbey  of  Egmont,  dedicated  to  the 
memory  of  this  saint,  was  long  a  most  im- 
portant institution  till  it  was  utterly  destroyed 
by  the  Spaniards  at  the  siege  of  Alkmaar  in 
1573  (Motley,  Hise  of  Dutch  HepuJblic,  pt.  iii. 
ch.  9).  However,  even  so  late  as  1709,  when 
the  Bollandist  fathers  drew  up  their  account 
of  St.  Adalbert,  the  villagers  of  Egmont  and 
the  neighbourhood  still  kept  25  June  sacred 
to  the  memory  of  their  patron  saint.  Other 
authorities  (Mabillon,  iii.  586)  assign  a  some- 
what different  date  (c.  740)  to  the  subject  of 
this  article,  and  this  has  led  to  his  life  ap- 
pea 
Chi 

tions  certain  'lSplstol(e 
extant,  and  the  *  Epistola  ad  Herimannum ' 
[see  AsAXBERT  OF  Spalding]  has  also  been, 
without  authority,  assigned  to  this  author. 

[Acta  Sanct.  25  June,  pp.  94-110;  Mabillon's 
Acta  Bened.  iii.  586 ;  Le  Cointe's  Annales  Eocles. 
Franc  iv.  216-7,  392-5,  444 ;  MabiU.  Annales 
Benedic.  i.  and  ii.  p.  116  ;  John  de  Beka's  Chro- 
nicon  in  Vita  Wiltibrordi ;  Johannis  de  Leydis 


Annales  £^;mandani,  c.  i-x. ;   Marcellini  Vita 
Swiberti,  c.  vi.  xiv.]  T.  A.  A. 

ADALBERT  of  SPALDiwe  {Jl.  1160  P) 
is  said  by  Bale  and  Pits  to  have  been  a  Glu- 
niac  monk  belong^g  to  the  abbey  of  Spald- 
ing in  Lincolnshire,  and  to  have  flounflhed 
about  the  year  1160.  Our  early  biographers 
ffive  him  great  praise  for  his  knowledge  of  the 
Scriptures  and  the  fathers.  They  also  speajk 
in  high  terms  of  his  elegance  of  style  and  his 
modesty  in  always  following  the  opinions  of 
these  authorities  rather  than  his  own.  His 
favourite  author,  they  add,  was  GhnMpory  the 
Great,  from  whose  treatise  upon  Job  (Jobralui) 
he  compiled  his  own  work  entitled  '  De  Statu 
Homims,'  or  <  Speculum  Status  Hominis.' 
An  *  Epistola  ad  Herimannum  Presbytenun' 
and  certain  *  Homiliss '  are  also  mentioned 
among  his  writings. 

But,  whatever  may  be  the  case  with  the 
'Homilise,'  it  is  very  questionable  whether 
the  author  of  the  *  Speculum '  and  the  '  Em- 
stola  ad  Herimannum '  has  any  right  to  toe 
surname  '  Spaldingensis,'  or,  indeed,  to  be 
considered  as  an  Englishman  at  all.     For 
Boston  Buriensis  (cir,  1410),  the  first  English 
writer  who  mentions  the  *  Speculum/  calls 
it  the  work  of  Adalbert  the  Deacon,  and  de- 
scribes it  as  a  book  divided  into  155  chap- 
ters, and  composed  of  extracts  fipom  Gregorys 
*  Moralia.'     More  than  one  hundred  years 
I  later  Leland  {Collect,  iii.  82) found  at  Spald- 
I  ing  a  work  entitled  *  Adelberti  liber  Diaconi 
I  ad  Herimannum  Presbyterum.*    Now  there 
are  many  copies  extant  of  a  lettef  addressed 
by  Adalbert  the  Deacon  to  a  priest  Herman, 
ail  acting  as  a  kind  of  preface  to  a  book  of 
extracts  from  the  *Moralia'  of  St.  Gregory. 
Moreover,  this  letter  speaks  of  the  compila- 
tion that  follows  as  a  *  Speculum,*  the  very 
title  given  by  Boston  and  Pit5  to  the  similu* 
collection  of  their  Adalbert,  to  whom  the  lat- 
ter assigns  likewise  an  *  Epistola  ad  Herman- 
num.*   When  we  consider  the  extent  to  which 
Bale  and  Pits  have  availed  themselves  of 
the  labours  of  Boston  and  Leland,  we  can 
hardly  avoid  the  inference  that  aU  four  are 
alluding  to  one  and  the  same  work — a  series 
of  extracts  from  Gregorv's  *  Moralia '  prefaced 
bv  a  letter  from  Adalbert  the  Deacon  to 
iterman  the  priest — but  that  the  two  first, 
learning  from  Leland  that  a  copy  of  this  book 
existed  at  Spalding,  have  imagined  it  to  be 
the  production  of  an  Adalbertus  Snaldingen- 
sis  of  their  own  creation.  Again,  tne  greater 
number  of  the  manuscripts  of  this  work  (cfl 
Mabtene,  Anecdot.  i.  84,  and  Tannek)  are  to 
be  found  abroad — a  fact  which  tells  strongly 
against  its  author's  being  an  Englishman, 
though  we  need  hardly  go  so  far  as  Tanner, 
who  suggests  that  he  was  a  monk  of  St. 


Adam  75  Adam 

Martm*8  at  Tours,  and  identifies  Adalbert's  I  for  himself  at  Paris  by  his  skill  as  a  disputant 
x>ire8pondent  with  Herman,  the  abbot  of  that  and  a  teacher.  Neither  of  our  two  i&iglish 
xtabliahment  till  1186.  The  editor  in  Migne  authorities  knows  anything  respecting  the 
allBtliia  Adalbert 'ScolasticusMettensis/ and  j  age  in  which  this  writer  lived,  n  we  accept 
boldly  assigns  the  year  879  as  the  date  of  his  !  Quetif's  theory,  and  then  identify  Adamus 
■Jc^tt.  Scholasticus  and  Adamus  Anglicus,  as  Pit« 

Thouffh  the  author  of  the  'Speculum'  can  has  done,  the  writer  will  have  to  be  con- 
lurdly  nave  been  a  native  of  Spalding,  yet  sidered  a  Franciscan,  and  to  have  flourished 
there  may  have  been  an  *  Adalbertus  Spald-    in  the  fourteenth  century.    Perhaps,  on  the 


ingenais  who  was  the  author  of  the  '  Homi- 
\m '  mentioned  by  Bale  and  Fits ;  and  the 
testimony  of  these  two  writers  may  then  be 
iccepted  as  regards  his  character  and  the  age 


whole,  it  is  safer  to  acknowledge  that  we 
know  nothing  more  of  him  than  what  Ban- 
dellus  tells  us,  \'iz.  that  a  certain  '  Magister 
Adamus  Anglicus,  doctor  Parisiensis,'  wrote 


in  wkich  he  lived.  a  Commentary  on  the  Sentences  of  Peter 

[Bale,  Seriptorom  Catabgus,  i.  206  ;  Pits,  Rel  Lombard. 
BkL  de  Beb.  AneL  225;  Tanner,  Bibl  Brit.  !  [Bale,  Scriptorum  CaUlofi:u8,  ii.  81 ;  Pits,  Bel. 
PnefiE^.  zxvii,  and  under  Adalbert;  Leland*8  Hist.de  Beb.  Angl819;  Wadding's  Scriptores 
C>Qllect.  iii.  32 ;  Martene's  Anecdota,  i.  83,  84 ;  .  Ordinis  Minoris,  1 ;  Quetif 's  Scriptores  Ordinis 
SCabillon's  Analecta,  i.  132 ;  Mignes  Curs.  Pa-  Prsedicatomm,  i.  739 ;  Bandollns  de  Puritate 
rolog.  cxzxTi.  1809,  ccxriii.  402.]      T.  A.  A.        Conceptionis,  36.]  T.  A.  A. 

ADAM  AiTGLicns  is  identified  by  Tanner  !  ADAM  Anolioena  (d,  1181  P),  called 
with  Adam  Angligena  [see  Adam  Angli-  bv  Tanner  Adam  Anglicus,  and  by  him 
iEirAl.  Quetif,  on  the  other  hand,  contends  !  identified  with  the  author  of  the  *  Commen- 
that  He  is  none  other  than  Adam  Goddam,  and  tariiin  Magistrum  Sententiarum'  [see  Adam 
in  support  of  his  position  quotes  the  opening  i  Anglicus],  was  a  theologian  of  some  emi- 
MTordaof  the  so-called  Adam  Anglicus, 'Com-  \  nence,  and  flourished  in  the  twelfth  century. 
mentarii  in  Magistri  Sententias,'  which  are  :  His  life  has  to  be  made  out  from  the  scat- 
ilmost  exactly  the  same  as  the  commencement  tered  pieces  of  information  to  be  found  among 
ifa  similar  treatise  written  by  Adam  Ooddam  \  the  writings  of  his  contemporaries.  Du 
18  given  by  Wadding  [see  Goddam,  Adam].  '  Boulay  tells  us  that  he  was  sumamed  Adam 
rhe  very  name  of  Adam  Anglicus  is  un-  de  Parvo-Ponte,  from  the  little  bridge  over 
known  to  Leland ;  but  in  Bale  this  author  the  Seine  near  which  he  gave  his  lectures. 
ippean  as  *  Adamus  Scholasticus,'  and  is  by  I  The  same  authority  also  states  that  he  was 
liim  assigned  to  the  Dominican  order  on  the  i  a  pupil  of  Abelani,  and  identifies  him  with 
inthori^  of  Peter  Vincentinus  (Bandellus),  Adam,  bishop  of  St.  Asaph  (to  whom  we 
irho  describes  him  as  maintaining  that  the  shall  refer  below),  and  also  with  John  of 
Virgin  Mary  was  bom  in  original  sin.  But  Salisbury's  friend, '  ille  Anglus  Peripateticus 
Bale's  argument  is  verv  fallacious;  for  many  Adam.'  The  grounds  for  this  identification 
of  the  writers  cited  by  Bandellus,  though  '  will  appear  in  the  course  of  this  account. 
ftdhering  to  the  doctrines  which  in  later  '  The  year  1147  saw  the  commencement  of  one 
times  were  so  strongly  upheld  by  the  Do-    of  the  most  famous  ecclesiastical  trials  of  the 


minicans,  were  most  certainly  not  themselves 
members  of  that  brotherhood.  Indeed,  it 
is  part  of  Bandellus's  argument  to  show 


twelfth  century.  Gilbert  de  la  Por6e,  the 
aged  bishop  of  Poitiers,  was  accused  by  two 
of  his  archdeacons — Calo  and  Arnold  Never- 


irhat  was  the  orthodox  and  early  creed  of  lau^h — of  heresy.  St.  Bernard  embraced 
the  church  on  the  above  question ;  and  so  |  their  cause,  and  the  pope  promised  to  con- 
Ear  is  his  list  of  names  from  being  one  of  Do-  |  sider  the  case  when  he  reacned  Gaul.  After 
tninicans  exclusively,  that  we  have  the  name  ■  a  first  hearing  at  Auxerre  the  question  was 
of  Maurice,  bishop  of  Paris,  quoted  on  the  '  formally  opened  at  Paris.    Gilbert  was  sum- 


opposite  page,  and,  only  a  few  leaves  before, 
that  of  Alcuin — both  of  whom  flourished 
before  the  Dominican  order  was  instituted ; 


moned  to  defend  himself,  while  two  ecclesi- 
astics were  appointed  to  collect  the  evidence 
against   him — Adam    de    Parvo-Ponte,    *  a 
while  just  above  the  name  of  Adam  Anglicus  '  subtle  man,'  who  had  recently  been  made 


comes  that  of  the  fierce  enemj  of  both  the  great 
mendicantorders,  RichardFitzralph,  the  arch- 
bishop of  Armagh.    Pits's  account,  which  is 


canon  of  Paris,  and  Hugo  de  Campo-Florido, 
the  king's  chancellor.  These  two  seem  to 
have  given  great  offence  to  unprejudiced 


plainly  based  upon  that  of  Bale,  adds  to  the  list '  hearers  by  the  system  they  adopted;  for 
yf  his  works  certain '  Quasstiones  OrdinarisB ; '  without  bringing  for^'ard  passages  from  the 
but  in  this  assertion  too  he  is  merely  foUow-  writings  of  Bishop  Gilbert,  they  proposed  to 
ng  Bale,  who  gives  ns  the  additional  infor-  j  swear  that  they  had  heard  heretical  opinions 
nation  that  Adam  Anglicus  won  great  fame  |  fall  from  his  lips ;  and  people  were  astonished 


-^ 


Adam 


76 


Adam 


that  men  of  position,  so  well  exercised  in 
the  true  methods  of  ararument  (^viros  magnos 
«t  in  ratione  disserendi  exercitatos ')  should 
oflfer  an  oath  for  a  proof.  This  Adam  de  Parvo- 
Ponte,  then,  was  a  canon  of  Paris  in  1147, 
and  considered  an  adept  in  the  science  of 
dialectics.  In  1175,  when  Godfrey,  hishop  of 
St.  Asaph,  was  driven  from  his  see  by  the 
enmit;^  of  the  Welsh,  we  read  in  the  English 
Chronicles  of  that  age  that  his  successor  was 
one  Master  Adam,  canon  of  Paris.  This 
Adam  is  mentioned,  a  year  and  a  half  later, 
as  being  present  at  the  great  council,  when 
Henry  II  decided  between  the  claims  of  the 
kin^  of  Castile  and  Navarre ;  and,  indeed, 
he  signs  the  award  as  one  of  the  witnesses. 
In  the  same  year  he  attested  the  same  king*s 
charter  to  Canterbury.  Meanwhile,  events 
had  been  occurring  on  the  Continent  which 
attracted  Adam^s  attention.  His  old  master, 
Peter  Lombard,  had  now  been  many  years 
dead,  and  attempts  were  being  made  to  con- 
vict his  famous  *  Sentences '  of  heterodoxy. 
At  the  Lateran  council  of  1179  the  question 
was  raised  again,  and  Walter  of  St.  Victor  has 
left  us  a  gpraphic  account  of  the  whole  scene. 
WTien  the  subject  was  brought  forward  to- 
wards the  close  of  the  council,  certain  car- 
dinals and  bishops  objected  to  the  introduc- 
tion of  a  fresh  matter,  saying  that  they  had 
come  to  Rome  to  treat  of  gpreater  affairs 
than  a  mere  (question  of  dogma ;  and  on  the 
pope's  answering  that  first  and  chiefest  they 
must  treat  of  the  christian  faith  and  of 
heretics,  they  left  the  consistory  in  a  body. 
As  they  were  quitting  the  chamber  one  of 
them.  Bishop  Adam  of  Wales,  flung  a  parting 
taunt  at  Alexander  m — *Lord  Pope,  in 
time  past  I  was  provost  (preepositus)  of 
Peter's  church  and  schools,  and  I  will  defend 
the  "  Sentences  of  the  Master." '  From  this, 
then,  it  appears  that  Bishop  Adam  had  occu- 

J)ied  a  distinguished  position  as  a  teacher 
luring  the  time  that  Peter  Lombard  ruled  in 
the  schools  of  Paris  (c.  1150).  This  would 
make  his  date  agree  remarkably  well  with 
that  of  Adam  de  Parvo-Ponte,  who  was,  as 
we  have  just  seen,  likewise  canon  of  Paris 
about  the  same  time.  Of  the  subsequent 
events  of  Adam*s  career  we  hear  nothing 
definite ;  but  the  English  Chronicles  tell  us 
that  he  died  at  Oseney,  near  Oxford,  in  1181. 
In  an  interesting  passage  {Metalofficus, 
iii.  3)  John  of  Salisbury  makes  mention  of 
*  ille  Anglus  Peripateiicus  Adam,*  with  whom 
he  had  once  lived  in  almost  daily  inter- 
change of  ideas  and  books,  though  the  two 
had  never  stood  to  each  other  in  the  relar 
tionship  of  pupil  and  master.  According  to 
John's  testimony  Adam  was  fond  of  laugh- 
ing at  the  word-splitters  and  phrase-mongers 


of  his  age,  but,  at  the  same  time,  would 
nuvely  confess  that  he  dared  not  practise 
what  ne  preached,  for  he  would  soon  be  left 
with  few  pupils  or  none  at  all  were  he  once 
to  handle  dialectics  with  the  simplicity  thst 
was  their  due.  A  fi^racefiil  tribute  is  then 
paid  to  the  honour  of  a  man  from  whom  John 
had  learnt  not  only  to  recognise  the  true 
but  to  discard  the  false.  In  another  passage 
Adam  is  coupled  with  Abelard  as  one  of  the 
typical  teachers  of  the  a^ ;  and  later  (iv.  3) 
is  condemned  for  displaying  in  his '  Ars  Dis- 
serendi '  an  over-subtlety  and  verbiage  whidi 
friends  might  perhaps  attribute  to  Keennesi 
of  intellect,  but  enemies  would  certainly 
ascribe  to  folly  and  vanity.  Here  Adam  ap- 
pears as  an  expounder  of  Aristotle,  who, 
though  darkening  his  authority  by  *  intricacy 
of  words,'  is  yet  worthy  of  much  praise. 

Du  Boulay  considers  this  Adam  to  be  iden- 
tical with  Adam  de  Parvo-Ponte;  and  in 
this  opinion  he  may  well  be  correct.  For 
the  dates  of  the  two  writers  coincide,  the 
characteristic  of  ovei^ubtlety  seems  common 
to  both,  and  lastly  there  may  be  an  allusion 
to  the  *  Ars  Disserendi '  in  the  passage  quoted 
above,  where  Otho  of  Frisingen  opemy  ex- 
presses his  surprise  that  a  man  so  well  prac- 
tised in  the  true  method  of  argument  should 
adopt  so  strange  a  course  at  the  trial  of 
Gilbert  de  la  Por6e. 

[Otho  of  Frisingen  ap.  Pertz,  xz.  379 ;  Baro- 
niu8*8  Annales,  xix.  499  ;  Labbe*8  Concilia,  xxii. 
217;  Du  Boulay *8  Historia  Univers.  Parisien.  ii 
149,  715;  Godwin  De  Praesulibns  Anglise,  634; 
Ralph  de  Diceto's  Imagines  (Rolls  Ser.^,  i.  402; 
Gervase  of  Canterbury's  Opera  Histonca  (Bolls 
Ser.),  i.  255,  262,  and  Actus  Pontificum,  ii.  399 ; 
Roger  of  Hoveden  (Rolls  Ser.),  78,  121,  131; 
Annales  Waverl.  sub  anno  1181,  and  Annates 
Oseneii  sub  anno  1181,  in  Luard's  Annal.  Monas- 
tici  (Rolls  Ser.) ;  John  of  Salisbury's  Metalogicus, 
iii.  prol.  iii.  3,  ix.  3 ;  cf.  Pits,  Rel.  Hist,  de  Beb. 
Angl.,  \mder  Adamus  Pontraius,  820 ;  and  Tanner, 
under  Adamus  Anglicus.  For  Walter  of  St. 
Victor's  account  of  the  Lateran  council  of  1179 
see  Du  Boulay,  ii.  431.]  T.  A  A. 

ADAM  OF  Bakking  (^.  1217  ?),  a  Bene- 
dictine monk  belonging  to  the  abbey  of  Sher- 
borne in  Dorset,  is  nraised  by  Leland  for  his 
great  erudition,  and  his  promise  as  a  writer 
both  in  prose  and  verse.  According  to  Bale 
and  Pits,  Adam  was  educated  at  Oxford,  and 
was  a  model  of  all  the  christian  virtues. 
As  old  age  came  on  he  devoted  himself  more 
and  more  to  the  study  of  the  Scriptures  and 
the  work  of  public  preaching.  For  the  latter 
task  he  seems  to  have  been  peculiarly  fitted, 
and  his  biographers  make  special  mention  01 
his  eloquence  and  zeal  in  lashing  the  vices 
of  the  people.    Bale  and  Pits  say  that  he 


Adam  77  Adam 

lourislied  about  the  year  1217,  and  this  date  elected  bishop  of  Caithness,  and  consecrated 

oaj  be  &irly  correct,  as  one  of  his  works  on  11  May  12 14  by  William  Mai voisin,  bishop 

iras  dedicated  to  John,  canon  of  Salisbury,  of  St.  Andrews.    In  1218  he  went  to  Rome 

who  IB  doubtless  to  be  identified  with  the  to  receive  the  pallium,  with  the  bishops  ot 

kr-famed  John  of  Salisbury  who  died  in  Glasgow  and  Moray.    The  interest  of  his 

L180.     Of  Adam's  writings,  which  embraced  life  belongs  to  its  tragic  close,  which  is  cele- 

rreatisee  on  the  Old  Testament  as  well  as  brated  in  Saga  as  weU  as  recorded  in  church 

^he  New,  there  were  existing  at  Sherborne  chronicle.    It  seems  that  the  people  of  his 

in  Lelaiid*8  time :  '  De  Nature  divini  et  hu-  diocese  had  reason  to  complain  of  the  ezces- 

mani '   (verse),  '  De  Serie   Sex  ^tatum '  sive  exaction  of  tithes.    The  old  rule  was 

[verse), '  Super  Quatuor  Evangelia '  (prose^.  *  every  score  of  cows  a  spanin  [12  lbs.  Scots] 

/discording  to  Tanner  a  manuscript  of  this  of  butter ;  *  Adam  extorted  the  spanin  firom 

luthor  is  to  be  found  in  the  library  of  Glare  fifteen  cows,  from  twelve,  from  ten.    The 

[yollege,  Cambridge.     The  names  of  other  Northmen    remonstrated    and  appealed  in 

irorks  of  his  are  enumerated  by  Pits.  vain ;  at  length  an  angry  mob  sought  the 

[Leland's  Comment.  232,   Collect,  iii.  160;  bishop  at  the  episcopal  manor  of  Halkirk  in 

B^e,  269 ;  Pits,  BeL  Hist,  de  Beb.  AngL  289 ;  Thorsdale.     He  sent  out  Rafn  the  lawman 

i)adin  De  Script.  Eodes.  iii.  9.]  T.  A.  A.  to  parley  with  them,  but  they  began  to  use 


Bide  adrSirh?  JsrriS  ri  ^^  ^i---^-  n. « r^  *»  ^-  --.^t' 

DBxe  auuB  buav  uc  ^^^  n*^i«,w***cv*  IA7  xxa^  fearful  vengeance  on  the  murderers;   the 

Aristotle  for  the  explanation  of  both  natural  q„^^  „^„„  .r^  u««^„  ««j  /u^*  ^  Z.\.          of 

J               .      1    jr.       rnt   x'n      '^  •  "^^ff*^  says  the  hands  and  feet  were  hewn  off 

ind  supernatural  anairs.  There  still  exists  m  I?!!l*«.  «.««      aj„»,  ^««  u    •  j    4.  ai  •       4. 

n  11*  /^ii       T 'v        /TLToo       1*  \  eighty  men.    Adam  was  buned  at  Skinnet, 

mw  super  Aristotelis  Metaphysicam.'    Coxe,  rnu      •     j   itr -i          j  t>     _j     i.T>- i. 

in  his  Cat.  MSS.,  assigns  tfie  handwriting  of  [Chronica  deMailros  and  Records^of  Bishopric 

this  n^uscript 'to  r^^^^^  ?ia^S^^ntX;a^^^^^ 

ind,asthenameof  Alghazil,whodiedmllll,  ^tlandf,  1861,  i.  306.  318.1                   A.  G. 

sccurs  m  it,  we  get  two  extreme  dat«8  within  -* 

irfaich  Adam  must  have  flourished.      But,  AJ>AM  the  Carthusian  (A  1340)  is  de- 

rince  Aristotle,  till  the  thirteenth  century,  scribed  as  a  Carthusian  monk  and  a  doctor 

was  known  to  Western  Europe  only  as  a  of  theology.    A  list  of  his  works  is  given  in 

logician  (Bam  MuLLiNeEB,  History  of  Cam-  Tanner's  *  Bibliotheca,' p.  7 ;  but  he  is  con- 

fmdge  Urdvenity),  it  is  perhaps  best  to  assign  fused  with  Adam  of  Evnsham,  the  author 

this  commentator  to  the  century  in  which  of  the  *  Life  of  St.  Hugn  of  Lincoln ; '  and 

his  sole  existing  manuscript  was  written,  another  of  the  works  mentioned,  the  *  Scala 

Wadding  reckons  him  as  a  rVanciscan,  and  CsDli,'  is  attributed  to  Guigo  Carthusianus  in 

profi««_to  h*ve  seen  four  other  treatises  the  printed  editions. 


imoii  Aristotle  writt-en  by  this  Adam,  be- 
sides the  one  above  mentioned,  which  he  had 


[0pp.  S.  Augustini,  vi.  App.  1462;  S.  Ber- 
nardi,  ii.  647.]  H.  R.  L. 


never  come  across.    As  regards  the  surname  |      j^^^        Dombbham  (d,  after  1291), 
Buckfield  or  Buccenfeldus,  there  still  remains  I     ^„i     ^^   m«=*^«iv„,„    ™«    «        *•  i 

aamaUviDagebearingthenameofBucking.    ?J^^,^^   ^1*«*,?^^^!T,   w^   ?    ?^|^^^  «^ 

fi^t  foffrom  MSrpeth  in  NorthumbTr-  i  f^Tfii^J^i^^r    H^^^JlI^.^VTfn^ 

land ;  and  as  surnames  had  not  yet  lost  aU  ,  *rv¥^^''^'^.,^5?^.  ,^?  T^'i^^*  ^^^V 
.     .?.  .    oiuujMMco  ixc^uiu^    J  of  his  house,  entitled*Histonade  Rebus  jrest  IS 

J^ISr.i;^  Wh^.^^  Gla8tonien^ibus,'whichexi8tsinamanufcript 

have  been  the  birthplace  of  our  author.  .  j^  ^^^  ^^        J  ^^     ^  Cambrid^, 

PL^d   Comment.  269 ;  Bale,  u.  45 ;  Pits,    poggibly  the  author's  own  copy.     It  has  b^n 
m ;  Waddm^s^Scnpt.  Old.  Mm.  p.  l^Bibboth.  ,  ^]^^^^  ^y  Thomas  Heame  ii  two  volumes. 

The  first  volume,  however,  does  not  contain 
any  part  of  the  work  of  Adam.  The  history 
forms  a  continuation  of  the  treatise  of  Wil- 


1.  9.]  T.  A.  A. 

ADAM  OF  CAiTHirBSB  (d.  1222),  Scot- 
tish bishop,  was  probably  a  native  of  the 
eoath  of  Scotland.  The  tradition  is  that  he 
was  a  foundling  exposed  at  the  church  door. 
He  first  appears  in  1207,  when  we  find  that 
he,  already  prior  of  the  Cistercians  at  Mel- 
lose,  became  abbot.    On  5  Aug.  1213  he  was 


liam  of  Malmesbury,  *  De  Antiquitate  Glas- 
tonisd.'  It  begins  at  1126,  when  Henry  of 
Blois,  afterwards  bishop  of  Winchester,  be- 
came abbot,  and  ends  with  the  death  of  Abbot 
John  of  Taunton  in  1291.    A  large  part  of 


Adam  71 

tbe  hiBtorj  is  taken  up  with  papal  bulla,  | 
charters,  and  other  documeats.  I<rom  gome  I 
eKpreBaionH  used  bj  Adam  about  the  cha-  | 
racter  of  Abbot  Michael  (1236-1252)  it  may 
be  supposed  that  he  entered  the  convent  in 
his  time.  He  was,  therefore,  a  member  of 
the  flratemitv  during  part  of  that  period  of 
dilHcultyana  discord  which  followed  the  an- 
nexation of  the  abbey  to  the  see  of  Wells  by 
Bishop  Savaric,  a  proceeding  which  brought 
on  OlaBtoobuxy  heavy  expense  and  loss  of 
property,  and  which  endangered  its  indepen- 
dence. Ha  relates  the  nistory  of  these 
troubles  at  considerable  length,  and  says  in 
his  preface  that  his  object  in  writing  his  book 
was  to  incite  his  readers  to  protect  or  to  in- 
crease  the  prosperity  of  his  church,  which 
once  enjoyed  priTileges  above  all  others,  but 
was  then  ber^  of  her  liberties  and  posses- 
sions. On  the  deposition  of  Abbot  Roger 
Forde  by  WDliam  Button,  bishop  of  Bath, 
in  1255,  Adam,  with  four  other  monks,  was 
appointed  by  the  convent  to  elect  an  abbot 
t^  '  compromise,'  or  on  behalf  of  the  whole 
fraternity.  The  choice  of  the  electors  fell  on 
Robert  of  Petherton.  Roger  was,  however, 
restored  to  his  office  by  the  pope.  On  his 
death  Robert  again  became  abbot.  Adam 
was  cellarer  to  the  monastery,  and  the  ent^ 
with  which  he  opens  the  list  of  good  deeds 
done  by  Abbot  William  Vigor,  stating  that 
(p.  476)  inprimis  he  added  to  the  strenf^h 
<M  the  beer,  possibly  shows  that  the  writer 
entered  with  some  rest  into  the  details  of  his 
office.  He  afterwards  became  sacristan.  On 
one  important  occasion  he  seems  to  have 
shown  considerable  firmness  of  character. 
ute  had  been  carried  on  between 

jf  Bath  and  Abbot  Robert  about 

the  lordship  of  the  abber.  The  bishops 
claimed  to  be  the  mesne  lords,  while  the 
abbot  declared  that  his  house  held  immedi- 
ately of  the  crown.  When  Robert  died  in 
1274,the  monks  tried  tokeep  his  death  secret, 
avowedly  because  it  happened  at  Eastertide, 
but  doubtless  firom  the  more  cogent  reason 
that  they  desired  time  to  secure  the  recog- 
nition of  their  immediate  dependence  on  the 
crown,  The  bishop's  officers,  however,  found 
out  how  matters  stood.  They  came  to  Glas- 
tonbury and  caused  all  the  servants  of  the 
abbey  to  swear  fealty  to  their  master,  and 
put  bailiilB  in  all  the  manors.  The  king's 
escheator  appeared  at  the  abbey  gates  and 
waa  refused  admission  by  the  bishop's  men. 
Adam,  however,  waa  not  daunted,  and  on 
behalf  of  the  prior,  who  apparently  waa  absent 
at  the  time,  and  of  all  the  convent,  appealed 
in  set  terms  aguust  this  usurpation.  The 
next  day  he  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing 
the  GOnatable  of  Bristol  Castle  arrive.    The 


Adam 


.onbu^  in  April  1278, 
g  Arthur  was  opMied, 


king's  escheator  was  enabled  to  take  seisin 
of  the  monastery,  and  the  bishop's  men  were 
forced  to  retreat  in  haste.     Adun,  who  WH 

3sa  of  the  proceed ' 
teresting  a 

snd  his  queen  to  Olastonbur 
when  the  tomb  of  King  A 
and  his  bonee  and  the  bones  of  Ouiaevere 
were  borne  by  the  English  king  and  hia  qneen 
to  a  new  resting-place  before  the  high  altar- 
Adam  appears  to  have  followed  the  example 
of  his  abbot,  John  of  Taunton,  in  doing  nil 
best  to  recover  for  tbe  monasteiT  some  of 
the  treasures  which  it  had  loet.  His  history 
is  generally  said  to  end  at  1290,  the  date 
assigned  by  bim  to  the  death  of  John  of 
Taunton,  with  which  he  concludes  his  wo^ 
This  date  seems,  however,  to  be  incorrect, 
for  he  records  the  burial  of  EUeanor,  quem  of 
Edward  I,  as  taking  place  27  Dec  1^.  He 
says  that  after  that  event  Abbot  John  waa 
summoned  by  the  long  to  the  fimeral  of  his 
mother,  Eleanor  of  Provence,  which  was  pes- 
formed  at  Ambreabuiy  on  the  featival  of^the 
Sativity  of  the  B.  V.  Mary,  8  Sept  1291. 
Abbot  John  was  sick  at  the  time,  but  did 
not  like  to  fail  in  obedience  to  the  king's 
command.  Ilis  death  on  the  featival  of  St. 
Michael  is  the  last  event  recorded  by  Adam 
of  Domerham,  who  therefore  bringe  down 
his  story  to  1291. 

[Adam  de  DoDterham,  Eistoria  de  Bebua  g«atii 
Glafltoniansihua,  ed.  Hearae,  Oifotd,  1727  ;  Joha 
of  QIasIon.  Cbromeon,  ed.  Heame,  172S;  Dog- 
dnlc,  Monasticon,  i.  6;  Willis,  ArchitMtnnl 
Hifltory  of  Glastonbury;  Jaa.  Parker  in  aomersBt 
Areheeol.  300101/8  volume  for  1880.]      W.  R 

'      APAM  OF  Etbbhak  {d.  1191),  was  a 

monk  of  Noire  Dame  delaCharit6-sur-Loiie, 
<  Nievre,  afterwards  joined  to  Cluny,  and  be- 
came prior  of  Bermondaey  in  1167,  and  for  that 
monastery  he  obtained  important  privilege 
in  1160  from  Henry  11.  In  1161  he  waa 
made  abbot  of  Evesham,  where  he  completed 
the  cloister,  finished  St.  Egwine's  shrine, 
glazed  many  of  the  windows,  and  made  an 
aqueduct.  He  obtained  the  right  to  use 
episcopal  ornaments  in  1163,  Evesham  being 
the  tirnt  abbey  which  obtained  the  use  of  the 
mttre  for  its  abbot.  In  1163  he  waa  one  of 
the  papal  commissioners  for  deliverins  the 
palltoArchbishopThomaa.  HediedlSNov. 
1191.  According  to  Leland  he  was  tbe 
author  of :  1.  '  E:^ortatio  ad  Sacras  Viiginee 
Oodestovensis  CtEnobii.'  2.  '  De  miracolo 
Eucharistiffi  ad  Rainaldum.'  3.  'Epiatole.' 
[Anna].  Monast.  i.  4S,  iii.  440;  Chion.  Abb. 
deKve8ham(IU>lU8er.),100,17fi;  Dioeto (Holla 
8er.),  i.  307.]  H.  R  L. 


ADAM  OoDDAKire.    [See  Goddam.] 

ADAM  DB  ilxiBKo  id.  12r>7  ?),  <l 
Ir-arnnd  Fmncigcan,  in  said  to  hnve  Wn  a 
luitive  of  Soinetstt.  After  having  been  edu- 
:iil«l  *t  Oxford,  he  held  for  thrw  setre  the 
li<riag  of  Wearmouth  in  Ihirham  iChnm. 
ie  jStneTTfitt,  tab  anno  1253).  Adam  was 
TaiDOita  aa  a  acholar,  and  his  entry  into  the 
Franciscan  order  at  Worcealer  [rir.  1237) 
rnrmed  an  important  addiliiin  to  ila  ranks. 
The  atoty  tuna  that  a  companion  of  hia,  one 
.\dain  of  Os&cd,  had  made  a  vow  to  grant 
rat  requeat  preferred  to  him  in  the  name 
iry.  In  hie  travels  he  went  to  visit  the  ! 
friars,  and  one  of  them  eaid,  ■  For  the  love  ( 
if  the  mother  of  God  enter  our  order  and  ; 
help  our  eimplieity,'  Adam  at  anc«  accepted  I 
ihe  intimation  aa  divine,  and  n  vision  warned  ' 
Adam  dr  Mnrisco  to  follow  hia  friend's  ei-  | 
ample  (BcCLISTOK,  De  Adnmtu  Minonim,  p.  ' 
Itt).  Adam  de  Mariacu  waa  the  first  teacher  ; 
in  the  ac1ioi.ll  which  tlii-y  aet  up  at  (Jiford.  ' 
Ilia  influence  was  quickly  felt  not  only  ag  a  I 
teacher,  hiil  as  the  counsellor  and  friend  of  | 
all  the  beat  men  in  England.  His  first  friend 
was  Robert  Groeseteste,  bishop  of  Lincoln, 
chancellor  of  the  university  of  Oifonl  ;  ', 
whose  reapect  for  Adam's  judgment  became 
ao  great  tbat  he  conaulted  him  on  many  uf 
the  most  important  mattera  relntinff  to  his 
a#«.  Adwnwasconstantlysummoned tohelp 
the  Archhiahop  of  Canterbury,  B"niface  of 
Savoy,  whoae  wisdom  wan  by  no  means  eoual 
to  the  duties  of  hi»  office.  He  was  consulted 
by  the  queen,  the  Earl  of  Cornwall,  and  many 
importut  persons.  Hut  his  moat  noticeable 
friend  was  Simon  de  Montfort,  Earl  of  l.ei- 
cuater,  who  waa  loi^ly  guided  by  Adam'n 
counsels, 

Fmm  bia  connection  with  Grosae teste  and 
Simon  de  Montfort,  .\dam  may  be  regardwl 
as  Uie  intellectual  head  of  the  reforming 
principles  in  church  and  state  which  ore- 
railed  in  his  day.  He  was  also  engagvd  in 
orgaiusing  the  teaching  and  diecipline  of  the 
luuTeraity  of  Oxford,  and  bis  fume  as  a 
scholar  spread  ihrouehout  Europe.  In  1246 
h»  accompanied  Bishop  Grossetesle  to  the 
council  of  Lyons,  and  on  his  return  had  (o 
stay  at  Mantes  to  nurst*  a  «ick  comrade. 
Grosaete^tt!  wrote  at  once  to  England  for 
another  friar  la  be  sent  out  to  take  hie  plan! 
■a  nurse  J  he  was  afraid  lest  .4.dam  should 
be  tempted  to  join  the  uniTeraity  of  Paris 
and  so  deprive  Oxford  of  his  servicea  (^. 
114).  Adam's  letters  show  us  a  life  of  varied 
iis«^Uness.  He  teems  to  have  possessed  a 
eingularly  sound  judgment,  and  to  have 
impreMed  all  earnest  minds.  It  is  notice- 
abb  that  Adam  exercised  his  influence  to 


restrain  the  somewhat  imperious  and  pas- 
sionate nature  which  was  the  chief  d^ect 
in  Earl  Simon's  choracter  (.^.  1.3^-140, 161). 

The  last  years  of  Friar  Adam  were  dio- 
turbed  by  an  attempt  to  raiae  him  to  the  bi- 
ahooricof  Ely.  There  was  a  dispiited  election; 
the  Icing  nom'inated  one  candidate,  the  monks 
elected  another.  The  matter  was  referred  to 
the  pope,  and  Archbishop  Boniface  privately 
urged  him  to  appoint  Adam.  This  stirred 
the  anger  of  the  monastic  orders,  who 
mocked  at  the  ambition  of  a  friar.  Adam's 
health  was  declinina:,  and  he  died  before  the 
matter  was  settled,  but  he  seems  to  have  felt 
the  reports  which  were  spread  against,  him 
(Ep.  34A).  The  exact  time  of  his  death  can- 
not be  settled,  but  it  waa  either  late  in  12^7, 
or  early  in  1238, 

Adam  de  Mariaco  bore  in  his  own  time 
the  title  of  Doctor  IUu»tri».  Roger  Bacon 
repeatedly  speaks  of  him  and  Grosseteate  as 
'  perfect  in  all  wisdom," '  the  greatest  clerks 
in  tbe  world'  {Op.  Ttrt.  c.  22,  23.  25). 
There  are  atlribute<i  lo  him  four  books  of 
commentaries  upon  the  Master  of  the  Sen- 
tences ;  a  commentary  upon  the  Song  of 
Solomon ;  a  paraphrase  upon  Dionysius 
Areopagita;  en  elucidation  of  Sscred  Scrip- 
ture ;  theological  questions ;  and  '  Lec- 
tiones  Ordinarin.'  They  have  not  been 
printed. 

[Eceloaton,  De  Advenla  Minorum ;  Ada!  du 
Harisco  Epititohe,  in  Brewer's  Monuinonta  Fran- 
ciscana;  Robeiti  Qnissoleste  KpialAlai.  ed.  Liiaj\li 
ChronicoD  de  Lanercoat,  mibaan.  12fi3;  Hattbew 
Pariis  «ab  ana.  1367 ;  Wtidding.  AntinloB  Mtno- 
mm ;  Wood,  Aatiquitates  Unir,  Oxon.  t.  72 ; 
Brewer'^i  Preface  to  tba  Hannmenta,  lurii-ci.] 
M.  C. 


ADAM  OF  Obltoh  (d.  134IJ),  succeeaively 
bishop  of  Hereford,  Worcester,  and  Win- 
chester, was  bom,  according  to  Leland  (//in. 
8,  38),  at  Hereford.  He  became  doctor  of 
laws  and  '  auditor'  in  the  papal  court.  He 
waa  nominated  in  1317  to  the  see  of  Here- 
ford by  Pope  John  XXII  against  the  wish  of 
Edward  H,  who,  not  content  with  writing  to 
the  pope  and  cardinals  in  favour  of  Thomas 
de  Cherleton,  enjoined  Adam  himself  to  re- 
fuse the  see  if  ofiered  tohim  (Rtmbr,  Fadera, 
ed.  1706,  iii.  617).  However,  he  was  conse- 
crated at  Avignon  by  Nicholas  AJ  be  rtini,  car- 
dinal bishop  of  Gstia,  on  22  May  1317,  and 
received  the  temporalities  on  23  July.  The 
next  year  he  was  sent  to  I'hilip  Y  to  com- 
plain of  the  injuries  done  by  his  oflicera  to 
the  king's  subjects  in  Aquitaine  (26  Aug. 
1318),  and  to  the  pope  on  the  king's  private 


Adam 


80 


Adam 


matters  and  on  Aquitaine  affairs  (6  Feb., 
1  March  1319).    InMay  1819  he  was  one  of 
the  commissioners  to  perform  the  homagje 
due  by  Edwwrd  11  to  Philip  V  for  Aqui- 
taine and  the  other  English  possessions  in 
France,  and  to  apologise  for  its  delay,  and 
again  in  March  lo20  to  settle  the  interview 
between  the  two  kings.    There  is  also  a 
credence  for  him  dated  6  Oct.  to  inform 
Philip  Y  as  to  what  was  being  done  with 
ref^rd  to  a  peace  with  Scotland.    At  the 
rising  of  the  barons  in  1321  under  Badles- 
mere  and  Pembroke  he  took  that  side,  and 
was  one  of  the  messengers  to  the  king  from 
the  barons  to  demand  the  banishment  of  the 
Despensers,  and  to  obtain  indemnity  for  their 
own  conduct.    After  the  battle  of  Borough- 
bridge  in  1322,  and  the  execution  of  Badles- 
mere,  he  became  practically  the  head  of  the 
party,  and  was  brought  before  the  parlia- 
ment and  charged  with  treason  as  an  adhe- 
rent of  Mortimer,  and  one  who  had  given 
counsel  and  aid  to  the  king's  enemies.    He 
is  said  to  be  the  first  English  bishop  who 
had  ever  been  brought  before  a  lay  tribunal. 
He  refused  to  answer  the  charges,  excepting 
with  the  leave  of  the  archbishop  and  the 
other  bishops.    They  asked  the  king's  pardon 
for  him,  but,  the  king  not  being  pacined,  he 
was  given  into  the  charge  of  the  archbishop. 
After  a  second  summons  he  was  taken  under 
the  protection  of  the  Archbishops  of  Canter- 
burv,  York,  and  Dublin,  and  ten  of  their 
suifragans,  and  anathemas  were  pronounced 
against   any  who  should   presume  to  lay 
violent  hands  on  him.     The  king,  however, 
went  through  the  form  of  a  trial,  had  him 
found  gfuilty,  and  confiscated  all  his  lands 
and  revenues,  allowing  even  his  personal 
property  to  be  seized.     He  remained  under 
the  archbishop's  protection;  but  the  treat- 
ment he  received  confirmed  his  opposition  to 
the  king,  who  wrote  to  the  pope  on  1  April 
1324  to  complain   of  his  treason,  and  on 
2^  May  to  depose  him  from  his  see  on  the 
ground  of  his  having  joined  the  rebels.     An 
attempt  he  made  to  make  his  peace  with  the 
king  while  at  Winchester  through  the  Earl 
of    Leicester  only  made  the  king  accuse 
I^icester  of  treason.    On  the  queen's  landing 
in  1326  he  joined  her  at  once,  assisted  her 
with  money,  and  preached  before  her  at  Ox- 
ford from  the  text  *  Caput  meum  doleo '  (4 
lleg.  iv.  19),  treating  the  king  as  the  sick 
head  which  must  be  removed  for  the  health 
of  the  kingdom.     He  was  now  the  queen's 
chief  adviser,  had  the  army  at   Hereford 
under  his  command,  and  it  was  bv  his  advice 
that  the  king  was  committed  to  Itenilworth. 
The  chancellor,  Robert  Baldock,  was  con- 
fined in  his  prison  at  Hereford,  and  thence 


conveyed  to  his  London  house,  St.  Mary 
Mounthaw  (Old  Fish  Street  Hill),  idience  lie 
was  dragged  by  the  mob  and  placed  in  New- 
gate, where  he  soon  after  died  from  the 
treatment  he  received.    Bishop  Orlton  was 
sent  to  demand  the  great  seal  from  the  king^ 
who  was  then  at  Monmouth  {Fcsdera,  ii.  646), 
and  brouj^ht  it  to  the  queen  at  Martley.  After 
the  parLament  met  ne  was  sent  with  the 
Bishop  of  Winchester  to  summon  the  king 
to  the  parliament,  and  on  his  refusal  brought 
the  answer  before  the  clergy  and  people  on 
12  Jan.  1327.    The  next  day,  acting  as  pr(>- 
locutor  for  the  parliament,  i.e  stated  that  if 
the  queen  were  to  join  the  king,  she  would 
be  murdered  by  nim,  and   then  put  the 
question  whether  they  would  have  Edward 
or  his  son  as  king.    He  bade  them  go  home 
and  bring  the  answer  the  following  day.    Oit 
the  answer  being  for  the  son,  they  broo^t 
the  young  prince  into  Westminster  ffill, 
and  Bishop  Orlton,  the  archbishop,  and  the 
Bishop  of  Winchester  made  their  sevml 
speeches  to  the  assembly.    The  next  step 
was  to  procure  the  king's  abdication.    Bishop 
Orlton  was  sent  as  one  of  a  commiasiott 
chosen  by  the  parliament  to  visit  Edward  at 
Kenilworth,  and  to  induce  him  to  consent  to 
his  son's  election.     He  acted  as  spokesman, 
explained  to  the  king  the  cause  of  their  ar- 
rival, and  put  before  him  the  alternative  of 
resigning  in  favour  of  his  son,  or  of  their 
choosing  whoever  mi^t  seem  best  for  the 
protection  of   the   kmgdom.    He  brought 
back  the  king's  consenting  answer  to  the 
parliament,  says  De  la  Moor,  more  fully  ihan 
It  was  made. 

Under  the  new  reign  he  became  treasurer, 
I  had  the  temporalities  of  his  see  restored,  the 
proceedings  against  him  in  1323  being  an- 
nulled  in  Edward  in*s  first  parliament,  and 
was  sent  to  the  pope  in  March  1327  to  ob- 
tain the  dispensation  for  the  ;foung  king's 
marriage  with  his  cousin  Philippa  of  Hair 
nault.  While  he  was  at  Avignon  the  see  of 
Worcester  became  vacant,  and  to  this  he  was 
nominated  by  a  papal  proviso,  although  the 
king  wrote  both  to  nim  and  to  the  prior  and 
convent  of  Christ  Church,  Canterbury,  for- 
bidding them  to  hinder  the  consecration  of 
Wolstan  de  Bransford,  the  prior  of  Worcee- 
ter,  who  had  been  elected  by  the  chapter,  and 
had  obtained  the  royal  assent.  He  waa 
summoned  before  the  parliament  at  York  to 
answer  for  his  attempts  to  procure  his  trans- 
lation,  and  for  obtaining  papal  letters  preju- 
dicial to  the  king.  In  spite  of  thb,  the  ton* 
poralities  of  Worcester  were  restored  to  him 
on  5  March  1328 ;  nor  did  he  lose  the  king's 
favour,  as  he  was  sent  in  the  course  of  tne 
year  to  demand  and  receive  for  the  king  his 


Adam 


8i 


Adam 


rights  fts  heir  to  the  crown  of  France.  In 
iSSO  he  was  one  of  the  commission  to  treat 
with  Philip  Vly  and  to  arrange  for  marriages 
between  the  kinff*8  sister  Eleanor  and  John, 
the  eldest  son  oi  the  French  king,  and  be- 
tween Mary,  daughter  of  the  Frendi  king, 
and  John  of  Eltham,  earl  of  Cornwall,  as 
well  as  for  the  business  of  the  homage  at 
Amiens,  and  the  completion  of  the  negotia- 
tions for  peace  begun  in  the  two  preceding 
reigns.  On  his  way  we  hear  of  him  at 
Cant«rbuiT,  where  he  was  consulted  about 
the  troubles  at  St.  Augustine's.  He  had 
fuller  powers  given  him  in  January  1331, 
and  there  is  a  warrant  for  the  payment  of 
his  expenses  in  AjNtil  1332.  In  1333  he  was 
one  of  a  commission  to  treat  with  Ralph, 
count  of  Eu,  for  a  marriage  between  the 
count's  daughter,  Joan,  and  John,  earl  of 
Cornwall.  In  September  1333  he  was  no- 
minated by  the  pope,  at  the  request  of 
Philip  VI,  to  the  see  of  Winchester  against 
the  wish  of  the  kin^,  who  would  not  sur- 
render the  temporahties  till  23  Sept.  1334, 
when  he  did  so  at  the  reouest  of  the  arch- 
bishop and  other  bishops.  The  formal  appeal 
against  his  appointment  charged  him  with 
maltreatment  of  the  chancellor  Baldock, 
with  his  being  the  cause  of  the  king's  im- 
prisonment, and  with  preventing  the  queen 
DTom  joining  her  husband.  His  answers  to 
these  charges  are  preserved  in  the  curious 
paper,  '  Responsiones  AdsB  quondam  Wi- 
romiensia  episcopi,'  &c.,  which  is  printed  in 
Twysden's  *Decem  Scriptores'  (coll.  2763- 
12768). 

As  bishop  of  Winchester  we  find  him  one 
of  the  king^  deputies  at  the  council  in  Lon- 
don in  August  1335,  one  of  a  commission  in 
1336  to  treat  with  the  King  of  France  for  a 
joint  expedition  to  the  Holy  Land,  to  arrange 
in  interview  between  the  two  kings  for  the 
consideration  of  certain  processes  pending  in 
the  French  courts,  and  to  treat  with  David 
Bruce.  In  May  1337  the  king  wrote  to  the 
pope  not  to  allow  the  bishop  to  appeal  to  the 
Roman  court  for  the  decision  of  his  cause 
against  William  Inge,  archdeacon  of  Canter- 
bury. In  the  attack  on  Archbishop  Stratford 
in  1341  he  was  one  of  his  chief  opponents, 
and  the  '&mosus  libellus'  (BntCHiNOTON, 
p.  23),  which  the  king  put  forth  against 
the  archbishop,  was  attributed  to  his  pen. 
Fhon^  he  denied  this,  the  archbishop  evi- 
lently  did  not  believe  him,  and  was  able  to 
sonvict  him  of  falsehood  before  the  parlia- 
ment in  at  least  one  of  his  charj^es  (Bibch- 
oroTOir,  p.  40).  The  last  entry  in  the  '  Foe- 
lera '  concerning  Bishop  Orlton  is  in  1342 
[16  Nov.),  when  a  loan  of  200/.  was  de- 
manded of  him.    Warton  (History  of  Eng- 

TOL.I. 


;  lUk  Poetry  J  ii.  97,  ed.  llazlitt)  mentions  his 

j  visitation  of  the  priory  of  Winchester  in 
1338,  when  a  minstrel  named  Herbert  sang 

I  the  song  of  Colbrond  and  the  tale  of  Queen 

I  Emma. 

De  la  Moor  speaks  of  him  as  a  man  of  a 
very  crafty  intellect,  prudent  in  worldly 
matters,  bold  and  unscrupulous,  and  the  one 
who  revived  the  hatred  against  the  Despen- 
sers  after  the  king's  victory  at  Borough- 
bridge.  He  accuses  him  of  being  guilty  of 
the  king's  murder;  but  as  the  story  he  tells 
is  of  a  much  older  date,  and  as  the  bishop 
was  out  of  the  coimtry  at  the  time,  it  may 
be  dismissed  as  certainlv  false.  It  never 
was  charged  against  him  at  the  time,  and  in 
the  defence  of  his  conduct  above  mentioned 
there  is  no  allusion  to  such  an  accusation. 
He  became  blind  for  some  time  before  his 
death,  which  took  place  at  Famham  18  July 
1345.  He  was  one  of  the  very  few  English 
prelates  who  had  been  twice  translated — a 
lact  which  gave  rise  to  the  lines  quoted  by 
Wharton  (A,  S.  i.  634)  :— 
Trinus  est  Adam  ;  talem  suspendero  vadam. 
Thomam  [Herofonl]  despexit,  Wlstanum  [Wor- 
cester] non  bene  rexit  ; 

Swithunum  [Winchester]  maluit.  Cur? 
Quia  plus  valuit. 
[Trokelowe,  109,  and  Blanefoorde,  140-142 
(Rolls  Ser.) ;  Atlam  of  Murimouth,  25,  43,  47, 
48,  61,  58.  72  (Eng.  Hist.  Sec);  Chron.  de  Lh- 
nercost,  257,  258  (Bunnatyne  Club) ;  Thomas  de 
laMoor,  599-602  (Chron.  Ed.  I,  Ed.  U,  Rolls  Ser.) ; 
William  de  Dene  (Ang.  Sacr.  i.),  367 ;  Birching- 
ton  (Ang.  Sacr.  i.),  39,  40;  Thorn  (Twysden), 
2057;  Robert  of  Graystanes,  48,  p.  119;  Mon. 
Malmesb.  216,  234, 235  (Hearne)  ;  Annal.  Paulin. 
320  (Chron.  Ed.  I,  Ed.  II,  Rolls  Ser.)  ;  Rymer'» 
Foedem,  ii.]  H.  R.  L. 

ADAM  ScoTUs,  or  Anolicus  (/.  1180), 
was  a  theological  writer.  The  very  little 
that  can  be  ascertained  as  to  his  life  is  almost 
entirely  dependent  upon  incidental  allusions 
contained  in  his  writings.  The  national  affix, 
*Scotu8,'  does  not  apparently  occur  in  the 
earliest  edition  of  this  writer's  works — that 
published  by  -^Egidius  Gourmont  at  Paris  in 
1518.  This  folio  (which  may  be  looked  upon 
as  containing  all  of  this  author's  works,  of 
whose  genuineness  there  can  be  .absolutely 
no  doubt  at  all)  consisted,  according  to 
Panzer's  account,  of  a  series  of  '  xxiv.  ser- 
mons and  two  treatises  entitled  respectively 
*  Liber  de  tripartito  Tabemaculo'  and  *Li- 
her  de  triplici  genere  Contemplationis  ; '  and 
it  is  ascribed  not  to  Adam  Scotus,  but  to 
'Brother  Adam  of  the  Pnemonstratensian 
order.'  It  is  almost  certain  that  the  xxiv. 
here  must  be  a  misprint  for  xiv.,  and  that 
these  sermons  in  reality  represent  the  treatise 

G 


Adam 


82 


Adam 


entitled  *  De  Ordlne '  of  the  next  edition 
(6f.  Panzer,  Armal.  Typoor,  viii.  49 ;  Btblio- 
tkeca  Tellerianay  43 ;  and  PossEYiiars,  Appon 
ratus  Sacevy  i.  6).  In  1659  Peter  Bellerus  of 
Antweip  published  the  works  of  Adam  Scotus, 
to  which  was  prefixed  an  elaborate,  but  un- 
satisfactory, life  of  the  author  by  (Godfrey 
Ghiselbert,  himself  a  Praemonstratensian. 
This  new  issue  consisted  of  (a)  forty-seven 
sermons,  (b)  a  '  Liber  de  ordine,  habitu,  et 
professione  Canoniconim  ordinis  Prsemon- 
strat^nsis,'  divided  into  fourteen  sermons  (see 
above),  and  assigned  in  their  title  to  Master 
Adam ;  (c)  a  treatise  '  De  tripartito  Tabema- 
culo ;  *  (a)  another  treatise  *  De  triplici  genere 
Contemplationis.'  The  last  three  wonts  are 
by  the  same  writer,  and  are  all  dedicated  to 
the  Pnemonstratensian  brotherhood.  The 
author  of  the  *  De  Tripartito  *  claims  the 
'Liber  de  ordine,'  &c.,  and  the  author  of 
the  *  De  Triplici  genere,'  &c.  claims  the  *  De 
Tripartito.'  One  Adam,  therefore,  wrot«  the 
three  treatises.  And  the  *  De  Tripartito '  is 
full  of  hints  which  enable  us  to  fix  the 
author's  era  with  certainty,  and  his  country 
with  a  fair  amount  of  probability.  In  part  ii. 
c.  6  we  read  that  the  sixth  age  of  the  world 
dates  from  the  coming  of  Christ,  *  of  which 
age  1180  years  are  now  past.'  The  same 
date  will  suit  the  lists  of  popes  and  kings.  Tlie 
time  in  which  Adam  flourished  may  then  be 
safely  set  down  as  being  aboutl  1 80 ;  he  appears 
to  have  been  alive  two  years  or  more  later  CD^ 
Trip.  Tab.  Procem.  I.  c.  iii.).  As  to  the  place 
of  his  birth  we  have  no  such  certain  indication. 
Ohisolbert  assures  us  that  the  manuscripts  of 
this  writer  call  him  sometimes  *  Scotus/ 
sometimes  *  Anglicus,'  and  sometimes 'Anglo- 
Scot  us.'  Everything  in  the  treatises  points  to 
a  locality  which,  about  the  year  1180,  though 
within  the  limits  of  the  kingdom  of  Scot- 
land, was  yet  strongly  under  English  influ- 
ence, and  already  the  seat  of  a  Prsemonstra- 
tensian  community.  In  the  explanation  of 
the  elaborate  *  tabula,'  or  list  of  kings,  in 
the  *  De  Tripartito,'  Adam  recommends  his 
copyists  to  insert  the  royal  line  of  their  own 
sovereigns,  after  the  kings  of  Germany  and 
France,  in  the  place  of  his  list  of  English 
and  Scotch  ones.  The  only  kingly  house 
whose  ancestry  he  traces  up  to  Adam  is  that 
of  England ;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  he  shows 
u  minute  knowledge  of  the  character  of  Mal- 
colm Canmore's  children,  and  declares  that 
he  is  Avriting  in  the  *land  of  the  English 
(Anglorum)  and  the  kingdom  of  the  Scots.' 
Moreover,  the  book  in  question  is  formally 
dedicated  to  *  John,  abbot  of  Calchou.'  There 
is  only  one  abbot  of  Calchou,  or  Kelso,  named 
John,  known  before  the  middle  of  the  six- 
teenth century — namely,  John,  formerly  can- 


tor of  the  abbey — ^who  si^ed  seTenl  char- 
ters under  William  the  Lion.  He  was  abbot 
from  lieO  to  USO(aee  Liber  SancUeMaruede 
Calchou  and  Liber  de  Melroe,  i.  S9, 4S,  &c.). 
There  seems  to  be  only  one  part  of  Great 
Britain  which  answers  to  aU  the  requirementi 
of  the  case,  viz.,  the  principality  oiGalloway, 
for  which  William  the  Lion  did  homage  to 
Henry  about  the  year  1175,  a  district  ^ere 
there  were  already  three  Pnemonstratensiaii 
foundations  by  1180.  But  it  must  be  allowed 
that  from  many  points  of  view  Drybnrgh 
would  suit  equally  well.  Ghiselbert,  however, 
has  preserved  a  number  of  passages  from 
manuscript  notices  of  Adam  Scotus  that  had 
&llen  into  his  hands,  which  tend  to  show 
that  about  1177  Christian,  bishop  of  Cast 
Candida  (Whithorn  in  Gkilloway),  changed 
the  canons  of  his  cathedral  church  into  Inne- 
monstratensian  regulars.  The  name  of  Chris- 
tian's new  abbot,  according  to  Manritus  i 
Prato,  who  here  becomes  Ghiselbert's  autho- 
rity, was  Adam,  or  Edan,  irom  the  neigh- 
bouring foundation  of  Soulseat  near  Stran- 
raer, and  is  identified  with  our  writer.  In 
the  Prscmonstratensian  abbey  of  St.  Michael 
at  Antwerp  Ghiselbert  found  another  life  of 
Adam  which  described  him  as  being  bom  of 
noble  parents  in  Anglo-Scotia,  and  a  contem- 
porary of  the  '  first  fathers  of  the  Pnemon- 
stratensian order.'  But  the  amount  of  tmtb 
that  underlies  these  vag^e  statements  is  very 
hard  to  appreciate  at  its  exact  value.  Pt^sing 
on  to  more  certain  matters,  we  can  gather 
that,  within  two  years  of  1180,  our  Adam 
had  been  at  Pnemonstratum,  the  head  abbey 
of  the  great  order  to  which  he  belonged,  and 
that  the  chief  abbots  of  his  order  nad  re- 
(juested  him  to  forward  them  a  copy  of  the 
*  De  Tripartito.'  In  1177  Alexander  m  had 
confirmed  the  statutes  of  the  order  which 
bade  all  the  Pnemonstratensian  abbots  be 
present  at  their  annual  general  chapter. 
From  the  allusion  made  to  this  statut«  it 
seems  probable  that  the  writer  was  abbot  of 
his  house  at  the  time,  and  most  certainly  he 
was  a  man  of  such  reputation  with  his  bre- 
thren that,  had  he  lived  lonff,  he  must  have 
been  elected  to  that  office  (Prooem.  I.  c.  8 ; 
and  cf.  MiR^us  ap.  Kubn,  vL  36). 

It  now  remains  to  say  a  few  words  re- 
specting  the  other  works  assigned  to  Adam. 
Ghiselbert  has  prefixed  to  his  edition  of  this 
author  forty-seven  sermons  which  are  in  their 
heading  ascribed  to  'Master  Adam,  called 
Anglicus  of  the  Pnemonstratensian  order.' 
From  the  authors  preface  to  this  collection 
we  learn  that  it  is  only  part  of  a  body  of 
100  discourses,  of  whicli  the  first  division 
consisted  of  forty-seven  sermons  covering 
the  period  from  Advent  to  Lent.    Among 


Adam 


83 


Adam 


the  latt«T  fifty-three  seimons  we  read  that 
there  were  fourteen  '  qui  specialiter  ad  viros 
Rpectant  religiosoe.*  Oudin  tells  us  that,  when 
a  young  theological  student  in  the  Prsemon- 
strateusian  abbey  of  Coussi,  near  Laon,  hH 
used  often  to  have  a  certain  codex  containing 
about  114  sermons  in  his  hands.  The  writing 
of  this  codex  he  assigns  to  the  year  1200  or 
thereabouta,  and  though  the  first  leaves  hH<l 
been  torn  away  he  does  not  hesitate  to  iden- 
tify this  volume  with  the  complete  work 
of  which  Ghiselbert's  fortVHBeven  sermons 
formed  the  first,  division.  .The  account  Ou- 
din gives  of  the  scope  of  these  discourses 
strengthens  this  belief,  and  we  can  hardly 
tul  to  surmise  what  the  fourteen  odd  ser- 
mons are.  Copies  or  originals  of  the  re- 
maining sermons  (in  whole  or  in  part)  were, 
according  to  the  same  authority,  to  be  found 
in  the  hands  of  Herman  k  Porta,  abbot  of  St. 
Michael's  at  Antwerp,  and  in  the  library  of 
the  Ccelestins  at  Mantes  (cod.  619),  where 
they  are  ascribed  to  'Brother  Adam,  the 
Pnemonstratensian.'  Ghiselbert  tells  us  that 
the  Coelestins  at  Paris  were  still  accustomed 
at  mealtimes  to  read  aloud  our  author*B  ser- 
mons, of  which,  in  another  passage,  he  adds 
that  they  possessed  an  old  manuscript  entitled 
^Magistri  Adami  Anglici  Pnemonstratensis 
Sermones.*  From  the  above  remarks  it  would 
appear  that  the  Pnemonstratensian  Adam  of 
the  sermons  was  very  probably  the  Pnemon- 
stratensian Adam  of  the  fourteen  sermons 
entitled  '  De  Ordine,'  &c.,  who  in  that  case 
went  by  the  name  of  Adam  Anglicus  the 
Pnemonstratensian.  Again,  both  Herman  k 
Porta  and  the  Coelestins  at  Mantes  (cod. 
618)  possessed  a  '  Libellus  Adam  Ptiemon- 
stratenais,  natione  Anglici,  De  Instructione 
Animse,'  which  they  assigned  to  the  author 
of  the  sermons.  Now  this  work  was  in  1721 
published  bv  Pez  from  altogether  another 
source,  and  is  by  him  headed  as  the  work  of 
''Adam  the  Prremonstratensian,  abbot  and 
bishop  of  Candida  Casa  in  Scotland.'  But 
Pes  neglects  to  tell  us  whether  he  is  here 
following  the  manuscript  title  of  the  work, 
or  merely  adopting  Ghiselbert's  theory  al- 
luded to  above.  Tne  treatise  in  question  is, 
in  its  prologue,  dedicated  to  Walter,  prior 
of  St.  ^dreVs  in  Scotland,  by  brother  Adam 
*  servorum  Dei  servus,'  a  phrase  which  seems 
to  implj  that  its  author  was  an  abbot  or 
other  nigh  church  dignitary.  Now  there  ap- 
pears to  have  been  only  one  Walter  among 
all  the  known  priors  of  St.  Andrews,  and 
he  held  office  from  1162  to  1186,  and  from 
1188  to  at  least  the  year  1195  ?Qobdon'8 
Eedetiagtical  Chromdef  iiL  75).  This  agrees 
very  well  with  the  date  alreaciy  established 
for  the  so-called  Adam  Scotus ;  but  of  course 


there  ma^  have  been  many  Adams  fiourish- 
ing  at  this  time  in  Scotland,  though  it  would 
seem  hardly  likely  that  there  should  be  two 
Scotch  Pra^monstratensian  canons  of  this 
name  with  a  European  reputation.  The  de- 
duction to  be  made  from  the  above  remarks 
is  that  all  the  before-mentioned  works  are 
probably  by  one  author,  who  was  certainly  a 
Scotch  Pnemonstratensian  canon  and  pro- 
bably an  abbot,  but  whether  of  Whithorn 
— in  which  case  he  mav  have  been  bishop 
also — or  not  can  hardly  be  considered  as 
settled  in  one  way  or  the  other.  Still  more 
uncertain  is  Ghiselbert's  identification  of  our 
Adam  with  the  Pnemonstratensian  English 
bishop,  the  contemporary  of  Ciesar  Ileister- 
bachensis  (Hcripsit  c.  1:222),  of  whose  death 
that  author  tells  so  pretty  a  story  (Miracula, 
1.  iii.  c.  22).  Ghiselbert  makes  mention  of  a 
lost  work  written  by  our  Adam  entitled  *  De 
dulcedine  Dei,'  and  also  of  a  volume  of  letters. 
Pez  believed  himself  to  have  traced  the  for- 
mer work  in  a  fifteenth-century  catalogue  of 
certain  '  Codices  Tcgemseenses,'  and  assigns 
a  set  of  Latin  verses  entitled  *  Suinmida  to 
the  same  author,  but  on  very  ^nsufiicient 
grounds. 

[Migno*H  Pat  rolopiw  Cursus  Coinplet  its,  cxcviii., 
which  contains  all  Adam's  writingn  that  have  tu* 
yet  been  published  under  his  name  ;  Mackenzie's 
Writers  of  the  Scotxsh  Nation,  i.  141-5 ;  Oudin 
Dc  Scriptor.  Eccles.  ii.  1544-7 ;  A.  Mirsei  Chroni- 
cs)n  Ord.  Pnemonstr,  np.  Kuen's  Collect  io  Scrip- 
toniin.  vi.  36,  38,  and  sub  anno  1518;  B.  Pes' 
Thesaurus  Anocdot.  pt.  ii.  335-72;  Fabricius' 
Biblioth.  Lat.  i.  11  ;  (Javc's  Scriptores  Ecclesie, 
ii.  234.  For  Christian,  bishop  of  Candida  Casa, 
and  his  suspension  in  1177,  see  Koger  Hoveden 
(Rolls  Ser.),  ii.  135,  &c.]  T.  A.  A. 

ADAM  OP  UsK  (j^.  1400),  lawyer  and 
writer  of  a  Jjatin  chronicle  of  English  history 
from  1377  to  1404,  was  bom  at  IJsk,  in  Mon- 
mouthshire, probably  between  1 360  and  1365. 
Bvthe  favour  of  Edmund  Mortimer,  tliird  earl 
0/  March,  who  held  the  lordship  of  Usk,  he 
was  appointed  to  a  law-studentship  at  Ox- 
ford, and  took  a  doctor's  degi'ee,  being  in  1387 
an  *  extraordinarius '  in  canon  law.  He  also 
entered  the  church.  He  pleaded  in  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury's  court  for  seven 
years,  from  1390  to  1397;  and  in  the  latter 
year  he  attended,  jjerhaps  in  some  official  ca- 
pacity, the  last  parliament  nf  Richard  II,  of 
the  procee<lings  of  which  he  has  left  a  valu- 
able account.  In  the  revolution  of  1399  he 
joined  Thomas  Arundel,  archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury— one  of  Bolin^broke's  principal  ad- 
herents— and  accompanietl  the  invading  army 
in  its  march  northward  from  Bristol  to 
Cliester.  By  his  influence  his  native  place 
escaped  the  punishment  with  which  it  was 

e2 


Adam  84  Adam 

threatened  for  the  resistance  of  its  inliabi-  eon's  Hospital.  This  for  a  boy  of  nineteen,  who 

tunts.    After  Kichard*8  surrender  Adam  was  had  struggled  through  his  univerBity  career 

appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for  the  |  on  four  guineas  a  year,  was  comparative 

deposition  of  the  king :  and  he  gives  us  an  wealth.    ^Viter  about  three  years,  howerer, 

interesting  accoimt  of  n  visit  that  he  paid  to  he   resigned  the  appointment,  and  became 

him  in  the  Tower.    The  immediate  reward  private  tutor  in  the  family  of  Mr.  Kincaid, 

of  his  ser\'ice8  was  the  living  of  Kemsing  and  aften^'ards     lord    provost    of    EdinbuigL 

Seal  in  Kent,  togetlier  with  a  prebend  in  Tlirough  his  influence  Adam  subsequentlr 

tlie  collegiate   church  of  Abergwili.      He  obtained  in  1768  the  rectorship  of  the  W^ 

sr>on  afterwards  received  anotlier  prebend  in  School,  after  having  been  for  three  years  as- 

the  church  of  Bangor.     As  a  further  proof  sistant  to  the  retiring  head  master.    Lord 

of  the  value  set  by  tlie  new  king  on  his  ;  Cockbumsaysof  him: '  He  was  bom  to  teach 

ability  as  a  law\'er,  a  cas*'  was  submitted  to  Latin,  some  Greek,  and  all  virtue.   ...  He 


France.  them  to  be  even  softened.     His  private  in- 

But  soon  afterwards  Adam  forfeited  the  dustry  was  appalling.  If  one  moment  late 
royal  favour  by  the  boldness  with  which  he  at  school,  he  would  hurry  in  and  explain  that 
remonstrated  with  Henry  on  tlie  faults  of  he  had  bwn  detained  "verifj-ing  a  quota- 
Iiis  ^vemment ;  and  in  1402  he  was  sent  in  '■  tion; "  and  many  a  one  did  he  verifjr  at  fonr^ 
Ijamshment  to  Rome,  where,  liowever,  he  was  ,  in  the  morning '  (Cockbubn',  Memonalg of  Mi^' 
well  received,  and  api)ointed  papal  chaplain  Time).  He  improved  the  school,  and  in  the 
and  auditor  of  the  Kota.  He  was  not  allowed  j  year  of  his  death  had  167  pupils  in  his  class,  a 
to  return  to  England  for  four  years;  and  of  -  number  equal  to  the  whole  attendance  at  the 
his  life  after  that  date  we  have  no  iiiforma-  |  school  when  he  first  joined  it.  His  introduc- 
tion, as  the  latter  part  of  his  chronicle  is  lost,    tion  of  the  teacliing  of  Greek  was  opposed  by 


While  at  Kome  he  states  that  he  was 
nominated  by  the  pope  to  the  see  of  Here- 
ford, wliich  fell  vacant  in  1404,  but  that  the 
intrigues  of  his  enemies  in  P]ngland  prevailed 
to  his  exclusion;  and  again  that,  with  no 


the  university  authorities  as  an  infraction  of 
the  privileges  of  the  professor  of  Greek. 
Much  controversy  was  also  excited  by  the 
publication,  in  1772,  of  his  '  Latin  Rudimente 
and  Grammar,'  written  in  English  instead  of 


btittcr  success,  he  was  afterwards  proposed  I  Latin,  as  in  the  old  text-books.     The  t^wn 
for  the  see  of  St.  David's.  council  in  1786  decided  that  the  old  gram* 

Among  the  diiferent  crises  in  which  he  was  ;  mar  (Kuddiman^s)  was  still  to  be  used,  and 
engaged  as  a  lawyer,  he  mentions  that  he  prohibited  all  others.  But  Adam's  method 
drew  up  the  petition  of  Sir  Thomas  Dymock  .  was  generally  adopted  before  his  death.  In 
for  the  championship  at  Henry's  coronation,  '  1780  the  degree  of  LL.D.  was  conferred  on 
and  that  he  was  retained  in  the  well-known  t  him  by  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  and  in 
suit  of  Lord  Grey  of  Ruthin  against  Lord  ■  1791  ho  published  his  best  known  work  on 
Edward  Hastings.  *  Unman  Antiquities,'  for  which  he  received 


[Chronicon  Adfe  do  Usik,  eil.  K.  M.  Tliom|won 
(Koval  Society  of  Literature).  1876.] 

K.  M.  T. 

ADAM,  ALEXANDER,  LL.D.  (1741- 


(KX)/..and  whicli  has  since  gone  through  seve- 
ral editic)ns.  A  *  Summary'  of  Geoffraphy  and 
Histor^^ '  appeared  in  1794,  expanaea  from  a 
small  text-book  which  he  had  printed  for  the 
use  of  his  pupils  ten  years  previously ;  a  fifth 


1809),  writer  on  Roman  antiquities,  was  bom  I  edition  appean>d   in  1816.     His  last  work, 
on  24  June  1741,  at  a  small  farm  near  Forres,  :  published  in  1805,  was  a  *  Latin  Dictionary' 
in  Morayshire,  of  which  his  father  was  tenant,    lor  the  use  of  schools. 
He  learned  what  Latin  the  parish  school-  '      On   13  Dec.  1809,  Dr.  Adam  was  seised 
master  could  teach  him,  and  had  read  the  i  with  u  tit  of  apoplexy  while  teaching  his 
whole  of  Livy  before  he  was  sixteen,  chiefly    class,  and  he  (lied   after  an  illness  of  five 
in  the  early  morning  by  the  light  of  splinters  l  days.     His  last  words  were :  *  But  it  grows 
of  bogwood.     In  1757  he  competed  unsuc-  .  dark,  boys — you  may  go ;  we  must  put  off 
c«ssfully  for  a  *  bursary'  at  Aberdeen  Uni-  |  the  rest  till  to-morrow.' 
versity,  and  soon  ofterwards,  on  the  invita-  ;      Dr.  Adam  married   first,   in   1775,  Mi» 
tion  of  a  relation  of  his  mother  who  was  a  j  Munro,  whose  father  was  minister  of  Kin- 
clergyman  in  Edinburgh,  he  removed  to  that  '  loss :   and  second,  in  1780,  Miss  Cosser,  t 
city,  where  he  had  free  admission  to  the  col-    daughter    of   the    controller    of   excise  in 
leffe  lectures,  and  in  the  course  of  a  year  and    Edinburgh, 
a  half  he  gained  the  head-mastership  of  Wat-  i      Dr.  Adam's  other  works  are : '  Geographical 


Adam  85  Adam 

Index/  Edinburgh,  1795;  'Classical  Biogra-    the  2nd  or  Coldstream  guards.     He  accom- 
phy/  Edinburgh,  1800.  panied  liis  regiment  to  Egypt,  was  promoted 

rLifebvA.Hender8on,Edinburgh.  1810;  Notice  '  ^^P^  '"i}^*  lieutenant-colonel  in  1804, 
mEncyelop«liaBritannica,byProfe»*orrillanH,  and  m  1805,  when  only  twenty-four,  pur- 
his  Miccessop  in  the  High  School.]        J.  B.  P.        chased  the  command  ot  the  2l8t  regiment. 

His  regiment  was  ordered  to  Sicily,  and  he 

ADAM,  Sib  CHARLES  (1780-1858),  remained  in  the  army  of  Sicily  till  1813.  lie 
idmiral,  was  the  son  of  the  Right  Hon.  Wil-  was  present  at  tlie  battle  of  Maida,  and  the 
liam  Adam,  of  Blair-Adam,  Kinross,  and  of  siege  of  »Scylltt  in  1806,  and  on  10  Sept.  of 
Eleanor,  daughter  of  the  tenth  Lord  Elphin-  ;  the  same  year  fought  a  smart  engagement 
itone,  and  sister  of  Cantain  Elphinstone,  with  General  Cavaignac,  at  Mili,  in  tem- 
afterwards  Admiral  Lora  Keith.  He  was  porary  command  of  a  brigade.  In  1811  he 
bom  on  6  Oct.  1780,  and  entered  the  uav-y  was  made  aide-de-camp  to  the  prince  regent, 
tt  a  very  early  age,  under  the  direct  pa-  and  deputy-adjutant -general  to  the  forces  in 
rronaffe  of  his  uncle,  with  whom  he  con-  Sicily,  m  1812  promoted  to  be  colonel,  and 
tinned  to  serve  till,  in  1795,  he  was  sent  in  1813  given  the  command  of  a  bripde  in 
to  the  Victorious,  of  74  guns,  as  acting-  the  army  which  wan  sent  from  Sicily  in 
lieutenant.  In  June  1799  he  was  maae  :  April  tooperate  in  the  east  of  Spain, 
captain,  and  appointed  to  theSybille  frigate,  |  lie  was  now  destined  on  more  than  one 
in  which  ship,  on  19  Aug.  1801,  under  cir-  occasion  to  pay  the  pt'iialty  for  the  military 
eumstances  of  great  difficultv  and  intricate  '  incapacity  of  his  commanding  generals,  ana 
navigation,  he  captured  the  l^'rench  fri^te,  it  may  )x^  ass«?rted  truthfully  that  he  was 
Chinonne,  which  had  taken  up  a  position  the  only  English  general,  except  Donkin  the 
ra  Mah6  Roads,  in  the  Seychelle  Islands,  quartermaster-general,  who  won  fame,  or 
He  was  afterwards,  in  May  1803,  appointed  even  reputation,  during  the  badly  conducted 
to  command  the  CliifTonne,  and  in  her  took  operations  on  t]ie  east  coast,  which  filled 
part  in  the  blockade  of  Boulogne  and  tlie  XS'ellington  with  despair.  His  first  com- 
Dorth  coast  of  France  through  the  summer  mander-in-chief,  Sir  John  Murray,  began  by 
of  1805.  In  1811-13  he  commanded  the  In-  placing  his  brigade  so  far  in  advance  of  the 
vincible,  of  74  guns,  in  active  operations  on  main  army  that  it  cnuld  not  i»ossiblybe  sup- 
the  coast  of  Spain,  and  after  the  peace  wos  ported.  »Suchet,  who  was  un  extremely  able 
for  many  years  captain  of  the  royal  yacht,  general,  saw  the  fault,  and  attacked  Adam's 
tiU  in  May  1825  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  brigade  of  1 ,800  men  at  Biar,  on  12  April,  with 
of  rear-admiral.  He  became  vice-admiral  in  two  divisions.  Adnni  maintained  the  uneoual 
1837,  and  admiral  in  1848.  In  January- 1835  battle  for  two  hoius,  though  badly  wounaed, 
he  was  made  K.C.B.,  and  sat  as  M.P.  for  and  at  last,  when  he  had  given  Murray  an 
Clackmannan  and  Kinross  from  1833  to  1841 .  opportunity  to  come  to  his  assistance  or  take 
Between  Aiijgust  1841  and  May  1845  he  was  up  a  good  defensivt*  position,  after  a  five 
commander-in-cliief  in  the  West  Indies;  he  hours'  defence  he  fell  back  on  Castalla. 
waa  one  of  the  lords  of  the  admiralty  from  Murray  had  not  taken  up  a  good  position, 
April  1835  to  August  1841,  and  again  in  and,  while  Iiis  right  was  quite  impregnable, 
1846-47,  when  he  was  appointed  governor  of  had  left  his  left  exposed.  Here  Adam,  and 
Greenwich  Hospital,  wnere  he  died  on  16  Whittingham  with  his  Spaniards,  were 
Sept.  1853.  A  subscription  bust,  said  to  be  |K)sted,  and  on  13  April  the  valour  of  the 
a  good  likeness,  is  in  the  Painted  Hall.  soldiers    and    the  good    conduct    of   their 

[OUvme's  Naval  Biographical  Dictionary;  officers  made  up  for  the  faulty  dispositions 
Gcmt.  Mag.  1853,  ii.  628.]  J.  K.  L.        of  the  general,  and  all  t^uchet  s  attacks  were 

j  repulsed  with  a  loss  of  3,000  men.  Some 
ATIAM^  Sib  FREDERICK  (1781-1853),  '  months  later,  when  the  divisions  from  Sicily 
ffeneral,  waa  the  fourth  son  of  the  Right  Hon.  had  been  again  brought  round  to  Catalonia, 
William  Adam,  of  Blair  Adam,  M.P.,  lord  I^ord  William  Bent  inck  treated  Adam's  bri- 
lieutenant  of  Kinross,  and  a  most  eminent  gade  much  as  Sir  John  Murray  had  done.  It 
orator  and  Scotch  Judgpe ;  he  was  brother  of  ,  formed  the  advanced  brigade  of  the  army 
Admiral  Sir  Charles  Adam,  K.C.B.,  M.P.,  which  had  tidien  TaiTugona,  and  was  sta- 
and  uncle  of  the  Right  Hon.  W.  P.  Adam,  tioned  at  the  bridge  of  Ordall  far  from  any 
M.P.  He  was  appointed  an  ensign  in  1795,  support.  Suchet  determined  to  recapture 
and  lieutenant  in  1796  while  a  mere  boy,  ,  Tarragona,  and  on  \'2  Sept.  attacked  Ordall 
and  whil^  holding  his  commission  was  edu-  ;  with  an  overwhelming  force,  and  affain  Adam 
cated  in  the  military  academy  at  Woolwich.  ,  was  left  unsupportt;d.  This  time  buchet  was 
He  became  captain  in  the  9th  regiment  in  |  successful,  and  took  Odall  after  a  desperate 
1799|  and  in  the  same  year  exclmnged  into    resistance,  in  which  the  brigadier-general  was 


Adam  86  Adam 

twice  severely  wounded.  Adam's  dispoMtioiis  ,  who  was  governor  of  Greenwich  HospiUl. 


lie  acknowledges  his  personal  gallantry  in    have  distinguished  himself  in  higher  com- 
the  action.  mands. 

On  his  return  to  Engknd  owing  to  his  [^p^p  General  AdamV  serricefe  nee  Philipparts 
wounds,  he  had  a  flattering  reception,  and  in  Royal  Military  Calendar,  3rd  edition,  1820,  ti.L 
June  1814  was  made  major-general.  Wlien  iii.  For  the  battle  of  Castalla  and  the  combat  uf 
an  army  was  ordered  to  assemble  in  Inlanders  Ordall  see  Napier's  Peninsular  War,  book  xz. 
tm  the  news  of  the  return  of  Napoleon  from  chap.  4,  and  l»ook  xxi.  chap.  2.  For  AdamV 
Elba,  General  Adam  was  appointed  to  com-  brigade  at  Waterloo,  liesides  Sibome,  consult 
mand  a  briffade  in  Lord  Hilrs  division,  con-  particularly  Leeke'ii  The  52nd  at  Waterloo.] 
sisting  of  the  52nd,  7 1st,  and  95th  regiments.  "•  ^*  ^• 

At  the  battle  of  Waterloo  this  brigade  was  AJ>AM,  JAMES  (rf.  1794),  architect,  wa* 
stationed  at  the  extreme  right  of  the  Eng:lish  the  younger  brother  of  Robert  Adam,  and  so 
position  to  keep  open  the  communications  associated  with  him  in  all  his  works  that  it 
with  the  corps  at  Iial,  and  to  act  if  Napoleon  is  difficult  to  assign  anv  particular  building 
attempted  to  turn  the  English  right.  vMien  to  him.  He  is  generally  credited  with  the 
it  was  evident  that  the  French  attack  was  design  of  Portland  Place.  For  some  time 
upon  the  English  front,  Adam*s  brigade  was  before  the  reform  of  the  board  of  works  by 
slowly  advanced  to  be  able  to  take  in  flank  Burke's  bill  he  held  the  appointment  of  ar- 
nny  attack  in  column  made  on  the  English  chitect  to  Geoi^  IIT,  and  was  master  mason 
right  centre.  Accordingly,  when  the  Old  of  the  board  of  ordnance  in  North  Britain. 
Guard  advanced  in  the  finaf  attack  of  the  day,  He  was  the  author  of  *  Practical  Essays  on 
Adam  8  brigade,  and  notably  the  52nd  regi-  Agriculture,'  and  was  engagvd  on  a  history 
ment  under  CJolonel  Colbome,  suddeidy  firied  of  architecture  at  the  time  of  his  death, 
upon  its  flank  as  it  advanced,  and  charged  it.  Tliis  took  place  in  Albemarle  Street  on 
It  has  been  asserted  that  bv  this  cliarge  the  :  20  Oct.  1794,  and  wa.s  causetl  by  apoplexy. 
52nd  regiment,  that  is  Aclam's  brigade,  for  ''  [See  Adax,  Kobebt.j 

his  regiments  were   all  together,  wjm  the        [r^         .,  DJet. ;  Gent.  Mag.  1794;  Annual 
Uttle   of   >>atprio<.,   and    not  the  English    R^^^j^ter,  1794;  Scots  Mag.  1794.]  CM. 

guards,     lint  the  probable  solution  of  con-  , 

nictingevidenceisthatthecolumnoftheOld  I  ADAM,  JEAN  (I710-17a5).  a  Scottish 
Guard  got  slightly  disarranged,  and  that,  at  '  poetess,  daiighter  of  a  shipmaster,  was  bora 
the  same  time  that  the  guards  under  General  .  in  1710  at  Crawfordsdyke,  ]>arish  of  Green- 
Cooke  drove  back  the  head  of  the  column,  '  ock,  Renfrewshire.  Early  an  orphan,  sheen- 
Adam's  brigade  broke  the  formation  of  the  tered  the  service  of  a  minister,  Mr.  Turner, 
^iecond  half.  Whether  Adam  or  Colbome  of  Greenock,  as  nursery- governess  and  house- 
won  the  battle  or  not,  it  is  certain  that  their  '  maid.  Having  the  use  of  the  manse  library, 
Hank  attack  prevented  the  Old  Guard  from  she  gave  herscSf  a  fair  education,  and  wrote 
reforming,  and  confirmed  the  victory.  For  many  poems,  which  were  collected  and  puh- 
his  ser\ices  on  this  day  Major-general  Adam  I  lished  for  her  in  17.^  by  Mrs.  I>nunmond,of 
was  made  a  K.C.B.,  a  knight  of  the  order  of  Greenock,  in  a  work  entitled  'Miscellany 
Maria  Theresa,  and  of  St.  Andrew  of  Russia.  '  Poems,  by  Mrs.  Jane  Adams  (her  changed 
Tlie  last  thirty-eight  years  of  his  life  were  name),  in  Crawfordsdyke,'  Glasgow,  1734. 
jieaceful.  From  I  Si  7  to  1822  he  commanded  Mr.  Archilmld  Crawford  wrote  tne  preface, 
the  division  at  Malta,  and  in  1820  was  nomi-  and  the  authoress  dedicated  her  poem^  to 
nated  K.C.M.G.  In  1824  he  was  made  *  Thomas  Crawfonl,  of  Crawfordbum,' under 
G.C.M.G.,  and  was  lord  high  commissioner  the  varied  signature  of  Jean  Adams,  giving 
of  the  loniiiu  Isles  from  1824  to  1831.  In  a  list  of  ministers,  merchants,  and  gentry,  to 
Ij<30  he  Ijecame  lieutenant-general,  in  1831  the  number  of  154  subscribers.  The  volume, 
was  swoni  of  the  privy  council,  «ud  fn>m  1832  which  is  complete  with  index,  is  said  in  the 
t  •  >  18.37  wus  gt  )venior  of  Madras.  In  1 8.V)  he  preface  to  be  in  two  parts,  one  *  all  in  meeter,' 
was  made  colonel  •)f  the  57th  rejriment,  the  other  in  'blank  verse  in  imitation  of 
which  he  I'xchanged  for  that  of  his  old  regi-  .  Milton  ;'  but  there  is  no  blank  verse  in  the 
ment,  the  21st,  in  1843.  In  1840  he  was  book.  The  poems,  all  religious,  are  written 
nominated  G.C.B.,  and  was  promoted  full  in  the  Brady  and  Tate  style,  and  are  poor 
general  in  184<J.  (hi  17  Aug.  185:J  he  fell  specimens  indeed  of  what  she  called  'the 
dead  suddenly  in  the  Greenwich  railway  '  style  of  the  best  English  poets  that  have 
station  after  leaving  his  brother  Sir  Charles,    written  within  seventy  years.' 


Adam  87  Adam 

Soon  after  the  issue  of  this  volume  the  |  always  comprised  in  this  poem,  the  last  two 
p<x>te88  set  up  a  girls'  school  at  the  quay  head  i  are  Imown  to  have  been  added  by  Dr.  Blair, 
of  Cijawfopd-tndge,  and  here  she  varied  the  j  [Cio^ek'«  Select  Scotish  Songs,  i.  189 ;  Robert 
i^imple  routme  by  gluing  Shakespearean  read-  '  chambers  »  Songs  of  Sc<rtland  prior  to  Bums  ; 
logs  to  her  pupils.     According  to  tradition  ,  Canningham'j*  Songs  of  Scotland,  i.  226 ;  Good 


liichardson,  and  the  story  goes  that  she  once    370 ;  Chalmers's  English  Poets,  xvii.] 
closed  her  school  for  six  weeks  and  travelled  J.  W.-G. 

on  foot  the  whole  distance  to  London  to  visit 

the  author.  ADAM,    JOHN    (1779-1825),    Anglo- 

Troubles  came  thick  upon  her ;  her  book  Indian  statesman,  was  the  eldest  son  of 
was  of  little  pecuniary  advantage;  the  un-  William  Adam  [see  Adam,  William,  1761- 
sold  copies  were  shipped  to  Boston  and  never  1839].  He  was  bom  on  4  May  1779  ;  was 
heard  oif  again  ;  ana  Jean  Adam,  being  com-  educated  at  the  Cliarterlioiise ;  received  a 
pelled  to  give  up  her  school,  became  a  writership  on  the  Bengal  establishment  in 
wanderer.  Disappointed  and  soured,  the  1794;  and,  after  a  year  at  Edinburgh  Tni- 
poor  woman  got  a  precarious  living  as  a  versity,  landed  at  Calcutta  in  179§.  The 
liawker  for  years,  and  the  last  record  of  her  greater  part  of  his  career  was  spent  in  the 
life*8  story  finds  her  toiling  home  again  to  secretariat.  He  was  private  as  well  as 
Greenock.  An  order  of  the  bailies  of  that  political  secretary  to  the  Marquis  of  Hast- 
town  admitted  her  to  the  Glasgow  poorhouse  ings,  whom  he  accompanied  in  the  field 
as  *a  poor  woman  in  distress;  a  stranger  during  the  Pindari  or  third  Mahratta  war. 
who  has  been  wandering  about.*  The  next  In  1817  he  was  nominated  by  the  court  of 
day  (3  April  1766)  she  died,  and  was  *  buried  directors  member  of  council ;  and  as  senior 
at  the  house  expense.'  '  member  of  council  he  became  acting  gover- 

Iler  published  poems  were  only  fitted  to  nor-general  of  India  on  Ijord  Hastings's  de- 
win  a  uttle  local  popularity,  and  her  only  parture  in  January  182.*].  His  rule  lasted 
lu&ssport  to  fame  is  the  claim  so  persistently  for  seven  months,  until  the  arrival  of  Ijord 
as'rjerted  for  her  of  the  authorship  of  the  *  Song  Amherst  in  August  of  the  same  year.  It  is 
of  the  Mariner's  Wife,'  or  '  There's  nae  Luck  memorable  in  history  chiefly  for  one  inci- 
aboot  the  House  I '  a  simple,  humorous,  and  dent  — the  suppression  of  the  free<lom  of  the 
touching  lyric,  one  of  the  sweetest  in  any  English  press  in  India.  James  Silk  Buck- 
language.  This  may  have  been  an  old  and  ingham,  afterwards  ^I.P.  and  founder  of  the 
iavourite  song  that  she  used  to  recite  to  her  *  Athenaeum,'  had  established  the  *  Calcutta 
pupils  ;  but  it  is  unlikely  that  such  a  strain  Journal,'  which  published  severe  comments 
of  home  and  married  love  could  have  been  upon  the  government.  Adam  cancellKl 
written  by  this  wayward  and  unwedded  wo-  Buckingham's  license,  without  which  no 
man.  Her  verses,  although  correct  in  phrase  European  could  then  reside  in  India,  and 
and  sentiment,  are  inflated  and  childish.  !  passed  regulations  n^strictiug  newspaper  cri- 
This  song  was  first  heard  in  the  streets,  and  ticism.  Buckingham  appealed  to  the  court 
liawked  for  sale  about  1772,  and  at  length  |  of  proprietors  at  home,  to  the  House  of  Com- 
found  a  place  in  Herd's  collection  1776,  and  |  mons,  and  to  the  Privy  Council ;  but  the 
in  the 'Nightingale 'in  1778.  After  a  time,  |  action  of  Adam  was  sustained  by  each  of 
)>ecoming  a  g^reat  favourite,  it  was  claimed  for  these  three  bodies.  Another  unpopular  act 
Jane  Adams  by  some  of  her  former  pupils,  '  of  Adam's  governor-generalship  was  to  with- 
whu  professed  to  have  heard  her  recite  it — if  i  draw  official  support  frrun  the  banking  firm 
M>  it  must  have  been  forty  years  before.  The  '  of  Palmer,  who  liad  acquired  a  preponderant 
tradition  is  that  it  was  written  of  Colin  and  I  influence  with  the  Nizam  of  the  Deccan. 
Jean  Campbell  of  Crawfordsdyke.  A  copy  i  Adam  also  desenes  credit  for  being  the  first 
of  it  was  found,  in  his  own  handwriting,  !  Indian  nder  to  appropriate  a  grant  of  public 
among  the  papers  of  Julius  Mickle  (the  money  for  the  encouragement  of  native  edu- 
translator  of  Camoens's 'Lusiad'),  who  died  cation.  Adam's  health  had  now  broken 
in  1788.  As  this  poet  had  a  fertile  imagina- I  do'v^Ti.  After  in  vain  seeking  relief  by  a 
tion  and  power  of  rich  and  varied  versifica-  voyage  to  Bombay,  and  by  a  visit  to  Almorah 
tion,  and  wrote  very  good  songs  and  ballads,  |  in  the  lower  Himalayas,  he  was  ordered 
a  counterclaim  has  been  set  up  for  him,  al-  j  home  to  England.  He  died  off  Madagascar 
though,  if  correct,  it  is  sin^ar  that  he  never  |  on  4  June  1825.  Tliough  some  of  his  public 
includedthesongamoDff  his  poems  published  acts  involved  him  in  unpopularity,  his  per- 
during  his  lifetime.    Of  the  seven  verses  now  ,  sonal  character  liad  won  him  almost  universal 


Adam 


88 


Adam 


g<oodwiU.    His  portfwt  was  painted  by  G,  ^ 
ChJDDeiy  for  the  Calcutta  Town  Hall. 

[A  full  account  of  John  Aiam  is  giTen  in  die 
memmr  in  the  Asiatia  Journal  for  November 
I82S.  There  is  sIho  in  the  libnrf  of  tiie  India 
Office,  bound  up  in  a.  rolurae  of  tracte.  A  Short 
Notice  of  the  Official  Career  and  Private  Cha- 
racter of  the  lal«  J,  Adam.  Esq.  (Calcutta: 
privately  printed,  1826).  Thia  ie  a  pamphlet  of 
16  pages,  written  b;  G.  Lnahington,  evidently  an 
iatlma(«  friend ;  but  it  ia  aadly  deficient  in  facta, 
the  Bockingham  iacident  being  not  even  referred 
to.]  J.  8.  C. 

ADAM,  ROBERT  (1728-17S 
tect,  was  the  moat  celebrated  of 
brotheni  Adam,  John,  Robert,  James,  and 
William,  whoae  relationship  is  commemo- 
rated in  the  name  Adelphi,  given  to  the  i 
buildings  erected  b;  them  betiveen  the 
Strand  and  the  Thames  on  an  estate  known 
before  as  Durham  Yard.  Their  father, 
William  Adam  of  Meryburgh,  who  died  | 
94  June  1748,  was  the  architect  of  Ilope- 
toun  House  and  the  Royal  Infirmary  at 
Edinburgh,  and  held  the  appointment  of 
king's  mason  at  Edinburgh.  Robert  was 
the  second  son.  He  was  bom  at  Kirk- 
caldy,and  educated  at  Edinburgh  University,  | 
where  he  formed  friendships  with  several  | 
young  men  who  afterwards  became  eminent. 
'Amongst  these  were  David  Hume,  Dr.  ! 
William  Robertson  <t!ie  historian),  Adam 
Smith,  and  Adam  Ferguson.  In  1754  he 
visited  Italy  in  compnny  with  Clfriaseau,  a 
French  architect,  and  made  a  careful  study 
of  the  ruins  of  the  Kmperor  Diocletians 
palace  at  Spalatro  in  Venetian  Datmatia. 
Hisjoumal  was  printed  in  the 'Library  of  the 
Fine  Arts,'  and  in  1764  he  published  a  folio 
volume  with  numerous  engravings  by  B»i^ 
toloui  and  others,  after  his  drawings  of  the 
palace.  In  this  important  work  he  states 
that  his  object  in  selecting  this  ruin  for 
special  examination  was  its  residential  cha- 
racter, as  the  knowledge  of  classical  architec- 
ture in  England  was  derived  exclusively 
from  the  ren)ains  of  public  buildings.  During 
his  absence  abroad  he  was  elected  F.R.S. 
and  F.8.A.,Bnd  on  his  retuni  in  1762  he  was 
im^iuted  architect  to  the  king  and  queen. 
Tina  otBce  he  was  obliged  to  resign  in  1768, 
when  he  was  returned  to  parliament  as  mem- 
ber for  Kinross-shire.  In  1769  the  brothers 
commenced  to  build  the  Adelphi,  a  vast 
construction  of  arches  on  which  roads  were 
laid  and  houses  built.  Provision  was  made 
for  wharfage  and  storage  on  the  shores  of 
the  Thames,  with  access  thereto  from  the 
Strand,  completely  separated  from  the  fine 
streets  and  terrace  above.  To  complete  the 
project  it  was  necessary  to  reclaim  land  from 


the  Thames,  and  i 
e  purpose,  ii 


1771  ther  obtained  a 
bill  for  the  purpose,  in  spite  of  the  oppoution 
of  the  corporation  of  London,  who  claimed 
a  right  M  the  soil  nnd  bed  of  the  river.  This 
exteusivB  speculation  was  not  a  (mmmerdal 
success,  and  in  1773  the  brothers  obtained 
another  bill  which  aanctioned  the  dinMeal  of 
the  property  by  lottery.  Robert  and  James 
had,  however,  now  made  a  great  reputatioa 
as  classical  architects,  and  for  the  remainder 
of  their  lives  enjoyed  more  than  any  others 
of  their  profession  the  patronage  of  the  aiie- 
tocracy.  Amongst  the  most  important  of 
their  works  were  Lord  Mansfield's  mansion 
at  Caenwood,  or  Kenwood,  near  Hampfltead ; 
Luton  House,  in  Bedfordshire;  Oaterier 
House,  near  Brentford ;  Eeddlestone,  Derby- 
shire ;  Compton  Vemey,  Warwickshire ; 
Shelbume  (now  Lanedowne)  Houae  in  Ber- 
keley square  i  the  screen  fronting  the  high 
road,  and  extensive  internal  alterations  of 
Sion  or  Syon  House,  Middlesex,  the  seat  of 
the  Duke  of  Northiimberliind ;  the  infirmary 
at  Glasgow;  the  parish  church  at  Mistley, 
Essex;  the  Register  UIGce,  Edinburgh;  and 
the  screen  to  the  Admiralty  Office,  White- 
hall. The  last  named,  which  was  built  to 
hide  the  ugliness  of  Ripley's  portico,  ia  one 
of  the  moat  ele^nt  and  purely  classical  of 
their  desians.  The  number  and  importance 
of  their  buildings  in  the  metropolis  ma- 
terially influenced  and  much  improved  the 
street  architecture  of  London.  They  are 
I  said  to  have  originated  the  idea  of  eiving  to 
'  a  number  of  unimportant  private  emficestbe 
'■  appearance  of  one  imposing  structure:  and 
Portland,  Stratford,  and  Hamilton  Places, 
and  the  south  and  east  sides  of  Fitirov 
Square,  are  instances  of  the  manner  in  whic)i 
'  they  carried  this  principle  into  effect.  An 
innovation  of  more  doubtful  service  was 
their  use  of  stucco  in  facing  brick  houaex. 
I  Their  right  to  theexclusive  use  of  a  composi- 
tion patented  by  Liardet,  a  Frenchman,  was 
the  subject  of  two  lawsuits  which  they 
gained. 

Mr.  James  Fei^isson  in  his  '  History  of 
I  Architecture'rates  their  knowledge  of  daeei- 
cal  art  below  that  of  Sir  William  Chambers. 
He  adds :  '  Their  grest  merit — if  merit  it  be 
— is  that  they  stamped  their  works  -with  a 
certain  amount  of  originality,  which,  had  it 
been  of  a  better  quality,  might  have  done 
something  to  emancipate  art  from  its  tram- 
mels. The  principal  characteristic  of  their 
style  was  the  introduction  of  Tery  large 
windows,  generally  without  dressings.  These 
they  frequently  attempted  to  group,  thine  or 
more  together,  by  a  great  glsxed  arch  over 
them,  so  as  to  trv  and  make  the  whole  side 
of  a  house  look  like  one  room.'    Mr.  Fer- 


Adam 


89 


Adam 


^usson  thinks  the  college  at  Edinburgh  the 
best  of  their  works,  ana  says :  '  We  possess 
few  public  buildings  presenting  so  truthful 
and  well  balanced  a  design  as  this/ 

Whatever  were  the  architectural  defects 
of  their  works,  the  brothers  formed  a  style, 
which  was  marked,  especially  in  their  inte- 
riors, by  a  fine  sense  of  proportion,  and  a 
very  elegant  taste  in  the  selection  and  dis- 
position of  niches,  lunettes,  reliefs,  festoons, 
and  other  classical  ornaments.  It  was  their 
custom  to  design  furniture  in  character 
with  their  apartments,  and  their  works  of 
this  kind  are  still  greatly  prized.  Amongst 
them  may  be  specially  mentioned  their  side- 
boards with  elegant  urn-shaped  knife-boxes, 
but  they  also  designed  bookcases  and  com- 
modes, brackets  and  pedestals,  clock-cases 
and  candelabra,  mirror  frames  and  console 
tables,  of  singular  and  original  merit,  adapt- 
ing classical  forms  to  modem  uses  with  a 
success  unrivalled  by  anyother  designers  of 
furniture  in  England.  They  designed  also 
carriages  and  plate,  and  a  sedan  chair  for 
Queen  Charlotte.  Of  their  decorative  work 
generally  it  may  be  said  that  it  was  rich  but 
neat,  refined  but  not  effeminate,  chaste  but 
not  severe,  and  that  it  will  probably  have 
quite  as  lasting  and  beneficial  efiect  upon 
Knglish  taste  as  their  architectural  struc- 
tures. 

In  1773  the  brothers  Hobert  and  James 
commenced  the  publication  of  their  *  Works 
in  Architecture,^  in  folio  parts,  which  was 
continued  at  intervals  till  1778  and  reached 
the  end  of  the  second  volume.  In  1822  the 
work  was  completed  by  the  posthumous 
publication  of  a  third  volume,  but  the  three 
bound  up  together  do  not  make  a  thick  book. 

Robert  Adam  also  obtained  some  reputa- 
tion as  a  landscane  painter.  As  an  architect 
he  was  extensively  employed  to  the  last.  In 
the  year  preceding  his  death  he  designed  no 
less  than  eight  public  works  and  twenty-five 
private  buildings.  He  died  at  his  house  in 
Albemarle  Street,  from  the  bursting  of  a 
blood-vessel  in  his  stomach,  on  3  March 
1792.  (>f  the  social  position  he  attained, 
and  the  estimation  in  which  he  was  held,  no 
greater  proof  can  be  afforded  than  the  record 
of  his  funeral  in  Westminster  Abbey.  His 
pall-bearers  were  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  the 
Earl  of  Coventry,  the  Earl  of  Lauderdale, 
Viscount  Stormont,  Lord  Frederick  Camp- 
bell, and  Mr.  Fulteney. 

[Ruins  of  Diocletian  Palace  by  Bobert  Adam ; 
the  Worics  in  Architectnre  of  R.  and  J.  Adam ; 
Encyclopedia  Britannica;  Gent.  Mag.  1792; 
Bedgrave's  Diet. ;  FergusBon^s  History  of  Archi- 
tecture; Annual  Register,  1771,  1773,  1792.] 

CM. 


ADAM,  THOMAS  (1701-1784),  divine, 
was  bom  at  Leeds  in  the  West  Riding  of 
Yorkshire  on  26  Feb.  1701.  His  father  was 
a  solicitor  and  town-clerk  of  the  corporation; 
his  mother  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Jasper 
Blythman— locally  distinguished  and  aUied 
to  an  ancient  ana  noble  house.  They  had 
six  children,  of  whom  Thomas  was  the  third. 
He  received  his  first  education  at  the  grammar 
school  of  his  native  town,  then  under  an 
eminent  master,  Thomas  Barnard ;  later  he 
was  transferred  to  Wakefield,  where  Queen 
Elizabeth's  school  holds  its  own  still.  Then 
he  proceeded  to  the  university  of  Cambridge, 
entering  Christ's  College.  He  was  speednv 
removed  to  Hart  Half  (now  Hertford  Col- 
lege), Oxford,  by  the  influence  of  its  founder, 
Dr.  Newton.  He  took  the  degree  of  B.A., 
but  took  no  further  degree  on  account  of 
certain  scruples  imbibed  from  his  friend  Dr. 
Newton's  book  on  *  Pluralities.'  In  1724 
he  was  presented,  through  the  interest  of  an 
uncle,  to  the  living  of  VVintringham,  Lin- 
colnshire. Being  then  under  age  ecclesi- 
astically, it  was  *  held  '  for  a  year  for  him. 
Here  he  remained  over  the  long  term  of 
fifty-eight  years,  never  wishing  to  change 
ana  repeatedly  resisting  pressure  put  upou 
liim  to  look  higher.  His  income  rarely  ex- 
ceeded 200/.  per  annum.  He  married  Susan, 
daughter  of  tlie  neighbouring  vicar  of  Roxby. 
She  died  in  1760.  They  had  one  daujrhter 
orriy,  who  died  young.  He  died  on  31  March 
1784,  in  his  84th  year. 

He  is  of  the  historical  *  Evangelical ' 
school,  but  his  works  are,  with  one  exception, 
very  common-place  examples  of  the  produc- 
tions of  his  school.  He  published  *  Practical 
Lectures  on  the  Church  Catechism ' — which 
ran  to  nine  or  ten  editions — and  *  Evangelical 
Sermons ;'  also  ^Paraphrase  and  Annotations 
on  the  First  Eleven  Chapters  of  St.  Paul's 
Epistle  to  the  Romans.'  His  *  Posthumous 
Works '  (3  vols.  8vo,  1786),  and  *  Paraphrase 
and  Annotations  on  the  Four  Gospels '  (2  vols., 
8vo,  1837),  were  printed  and  reprinted.  The 
work  by  which  his  memory  is  preser\'ed  is  a 
selection  from  the  *  Posthumous  Works,'  en- 
titled ^  Private  Thoughts  on  Religion.'  These 
entries  from  his  private  diary,  which  were 
meant  for  no  eyes  but  his  own,  bring  before 
us  a  man  of  no  common  power  of  analytic  and 
speculative  thought,  with  an  intrepidity 
and  integrity  of  self-scrutiny  perhaps  unex- 
ampled, ne  writes  down  problems  started, 
and  questionings  raised,  and  conflicts  gone 
through ;  whilst  his  ordinarily  flaccid  style 
grows  pungent  and  strong.  Ever  since  their 
publication  these  *  Private  Thoughts'  have 
exercised  a  strange  fascination  over  intellects 
at  opposite  poles.     Coleridge's  copy 


Adam  90  Adam 

little  volume  (1795) — fortunately  preserved  j  in  a  doffgerel  poem,  printed  a  few  months 
in  the  British  Museum  (e  43  a  8) — remains  later  under  the  title  of  *  Paradise  Regained/ 
to  attest,  by  its  abounding  markings,  the  {  where  Satan,  disguised  as  Cerberus,  is  re- 
8|>ell  it  laid  upon  him,  while  such  men  as  !  presented  as  tempting  Adam  to  remove  his 
Jiishop  Heber,  Dr.  Thomas  Chalmers,  and  enemy  the  Fox,  who  had  begun  to  encroach 
John  Stuart  Mill,  and  others,  have  paid  tri-  i  upon  his  domain.  The  poem  concludes  with 
bute  to  the  searchingpower  of  the  *  thoughts.*  i  *  the  joy  of  the  Israelites'  at  the  survival  of 
These  *  Private  Thoughts  *  have  never  been  al-  ,  Fox : 

lowed  to  go  out  of  print  since  their  original  '  The  annii*tant  fervent, 

publication.     Thev  are  well  known  in  the      The  broker  not  less  joyfal ;  nor  was  BnxdceSr 
I'nited  States,  andf  have  been  translated  into  |    Kenny,  or  Goostree  less  in  thanksgiving. 
Welsh,  Gaelic,  and   several  European  and 
Eastern  languages.  |  In  the  course  of  the  following  year  Adam 

[Life  by  J.  StiUingfleet,  prefixed  to  posthu-  '  was  appointed  treasurer  of  the  ordnance,  and 
mous  works,  1 785 ;  Life  by  A.  Westoby,  prefixed  j  at  the  general  election  of  1780,  transferring 
to  ExpoHition  of  Gospels,  1837,  with  some  ad-  '  his  candidature  to  the  Wigton  burghs,  he 
(litional  matter.]  A.  B.  G.      |  was  returned  by  that  constituency  as  a  sup- 

'  porter  of  Lord  North.    After  their  duel  Fox 

ADAM,  WILLIAM  (d.  1748),  architect.  |  and  Adam  became  intimate  friends;  and  Earl 
rSee  Adam,  Robert.]  ;  Russell,  referring  to  this  fact  in  his  'Life and 

Times  of  C.  J.  Fox,'  says :  *  Mr.  Adam  had  that 

ADAM,  WILLIAM  (1761-1839),  

tician  and  lord  chief  commissioner 


),  poli-  I  openness  of  temper  and  cordiality  of  diroosi- 
of  the  I  tion  which  peculiarly  suited  Mr.  Fox.*  Other 


Scottish  jury  court,  son  of  John  Adam,  archi-  '  testimony  exists  as  to  the  urbanity  and  probity 
tect,  of  Maryburgh,  Kinross,  who  died  in  ,  of  Adam's  character.  During  Lord  Shelbumes 
1792,  and  nephew  of  Robert  and  James  Adam  |  administration(1782-3)hetooka  leading  part 
[seeADAM,jAMBS,rf.l794,  and  Adam,  Robert,  :  in  negotiating  the  coalition  between  Sorth 
1728-1792],  was  bom  2  Aug.  1751.  He  was  i  and  S)x,  and  Shelbume,  thoiigh  he  knew  of 
called  to  the  Scottish  bar  in  1773,  and  at  the  i  this,  came  to  him  on  one  occasion  as  to  a  man 
general  election  in  the  following  year,  before  *  beloved  by  all  parties.*  In  the  *  Rolliad  * 
he  had  begun  to  practise,  was  returned  to  :  Dundas  writes  in  his  hvpothetical  journal : 
parliament  for  the  now  disfranchised  borough  *  Our  lawyers  somehow  aon*t  answer — Adam 
of  Gatton  in  Surrey.  For  some  time  he  was  and  Anstruther  worth  them  all — can't  thev 
careful  to  mark  his  independence  of  both  be  bought? — &«fMm«i.'— damned  strange  if 
]M)litical  parties ;  but  at  the  beginning  of  the  1  they  can't. — Mem.  to  tell  Rose  t-o  sound 
.session  of  1779  he  defiuitelv  pledged  his  |  them.  Adam  severe  on  me  and  the  rest  that 
allegiance  to  Lord  North,  declaring  that  I  have  betrayed  Lord  North.'  The  feet  is  that 
*  although  the  ministers  were  not  very  com-  Adam  was  almost  alone  in  maintaining  his 
petent,  no  persons  more  competent  were  to  allegiance  to  North  and  Fox.  When  the 
be  found  among  their  opponents.'  At  the  French  revolution  converted  most  of  his 
))eginning  of  the  November  session  in  the  friends  into  supporters  of  Pitt,  and  Fox  was 
year  just  named,  Fox,  in  the  course  of  his  |  more  and  more  isolated  every  year,  Adam 
speecn  on  the  address,  said  he  could  imagine  was  one  of  the  staunchest  followers  of  the 
the  prime  minister  turning  round  on  his  |  man  to  whom  his  bullet  had  been  so  nearly 
new  defender  and  saying  to  him,  '  Begone !  '  fatal.  Meanwhile,  he  had  been  called  to  the 
l>egone,  wretch !  who  delightest  in  libelling  ,  English  bar  in  1782,  and  family  reasons  soon 
mankind,  confounding  virtue  with  vice,  ana  '  compelled  him  to  devote  much  of  his  time  to 
insulting  the  man  whom  thou  pretendest  to  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He  had  a  wife 
defend  by  saying  to  his  face  that  he  certainly  and  children ;  his  uncles,  whose  wealth  and 
is  infamous,  but  that  there  are  others  still  i  influence  had  assisted  him  at  the  outset  of 
more  infamous.'  The  result  of  this  hx'per-  his  career,  were  now  involved  in  misfortunes: 
liole  was  a  duel  in  Hyde  Park  (29  Nov.),  his  father,  owing  to  the  same  cause,  could  do 
when  a  good  deal  of  courtesy  and  two  pistol-  1  little  or  nothing  for  him.  The  treasurership 
shots  were  exchanged.  Fox  was  slightly  which  had  been  conferred  on  him  by  North 
wounded,  and  his  friends  said  that  he  might  |  was  forfeited  when  North  quitted  office ;  and, 
]>e  thankful  that  Adam  had  only  usetl  go-  though  he  regained  it  for  a  few  months  in 
vemment  powder.  It  was  insinuated  out  of  1783,  the  fall  of  the  coalition  again  deprived 
doors  that  a  deliberate  attempt  had  been  him  of  it.  Under  these  circumstances  Adam's 
made  to  get  rid  of  the  whig  leader,  who  legal  knowledge  and  acumen,  aided  by  tact 
about  this  time  was  at  the  height  of  his  and  industry,  stood  him  m  good  stead.  He 
popularity.    The  idea  was  jocosely  embodied    figured  henceforth  chiefly  as  a  legal  member 


Adam  91  Adam 


if  piurliament.  In  1788  Thayin^  in  the  mean- 
ime  been  returned  for  tne  Elgin  burghs)  he 
ms  appointed  one  of  the  managers  of  the 
mpeachment  of  Warren  Hastings,  and  on 


the  reprimand  of  the  speaker  for  his  letter,  as 
an  amendment  to  the  motion  for  committal ; 
and  he  was  again  in  a  minority  on  a  motion 
that  it  should  be  '  a  high,  breach  of  the  privi- 


15  April  he  opened  the  second  charge — that  |  leges  of  the  House  of  Commons '  to  bring  an 
relating  to  the  Begums  of  Oude— in  an  ex-  '  action  against  any  of  its  officers  for  'pro- 
tiaustive  and  ornate  speech  before  the  House  i  ceedings  taken  in  obedience  to  the  directions 
3f  Lords.     In  the  course  of  his  peroration  he  i  of  the  nouse/    This  was  his  last  transaction 


»aid :  *  My  lords,  I  accuse  Warren  Hastings 
df  nothing  but  what  the  law  in  every  man's 
breast  condenms,  what  the  light  of  nature 
condemns,  the  light  of  common  reason  and 


of  any  importance  in  parliament.  He  was 
appointed  a  privy  councillor  in  1816,  and 
lorn  chief  commissioner  of  the  Scottish  jury 
court  in  1816;  and  he  also  held  the  appoint- 


the  light  of  common  society,  those  principles  ments  of  lord  lieutenant  of  Kinross-shire, 
that  pervade  the  globe,  those  principles  that  counsellor  of  state  to  the  prince  re^nt  in 
must  influence  the  actions  of  all  created  Scotland,  and  counsel  to  the  £ast  India  Com- 
beings,  those  principles  that  never  can  vary  I  pany.  He  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Sir 
in  any  clime  or  in  any  latitude.'  lu  1790  he  :  Walter  Scott.  He  died  at  the  age  of  87,  on 
found  a  fourth  seat  in  parliament  as  member  '  17  Feb.  1839. 

for  Ross-shire,  and  took  a  somewhat  active  Adam  had  married,  in  1776,  Eleanora, 
part  in  the  opposition  to  Pitt.  In  1794  he  <  daughter  of  the  tenth  Lord  £lphinstone,  by 
moved  an  address  to  the  throne  praying  it  whom  he  had  four  sons.  The  eldest,  John 
to  interpose  the  royal  justice  and  clemency  in  Adam,  became  acting  governor-general  of 
behalf  of  Thomas  Muir  and  Thomas  Fyshe  i  India,  and  died  in  1825,  soon  after  the  ex- 
Palmer,  a  barrister  and  a  clergyman,  who  piration  of  his  term  of  office.  The  second.  Sir 
had  been  convicted  of  ^  leasing  making,'  and  \  Charles  Adam,  was  the  admiral  already  no- 
sentenced  to  fourteen  and  seven  years  penal  j  ticed.  The  third,  William  Gteorge,  succeeded 
servitude  respectively.  The  Scottish  law  al-  !  his  father  as  auditor  to  the  Duke  of  Bedford, 
lowed  no  appeal  from  the  court  of  justiciary,  |  The  fourth.  Lieutenant-general  the  right  hon. 
and  Adam's  mot  ion  was  unsuccessful.  Shortly  Sir  Frederick  Adam,  G.C.B.,  was  lord  hi^h 
after  this  he  retired  from  parliament,  having  commissioner  of  the  Ionian  Isles.  Chief 
been  appointed  auditor  to  the  Duke  of  Bed-  Commissioner  Adam  published,  in  addition 
ford  ;  and  in  1796  he  took  silk.  In  1803  he  to  the  speeches  and  letters  mentioned  above, 
iras  asked  by  the  duke  to  obtain  the  with-  *  A  Description  and  llepresentation  of  the 
irawal  of  certain  unfounded  charges  made  Mural  Monument  in  Calcutta  Cathedral  to 
igainst  the  former  duke  in  a  pamphlet  by  the  memory  of  John  Adam,  designed  and 
lohn  Bowles;  and  a  correspondence  18  extant  executed  by  Richard  Westmacott,  R.A.' 
between  Adam  and  Bowles  on  this  subject  (1827);  *  Remarks  on  the  Blair  Adam  Estate,' 
—the  letters  of  the  former  being  dated  from  1834  ;  *  The  lia^an's  Rolls '  (edited,  in  con- 
Lincoln's  Inn,  and  subsequently  from  Wobum  junction  with  Sir  Samuel  Shepherd,  for  the 
Abbey.  In  the  year  1806  Adam  (who  was  Banna tyne  Club,  1834) ;  and  a  volume  on 
now  attorney-general  to  the  Prince  of  Wales,  the  Scottish  jury  system, 
ind  keeper  of  the  ^reat  seal  for  the  duchy  of  [Earl  Russell's  Life  and  Times  of  C.  J.  Fox ; 
Cornwall)  was  a^ain  returned  to  parliament  Paradise  Regain'd,  or  the  Battle  of  Adam  and 
IS  member  for  Kmcardineshire ;  and  in  1807  |  the  Fox  (1780) ;  The  Kolliad  :  Bond's  Speeches 
for  the  county  of  Kinross.  He  was  engaged  of  the  Managers  and  Counsel  in  the  Trial  of 
to  act  as  a  trustee  for  the  Duke  of  York  in  cer-  Warren  Hastings,  vol.  i.;  Correspondence  be- 
tain  private  matters;  and  in  1809  he  made  a  ^"^^^'^  ^^r.  Adam  and  Mr.  Bowles,  respecting  the 
»peech  in  the  house  defending  his  conduct  in    ^^^^  o^  ^^e  latter  on  the  character  of  the  late 

the  course  of  an  inquiry  relative  to  the  duke^s  P"^®  ^^-.^^^"^t^I?^?? '•  ^'«"^-  ?I^'  ^^^y 
connection  with   Sirs.  Ckrke.     Two   vears    ,^^39;  Life  by  G.  L.  Craik  in  the  Dictionary  of 

latPT  hp  snoke  freouentlv  during  the  deUt^a  ^^®  '^-  ^-  ^-  ^'  (^^^'^  ^°  information  8i>ecially 
later  nespoKeirequentiyaurmg  tne  debates  ,  eommnnicated);  Lockhart's  Life  of  Scott,  ch.  60; 
m  Burdett  s  famous  letter  to  Ins  constitu-  ^^j  ^^^^^  ^^^y^^^  published  by  Adam  in  his 
?nts,  which  the  house  declared  libellous  and    lifetime.!  L.  S-r. 

K^ndalous.     When  Burdett  brought  his  ac-  i 

ions  against  the  speaker  and  the  sergeant,  '  ADAM,  WILLIAM  PATRICK  (182:1- 
\dam  was  appointed  in  his  absence  on  a  1881),  of  Bluir  Adam,  for  some  years  *  whip' 
select  committee  to  consider  the  proceedings  of  the  liberal  party  in  the  House  of  Commons, 
^hich  should  be  taken,  but  he  refused  to  and  afterwards  governor  of  Madras,  was  the 
ittend  the  meetings.  He  had  previously  been  ;  elder  son  of  Admiral  Sir  Charles  Adam  of 
iefeated  in  moving  that  Burdett  should  be  '  Blair  Adam,  N.B.  [see  Adah,  Sir  Charles! 
summoned  to  attend  in  his  place  and  receive    His  motherwas  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  PatricK 


Adam 


92 


Adam  nan 


Brydone,  F.R.S.  Bom  in  1823,  Adam  waa 
educated  at  Rugby,  and  at  Trinity  College,* 
Cambridge,  where  he  took  Iiis  degree  of  B.A. 
in  1846.  Three  years  later  he  was  called  to 
the  bar  by  the  Inner  Temple,  and  in  1850  he 
cont^ted  unsuccessfully  in  the  liberal  interest 
the  constituency  of  Clackmannan  and  Kinross, 
which  his  father  had  represented  from  1833  to 
1841,  and  which  had  returned  his  grandfather 
and  great-grand-uncle  to  parliament  in  1807 
and  1768  respectively.  From  1863  to  1858 
Adam  was  in  India  as  private  secretary  to 
l-iord  Elphinstone,  governor  of  Bombay.  In 
1 859,  after  his  ret  uni  to  England,  he  contested 
for  a  second  time  Clackmannan  and  Kinross, 
and  on  this  occasion  with  success.  For  the 
succeeding  twenty-one  years  he  continued  to 
represent  this  constituency.  In  1 865  he  be- 
came a  lord  of  the  treasury  in  Lord  Palmers- 
ton's  government,  and  was  reappointed  to 
that  post  when  Mr.  Gladstone  tooK  office  in 
1868.  In  1873  he  was  nominated  first  com- 
missioner of  public  works,  and  admitted  to 
the  privy  council.     But  the  dissolution  of 

Earliament  early  in  the  following  year  drove 
im  and  his  party  from  office.  As  the  *  whip  * 
or  organiser  of  the  liberal  minority,  while  the 
conservatives  under  Lord  Beaconsfield  were 
in  power  ( 1874-80),  Adam  rendered  valuable 
services  to  his  party.  His  advice  was  con- 
stantly sought,  not  only  by  his  leaders,  but 
by  liberal  supporters  throughout  the  coimtry, 
and  his  energy  greatly  contributed  to  the 
success  of  the  liberals  in  tlie  election  of  1880, 
u  success  that  he  confidently  foretold  amid 
many  apparently  discouraging  omens.  In 
Mr.  Gladstone's  ministry  of  1880  Adam  re- 
sumed his  former  post  of  first  commissioner 
of  works ;  but  before  the  end  of  the  year  he 
accepted  the  governorship  of  Madras,  which 
the  Duke  of  Buckingham  and  Chandos  had 
vacated.  On  27  Nov.  1880,  after  being  enter- 
tained by  his  political  friends  at  complimen- 
tary dinners  in  Edinburgh  and  London,  Adam 
left  for  India ;  but  a  few  months  after  he  had 
entered  on  his  duties  at  Madras  he  was  seized 
with  an  illness,  from  which  he  had  suffered 
at  earlier  periods  of  his  life,  and  died  at  Oo- 
tacamund  24  May  1881.  There,  two  days 
later,  he  was  buried. 

Adam  married  in  1856  Emily,  daughter  of 
General  Sir  William  Wyllie,  G.C.B.  The 
oddest  son,  Charles  Elphinstone  Adam,  was 
created  a  baronet  in  recognition  of  his  father  s 
public  services,  20  May  1882.  Adam  owed 
the  successes  of  his  political  life  to  his  solid 
administrative  capacity  and  his  universally 
popular  manner.  He  was  no  brilliant 
t<peaker,  and,  although  often  invited,  rarely 
took  part  in  public  meetings,  which  would 
have  made  him  familiar  to  the  general  pubbc. 


He  was  the  author  of  a  small  pamphlet, 
entitled  *  Thoughts  on  the  Policy  of  Retalia- 
tion and  it«  probable  Effect  on  the  Con- 
sumer, Producer,  and  Shipowner,'  London, 
1852. 

[Times,  25  May  and  30  May  1881 ;  Foster*8 
Members  of  Parliament  for  Scotland,  p.  6.1 

8.  L.L. 

ADAMNAN,  or  ADOMNAN  (62d?- 
704),  is  supposed  to  have  been  bom,  about625, 
in  the  south-west  of  the  part  of  Ulster  now 
known  as  Donegal,  with  the  principal  septa 
of  which  his  parents  were  aUieo.  Few  details 
w^hich  can  be  accepted  as  authentic  have  been 

Preserved  in  relation  to  Adamnan's  career, 
n  679  he  was  elected  abbot  of  lona,  being 
the  ninth  in  succession  to  his  eminent  kins- 
man Columba,  by  whom  the  monastic  insti- 
tution on  that  island  had  been  founded. 
Through  his  personal  application,  in  686,  to 
Aldfrid,  king  of  Nortnumbria,  Adamnan 
effected  the  liberation  of  some  of  the  Irish 
who  had  been  carried  off  by  pirates  and  re- 
tained in  captivity  there.  About  this  period 
he  became  an  advocate  for  adopting  the 
Roman  regulations  as  to  the  tonsure,  and  in 
relation  to  the  time  for  the  celebration  of 
Easter.  The  Latin  life  of  St.  Columba— 
*  Vita  ColumbflB ' — who  died  in  597,  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  compiled  by  Adamnan  m 
the  inter\'al  between  his  visits  to  Ireland  in 
692  and  697.  He  is  stated  to  have  taken 
part  in  conventions  and  synods  in  Ireland, 
enactments  ascribed  to  which  were  styled 
'  Adamnan^s  Kule '  and '  Canones  Adonmani.* 
The  latter,  consisting  of  eight  sections,  were 
published  by  Martene.  Adamnan  died  at 
lona  in  704,  on  23  Sept.,  on  which  d^  he 
was  commemorated  as  a  saint  in  old  Irish 
and  Scottish  calendars.  To  the  high  cha- 
racter and  learning  of  Adamnan  strong  testi- 
mony is  to  be  found  in  the  statements  of  his 
contemporaries,  Bede  and  Ceolfrid.  Alcuin, 
in  the  eighth  century,  classed  Adamnan  with 
St.  Columbanus  and  other 

Prsclari  fratres,  morum  vitaeque  magistri. 

The  claim  of  Adamnan  to  the  biogpraphy 
of  Columba  was  questioned  in  former  times, 
but  the  work  is  now  generally  ascribed  to 
him.  The  author  mentions  that  he  had  con- 
versed with  persons  acquainted  with  St. 
Columba,  and  in  the  third  book  he  has  in- 
corporated a  narrative  attributed  to  Cum- 
meneus  or  Cumine,  abbot  of  lona  from  657 
to  669.  Pinkerton  considered  Adanman's  life 
of  Columba  to  be  '  the  most  complete  piece 
of  such  biography  that  all  Europe  can  boast 
of,  not  only  at  so  early  a  period,  but  through- 
out the  whole  middle  ages.'    The  enicUte 


Adamnan  93  Adamnan 


Alexander  P.  Forbes,  late  bishop  of  Brechin, 
observed  that  this  bio«^i>hy  '  is  the  solitary 
record  of  a  portion  of  the  history  of  the  church 


this  is  the  production  of  Adamnan.  It  may^ 
however,  hd  justly  regarded  as  *  one  of  the 
strangest  of  those  medifeval  visions  which 


of  Scotland,  and,  with  the  exception  of  Bede  begin  with  that  of  the  Irish  saint  Fursa,  and 
and  the  Pictish  Chronicle,  the  chief  trust-  i  culminate  in  that  of  the  *  Divina  Commedia/ 
worthy  monument  till  we  come  to  the  Mar-  Adamnan's  *  Vision,'  with  an  English  version^ 
gkretan  reformation/  The  Count  de  Monta-  was  printed  in  1870.  A  more  diffuse  Irish 
lembert  characterised  the  'Vita  Columbie'  version  of  the  composition  is  extant  in  a 
as  *  un  des  monuments  les  plus  vivants,  les  manuscript  of  the  fourteenth  century,  styled 
plus  attrayants  et  les  ^us  authentiques  de  '  Leabhar  Breac,'  also  in  the  library  of  the 
rhistoire  chr6tienne.'  To  Adamnan  we  are  Royal  Irish  Academy.  From  this  copy  ex- 
indebted  for  a  treatise  entitled  *De  Locis  tracts  were  given  by  J ohnO'Donovan,LL.D., 
Sanctis,'  an  account  of  Palestine  and  other  I  in  his  grammar  of  the  Irish  language,  pub- 
countries.  This,  Adamnan  states,  was  written  lished  in  1845. 

bv  him  from  the  dictation  of  Arculfiis,  a  An  unsuccessful  effort  was  made  in  Ire- 
Frankish  bishop,  who  had  visited  Palestine,  land,  towards  the  commencement  of  the  six- 
Arculfus  had  been  shipwrecked  on  the  British  teenth  century,  by  O'Donnell,  lord  of  portion 
coast,  and  was  hospitably  received  at  lona  of  the  Ulster  district  of  which  Adamnan 
by  Adamnan,  to  whom  he  recounted  his  ad-  was  believed  to  have  been  a  native,  to  pro- 
ventures.  The  book  was  brought  by  Adamnan  cure  copies  of  his  *Vita  Columbse.*  The 
to  Aldfirid,  king  of  Northumbria,  and  by  his  object  in  view  was  the  compilation  of  a 
liberality  several  transcripts  were  made  of  it.  history  of  that  saint,  and  some  of  the  results 
Bede  also  noticed  it  in  his 'History,' and  gave  were  embodied  in  a  finely  written  manu- 
an  abridgment  of  it.  The  treatise '  De  LK>cis  script,  now  extant  in  the  Bodleian  Library. 
Sanctis '  was  one  of  the  earliest  detailed  ac-  Reproductions  of  portions  of  this  volume,  m 
counts  of  the  Holy  Land  produced  in  Europe,  which  Adamnan  is  specially  referred  to,  will 
It  is  divided  into  three  books,  treating  of  tlie  be  found  in  the  third  part  of  the  '  Facsimiles 
holyplaces.  Tyre,  Alexandria,  Constantinople,  of  National  Manuscripts  of  Ireland,' plates 
and  Sicily.  The  narrative  of  Arculfus  re-  Ixvi.,  Ixvii.  The  first  edition  of  the  *  Vita 
mained  long  in  manuscript,  and  the  publica-  Columbse '  appeared  in  the  '  Lectiones  Anti- 
tion  of  it  in  its  integrity  was  to  some  extent  quie'  of  Canisius  in  1601.  It  was  again, 
the  result  of  criticisms  by  Isaac  Casaubon  with  other  Lives  of  Saints,  published  by 
on  the  'Annales  Ecclesiastic!'  of  Cardinal  Surius  in  1617,  by  Thomas  Messingham  in 
Baronius.  Casaubon  severely  animadverted  1624,  by  John  Colgan  in  1647,  by  the  Bol- 
on  the  cardinal  for  havingimplicitly  accepted  landists  in  1698,  by  Basnage  in  1725,  and  by 
statements  by  Arculfus.  The  laborious  Jesuit,  Pinkerton  in  1789.  In  1845  an  ancient  copy 
Jacob  Gbetser,  however,  imdertook  to  vindi-  of  the  *  Life  of  Columba '  was  found  at  tne 
cate  Baronius,  and  published  the  entire  bottomofabook-chest  in  the  library  of  Schaff- 
treatise  of  Arculfus  firom  an  ancient  codex  hausen  by  Dr.  Ferdinand  Keller.  From  this 
at  Ingolstadt  in  1619,  with  the  title  '  Adam-  codex,  which  is  ascribed  to  the  eighth  century, 
naniAbbatisHiiensislibritresde  locis  Sanctis  and  from  six  other  manuscripts,  a  valuable 
ex  relatione  Arculfi,  Episcopi  GkUi.'  Gretser,  edition  of  the  work  was  proauced  in  1857 
in  his  '  Prolegomena,'  vigorously  assailed  by  the  Rev.  William  Reeves,  D.D.,  through 
Casaubon  for  having,  on  insufiicient  informa-  the  co-operation  of  the  Bannatyne  Club 
tion,  impugned  the  authenticity  of  the  state-  and  the  Irish  Archaeological  Society.  An- 
ments  of  Arculfus.  Another  edition  was  other  edition  was  published  at  Edinburgh  in 
published  at  Paris  in  1672  by  d'Achery  and  1874. 

Mabillon  from  manuscripts  m  the  Vatican  [Monumenta  Historica  Britannica,  London, 

and  at  Corbie.      Gretser  s  edition  was  re-  1848;   Acta  Sanctomm  Ordinis  S.   Benedicti, 

printed  in  the  fourth  volume  of  his  works,  Pans.  1672;  Thesaurus  Nevus  studio  Martene 

Lssued  at  Ratisbon  in  1734.  ®^  Durandi,  Paris,  1717 ;  I.  Casauboni  Exerdta- 

A  composition  in  old  Irish  language,  styled  ^^^^^^'Z'^^JS^^  m  '  ?^^  ^'  Martyrology  of  Done- 

'Adamnan's  Vision,'  is  extant  ma  manu-  «*^1864;  Flonlegium  Insula  Sanctorum.  Pans, 


— ^ — ,  — •  — f  —-  — ^— -— — ™,   .  — .  > ->, 

Ti^ti-        fm.'  J     X-"  _x     ^       •-       Edinburgh,  1874;    Vitae  Antiqu»  Sanctorum, 

Dublin.  This  production  purports  to  give  London,  1789 ;  Enquiry  into  History  of  Scothind, 
an  account  of  'what  was  shown  to  Adanman  London,  1789 ;  Montalembert.  Lea  Moines  d'Oc- 
<when  his  soul  went  forth  from  his  body,  cident,  Paris,  1866,  tom.  iii;  Fis  Adamnain, 
and  when  he  was  taken  to  Paradise  and  to  I  Simla,  1870 ;  Facsimiles  of  National  MSS.  of 
HelL'    There  is  no  distinct  evidence  that !  Ireland,  London,  1879.]  J.  T.  G. 


Adams 


94 


Adams 


ADAMS,  ANDREW  LEITH  {d,  1882), 
zoologist,  became  an  army  surceoii  in  1848, 
and  surffeon-major  in  1861.  He  reported  on 
the  Maltese  cholera  epidemic  in  1865,  and, 
having  retired  from  the  army  in  1873,  was 
appointed  professor  of  zoology  in  the  College 
of  Science,  Dublin,  and  in  1878  became  pro- 
fessor of  natural  history  in  Queen's  College, 
Cork.  His  principal  works  are:  *  Wander- 
ings of  a  Naturalist  in  India,'  *  The  Western 
Himalayas  and  Cashmere '  (1867),  *  Notes  of 
a  Naturalist  in  the  Nile  Valley  and  Malta  * 
(1870),  *  Field  and  Forest  Rambles,  with 
Notes  and  Observations  on  the  Natural 
History  of  Eastern  Canada'  (1878),  and  his 
*  Monograph  on  the  British  Fossil  Elephants ' 
(1877).  He  was  elected  F.G.S.  in  1870,  and 
F.R.S.  in  1872. 


[Nature,  xxvi.  377.] 


O.  T.  B. 


ADAMS,  CLEMENT  (1519  P-1687), 
schoolmaster  and  author,  was  bom  at  Buck- 
ington,  Warwickshire,  about  1519.  He  was 
educated  at  Eton,  whence  he  was  elected  to 
King's  College,  Cambridge,  17  Aug.  1636,  of 
which  he  is  supposed  to  have  been  elected 
fellow  in  1539.  He  took  the  degree  of  B. A. 
in  1540-1,  and  of  M.A.  in  1544,  and  was  ap- 
pointed schoolmaster  to  the  king's  henclimen 
at  Greenwich  3  May  1652,  at  a  salary  of  10/. 
per  annum.  He  died  9  Jan.  1586-7,  and 
was  buried  at  St.  Alphege,  Greenwich. 

The  earliest  mention  of  Adams  in  the 
printed  literature  of  the  sixteenth  century  is 
by  his  contemporary,  Richard  Eden,  the  father 
of  English  geography.  From  the  pages  of 
his  little  read  and  less  known  *  Decades '  we 
learn  that  Clement  Adams  was  a  school- 
master and  not  a  traveller.  To  Adams  we 
owe  the  first  written  account  of  the  earliest 
English  intercourse  with  Russia.  PMen 
writes :  *  Wheras  I  have  before  (p.  252) 
made  mention  howe  Moscouia  was  in  our 
tyme  discoured  by  the  direction  and  infor- 
mation of  the  sayde  master  Sebastian  [Ca- 
bote]  who  longe  before  had  this  secreate  in 
his  minde,  I  shall  not  neede  here  to  describe 
that  viage,  forasmuch  as  the  same  is  largely 
and  faithfully  written  in  the  I^tyn  tonge  by 
that  lemed  young  man,  ClemenJt  Adams, 
scol  mayster  to  the  Queenes  henshemen  (i.e. 
pages  of  honour)  as  he  received  it  at  the 
mouth  of  the  sayde  Richard  Chancelor.' 

The  incidental  allusion  to  the  old  pilot 
major  Sebastian  Cabot  has  some  significance 
in  connection  with  Adams.  Cabot,  it  is  well 
known,  made  a  famous  Mappe-monde,  re- 
cording, among  other  things,  tne  discoveries 
of  himself  and  his  father,  John  Cabot,  along 
the  coast  of  'Newfoundland'  in  1497,  the 
date  of  which  discovery  has  been  the  subject 


of  much  debate  among  geographers  and  an- 
tiquaries. A  contemporary  copy  of  Cabot's 
map,  discovered  in  Germany,  is  preserved 
in  the  Bibliothdque  Nationale  in  Fans,  the 
original  of  which  is  now  lost,  in  a  volume 
edited  by  Nathan  Chytraeus,  first  published 
in  1594.  It  would  appear  that  tnere  was 
also  a  copy  preserved  at  Oxford  at  the  period 
named;  be  this  as  it  may,  we  learn  from 
Hakluyt,  in  1584,  that  yet  another  copy  was 
made  and  '  cut '  by  Adams,  which  was  evi- 
dently well  known  at  the  period,  for  we  read 
in  a  MS.  by  Haklujrt  on  *  Westeme  Plant- 
ing' (discovered  in  1864)  of  *the  copye  of 
[Gabote's]  map  sett  out  by  Mr.  Clements 
Adams,  and  is  in  many  marchants  houses  in 
London.'  Hakluyt,  five  years  lat^r,  amplifies 
this  statement  as  to  the  map  by  Adams, 
in  quoting  a  legend  relating  to  the  disco- 
veries of  the  Cabots  to  be  found  upon  it, 
described  by  him  as '  an  extract  taken  out 
of  the  mapne  of  Sebastian  Cabot,  cut  by 
Clement  Aaams,  concerning  his  [Cabot's] 
discovery  of  the  West  Indias  which  is  to  be 
seene  in  her  Maiesties  privie  gallerie  at 
Westminster,  and  in  many  other  ancient 
merchants  houses.'  No  copy  of  this  map 
engraved  by  Adams  is  now  known  to  exist. 
The  only  basis  for  the  assumption  that  he 
was  a  traveller  is  the  association  of  his  name 
with  that  of  Richard  Chancellor.  That  he 
did  not  accompany  Chancellor  in  his  first 
voyage  to  Russia  in  1653  is  certain,  for  the 
name  of  every  person  above  the  remk  of  an 
ordinar\^  seaman  that  accompanied  both  Sir 
Hugh  Willoughby  and  Chancellor  in  the 
voyage  is  preserved  to  us  in  the  pages  of 
Hakluyt  (cf.  edition  of  1589,  p.  266).  The 
name  of  the  only  clerkly  person  among  the 
two  crews  was  that  of  John  Stafford,  *  mi- 
nister '  on  board  the  '  Edward  Bonaventure,' 
commanded  by  Chancellor. 

The  work  referred  to  bv  Eden  was  com- 
mitted to  writing  by  Adams  upon  Chan- 
cellor's return  irom  his  first  voyage  to 
Russia  in  1554.  The  title  runs  thus :  *  rJova 
Anglorum  ad  Moscovitas  navigatio  Hu- 
gone  Willowbeio  equite  classis  pwefecto, 
et  Richardo  Cancelero  nauarcho.  Authore 
Clemente  Adamo,  Anglo.'  It  was  first  printed 
by  Hakluyt  in  his  Collections  of  1589.  This 
is  followed  by  a  translation  headed  thus  i 
*  The  newe  Nauigation  and  discouerie  of  the 
kingdome  of  Moscouia,  by  the  North  east,  in 
the  yeere  1553;  Enterprised  by  Sir  Huffh 
Willoughbie,  knight,  and  perfourmed  by 
Richard  Chanceler,  Pilot  maior  of  the  voyage. 
Translated  out  of  the  former  Latine  into 
English,'  probably  by  Hakluyt  himself.  In 
the  two  subsequent  editions  of  Hakluyt  the 
Latin  text  by  Adams  is  omitted. 


Adams  9S  Adams 

[The  Decades  of  the  Newe  Worlde,  by  Peter  he  had  a  large  share  in  compiling  the  last 

Martyr  Angleria,  translated  by  Bicharde  Eden,  edition  of  that  lexicon,  especially  the  Eng- 

I^ndon.  1556,  4to,  p.  266  ;  History  of  Trauayle  ligh-Greek  portion.  He  also  published  *  Arun- 

in  the  E.  and  W.  Indies,  by  R.   Eden,  aug-  dines  Devw/ or  poetical  translations  on  a  new 

mented  by  R.  WiUes  Load.  1577,  4top  268  ;  principle,  by  a  Scotch  physician,  8vo,  Edin- 

"*^^^  Werteme  PUntmg    1684.  MS^rst  ^      ^  1353    ^^  j^  ^^j    ^^^  ^  translation 

pnntea  m^ame.  Hist,  ftoc    (^Uections,^  of  'Hero  and  Leander^from  the  Greek  of 

Na^g^ioni.,'  Lind!"i689  fol..  "l.'  270-292  ;  Mimms  with  other  poems  (Abcrdeen,1820). 
ibid.  2nd  edition.  1699-1600.  k..  iii.  6;  I  .  But  Adams s  most  important  labours  were 
Mamius  and  Anbrius,  Rerom  Moscovitiearum  '  ^^  ^'^^  subject  of  Greek  medicine,  a  de- 
Auctores  varii,  Francofurti,  1600,  fol. ;  Major's  partment  of  learning  m  which  he  effectetl 
Notes  npon  Rnmia.  1862,  ii.  194  ;  Cooper's  more  than  had  been  done  by  any  Britisli 
Athens  Cantab,  ii.  6, 641 ;  PepysMS.  6821  (102)  scholar  for  nearly  a  century  and  a  half.  His 
3Iagd.  ColL  Camb. ;  aJso  MSS.  Cotton,  Julius  B.  attention  was  first  drawn  to  the  subject  by  a 
ix.  46  ;  Harl.  7033,  96],  C.  H.  C.      1  Dr.  Kerr,  of  Aberdeen,  whose  library,  after 

'  his  death,  Adams  acquired,  and  made  the 

ADAMS,  FRANCIS  (1796-1861),  phy-  foundation  of  his  studies.  In  1834  he  pub- 
sicianandclaA8ical8cholar,waBbom  13  March  lished  the  first  volume  of  a  translation  of 
1796  at  Lumphanan,  Aberdeenshire,  the  son  Paulus  ^Egineta,  but  the  publication  was 
of  James  Adams,  a  small  farmer,  was  edu-  interrupted  by  the  failure  of  the  publisher, 
cated  at  a  parish  school,  and  afterwards  at  The  scheme  was  afterwards  taken  up  by  the 
the  grammar  school,  Aberdeen.  On  entering  Sydenham  Society  of  London,  and  tne  com- 
the  latter  at  the  age  of  15,  he  found  himself  ])let«  translation  published  in  three  volimies 
backward  in  classical  attainments,  and  with  (^The  Seven  B<K)ks  of  Paulus  JBgineta, 
extraordinary  energy  devoted,  in  his  own  translated  from  the  Greek,  with  a  Commen- 
words,  'seventeen  hours  a  day  to  the  study  tary,'  Lond.  1844-7,  8vo).  The  translation 
of  Virgil  and  Horace,'  reading  each  of  these  ,  is  useful,  as  the  only  English  one  of  the 
authors  six  or  seven  times  in  succession,  writer,  but  the  chief  value  of  the  work  re- 
( >btaining  a  bursary  at  King's  College,  Old  sides  in  the  commentary,  which  shows  wide 
Aberdeen,  he  graduated  there  M.A.,  and  after-  j  and  accurate  learning,  and  gives  a  fuller 
wards  studied  medicine.  Coming  to  I^ondon,  '  account  of  Greek  and  Roman  medicine  (to 
he  became  a  member  of  the  College  of  Sur-  some  extent  of  Arabian  also)  than  is  else- 
geons,  1  Dec.  1815,  but,  returning  to  Scot-  where  accessible  in  English,  or  perhaps  in 
land,  settled  as  a  medical  practitioner  in  the  any  modem  language.  Clonsidering  the  iso- 
small  village  of  Banchory  Teman,  where  he  lated  position  of  the  writer,  remote  from 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He  received  .  great  libraries  and  immersed  in  professional 
an  honorary  LL.D.  from  the  university  of  work,  it  is  a  very  remarkable  performance. 
Glasgow  6  Nov.  1846,  and  the  degree  of  M.D.,  Adams  afterwards  prepared  for  the  Sy den- 
also  honorary,  from  " 
8  Nov.  1856.  He 
Adams  married  the 

Shaw,  by  whom  he  left  a  family.  His  second  translated  from  the  Greek,'  Loncfon,  1849^ 
son  was  Andrew  Leith  Adams  [q.  v.].  2  vols.  8vo).    This  is  valuable  as  the  only 

Dr.  Francis  Adams  combined  in  a  remark-  complete  English  version,  and  the  introduc- 
able  manner  the  character  of  a  busy  country  tion  and  notes  are  important.  He  further 
doctor  and  an  indefatigable  scholar.  Through  brought  out,  under  the  auspices  of  the  same 
the  whole  of  his  life  his  fondness  for  classical  society,  an  edition  of  Aretaeus,  the  revised 
and  especially  Greek  literature  amounted  to  Greek  text  with  an  English  translation.  Both 
a  passion.  Though  unceasingly  engaged  in  parts  are  valuable,  and  especially  so  consider- 
bis  profession,  he  found  time  to  read 'almost  ing  the  paucity  of  such  works  published  in 
every  Greek  work  which  has  come  down  to  England  (*  The  Extant  Works  of  Aretajus 
ufl  from  antiquity,  except  the  ecclesiastical  ,  the  Cappadocian,  edited  and  translated  by 
writers,'  and  to  produce  some  important  i  F.  Adams,'  London,  1856,  8vo).  This  wort, 
works.  In  pure  scholarship  his  chief  works  j  involving  reference  to  important  libraries, 
were  '  Hermes  Philologus,'  on  the  difference  brought  Adams  into  communication  with 
between  the  Greek  and  Latin  syntax,  &c.  many  English  and  foreign  scholars,  and  pro- 
{8vo,  London,  1826);  papers  on  Greek  prosody,  cured  for  him  his  honorary  degree  mm 
&c.  in  the  '  Classical  Journal,'  and  an  appen-    Aberdeen. 

dix  to  Dunbar's  '  Greek  Lexicon,'  containing  Adams  was  regarded  as  a  good  practi- 
yaluable  explanations  of  the  Greek  names  of  tioner  and  skilful  operator.  He  showed  his 
animals,  plimt«,  &c.    It  is  understood  that    interest  in  his  profession  by  frequent  visits  to 


Adams  96  Adams 

the  surgical  wards  of  the  Aberdeen  infirmary.  '  of  the  'sadness  and  discontent'  which  sat 
His  medical  writings  consisted  solely  of  i  'upon  every  brow'  at  his  absence  when, 
memoirs,  of  which  the  most  important  were  in  fulfilment  of  his  duties  as  a  lord  of  the 
'  On  the  Human  Placenta '  ('  London  Med.  .  bedchamber,  he  was  called  away  to  '  shine- 
Gazette/  1848,  &c. ;  reprinted  Aberdeen  |  as  a  star  in  its  proper  sphere  near  the  person 
1858),  *0n  Uterine  Hsemorrhage,'  *0n  a  i  of  his  majesty.*  The  context  of  these  pas- 
Case  of  Dislocation  of  the  E^iee^oint,'  &c.  |  sa^es  shows  the  author  to  have  been  an 
Tliese  memoirs  show,  along  with  much  I  ardent  protestant  and  a  devoted  partisan 
learning,  a  strong  tendency  to  paradox^-e.g.  of  the  Hanoverian  succession.  In  addition 
Adams  obstinately  refused  to  believe  that '  to  his  translation  of  Sophocles,  Adams 
the  sounds  of  the  foetal  heart  could  be  heard  j  wrote  what  Mr.  D.  E.  lAvy  calls  *  The 
by  auscultation.  He  was  an  excellent  natural-  '  Heathen  Martvr'  (ilfSl  Additions  to  Chra-- 
ist,  being  well  versed  in  the  botany  and  omi-  duati  CantabrtgienseSy  1823),  and  what  the 
thology  of  Scotland,  especially  of  Deeside.  ■  *  Gentleman's  Magazine '  for  October  1746, 
After  Adams's  death  a  monument  was  '  p.  560,  registers  amongst  the  books  and 
erected  to  his  memory  at  Banchory  by  public  pamphlets  published  during  that  month  aa 
subscription.  It  is  a  granite  obelisk,  bearing  |  *The  Life  of  Socrates:  an  Historical  Tran 
a  Latin  inscription  by  Professor  Geddes  of  gedy,'  8vo,  London,  1746.  It  is  not  unlikely 
Aberdeen.  His  bust  in  marble,  by  Brodie,  that  Adams  was  the  author  of  *An  E2xpo- 
is  in  the  university  of  Aberdeen,  having  been  sition  of  some  Articles  of  Religion,  which 
presented  by  his  son.  Dr.  Leith  Adams.  strike  at  the  Tenets  of  the  Arians  and  So- 

Adams's  reputation  in  his  own  special  j  cinians.  Likewise  at  the  Infidels,  Romanists, 
field  of  scholarship  is  very  high.  His  trans-  j  Lutherans,  and  Oalvinists.  In  several  Ser- 
lations  are  good  and  generally  accurate,  mons  and  Dissertations,'  8vo,  London,  1752. 
though  not  brilliant  and  not  always  elegant.  |  In  a  Latin  dedication  to  Dr.  Thomas  Sher- 
His  notes  are  less  valuable  for  critical  in-  |  lock,  bishop  of  London,  the  author  of  this 
sight  than  for  their  richness  in  accessory  ;  work  describes  himself  as  having  exercised 
learning.  The  achievement  of  so  much  good  his  sacred  office  {sacro  munere)  in  that  dio- 
work,  under  such  difficulties,  cannot  but  be  ;  cese  for  a  period  of  over  twenty  years.  It  is 
regarded  as  evidence  of  a  very  remarkable  i  equally  possible  further  to  ciiedit  him  with 
character.  another  volume,  the  identity  of  whose  author- 

Besides  the  works  mentioned  above,  Adams  ship  with  that  of  the  *  Exposition '  is  gene- 
wrote  numerous  papers  and  reviews  in  medi-  raihr  accepted,  by  *  George  Adams,  M.A.,' 
cal  journals.  i  entitled  *  A  System  of  Divinity,  Ecclesias- 

[Aberdeen  Herald,  2  March  1861 ;  Scotisman,  tical  History,  and  Morality.  Collected  from 
27  Feb.  and  9  March  1861  (notice  copied  in  Mod.  the  Writings  of  Authors  of  various  Nations 
Times  and  Gazette,  1 86 1 ,  i .  292)  ;  MS.  communi-  and  Languages,  and  from  the  noblest  Doctors 
cations  from  family  and  other  friends.]  of  the  Christian  Church,'  8vo,  London,  1768. 

J.  F.  P.        xiie  likelihood  of  the  identity  of  the  author 


was  sometime  a  fellow  of  St.  John's  College,  question  has  so  far  remained  unanswered. 
Cambridge  (Coopbk,  New  Biographical  Dio-  Adams  may  have  been  the  same  with  the 
fi<mary\  where  he  took  his  degrees  of  B.A.  Rev.  George  Adams  who  was  preferred  to  be 
and  M.A.  respectively  in  1719  and  1735  |  prebendary  of  Seaford  on  24  Aug.  1736,  and 
(Graduati  CantabrigienseSy  1787).  Between  of  Wittering  on  28  Oct.  following,  both  in 
these  two  datea  he  published  the  work  by  i  the  cathedral  church  of  Chichester,  and  who 
which  he  is  best  known,  entitled  *  The  '  resigned  the  former  in  1736-7,  and  vacated 
Tragedies  of  Sophocles,  translated  from  the  the  latter  in  1751-2  (Lb  1!^etb'b  Fasti  Ecde- 
Greek.  With  Notes  Historical,  Moral,  and  ffus  Anglicans  (ed.  Hardy,  London,  1854),  ii. 
Critical,'  2  vols.,  8vo,  London,  1729.  At  this  '  274-5).  Of  course  the '  System  of  Divinity  ^ 
time  he  was  either  beneficed  or  otherwise  i  may  have  been  of  posthumous  publication; 
established  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  but  if  the  foregoing  surmises  be  correct, 
of  Kimbolton  Castle,  for,  in  the  dedication  I  Adams  nrobably  died  not  before  1768,  the 
of  his  *  Sophocles '  to  William,  fifth  earl  and  '  year  of  the  issue  of  his  latest  work,  when  he- 
s*»cond  duKe  of  Manchester,  with  whom  he  was  about  seventy  years  of  age. 
was  on  terms  of  intimacy  or  acquaintance-  ,  [Dedication  of  the  Tragedies  of  Sophoclea, 
ship,  he  speaks  of  the  joy  diffiised  by  his  1729,  and  of  An  Exposition,  &c.,  1762;  Gent 
grace's  presence  amongst  those*  who  lived  Mag.  Oct.  1746 ;  Watt's  Bibliotheca  Britannica.1 
near  the  place  of  his  usual  residence,'  and  A  H.  0. 


ADASfS,  GFAIKGE,  tli^  elder  (rf.  1773), 
nuitbpRUiticaluutriimi^DlitialiertoOeorg^III, 
olitMDed  It  world-wide  reputatitin  a«  »  maker 
of  celestial  and  terrestrial  dubni,  aud  bin 
'  treatise  dtwcribing  and  explaining  tbe  con- 
atniction  and  use  of  new  celeeti^  nnd  ter- 
rwl  rial  elobm '  pa^ed  through  thirty  edit  ioiia. 
Tlie  b«nk  first  appi^red  in  1T66,  and  its  div 
dicati'in  to  the  tiing  has  been  altribuli'd 
In  Dr.  Johnson,  The  thirtieth  edition  wub 
i^ued  in  ISIO,  with  a  preface  and  additions 
hj  Adoms'G  joung«?r  son  Dudley.  Adama 
vTBB  aJao  the  author  of:  I.  '  Microgmphia 
lUiutmta,  or  the  knowledg*  of  the  micro- 
•^ope  explained'  (1746),  which  includod  '  a 
Ir*nslation  of  Mr.  Joblott's  observations  ou 
animalcidKi'and  passed  through  four  editions 
between  ita  date  of  publication  and  1771. 
2.  'The  Description  and  Use  of  a  new  Sea- 
nuadrant  for  taldng  the  altitude  of  the  sun 
from  the  Tisihle  horizon'  (1748).  3.  "Hie 
Description  and  Use  of  the  UniTersal  Trigo- 
nometrical Octant,  invented  and  applied  to 
Hadie^'a  Quadrant' (1753).  Adams  died  in 
1 773,  according  to  the  statement  of  his  second 
*on,  Dudley  Adams,  in  his  preface  to  the 
ibirtietb  edition  of  his  work  on  the  globes, 
and  not  in  1786  as  previous  biographers  have 
jtAt«d. 

[Dudlc;  Adanu's  oditton  of  the  Treatise  on  the 
(H(>!*s  (IBIO);  A.  de  Morgan  in  S.  D,  U.  K. 
Biop.  Piol.  i  Brit.  Mils,  Cat.] 

ADAJIS,  GEORGE,  the  younger  (1750- 
I79."i),  wn;*  the  son  of  George  Adams  [q.  T.], 
the  mulhematical  instrument  maker  to 
Qefirge  in,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  that 
'i0ic«  and  in  the  auperiutendence  of  his  hiisi- 
oe«s.  lie  was  the  author  of  a  large  number  of 
■-Ivmentaryscientilic  works,  which,  according 
to  a  writM  in  the  '  British  Critic,'  were  so 
0  comprise  a  regular  and  sys- 
utic  instruction  in  the  moat  important 
I  of  natural  science  with  all  it« 
H improvements.'  Healaowrotelargoiy 
AU  the  use  of  mathematical  instruments,  and 
hi«  books  on  that  subject  were  highly  valued. 
Id  pnlitice  he  was  a  staunch  tnry,  and  as 
■iich  was  received  with  favour  at  court  by 
George  III.  In  many  of  his  published  works 
hr  combined  a  relisious  with  a  scientific  aim, 
and  'applied  all  Lis  knowledge,'  says  the 
'  Gentleman's  Magazine,'  '  to  the  best  of 
piirpiMOs — to  combat  the  growing  errors  of 
materialism,  infidelity,  and  anarchy.'  He 
dimJ  14  Aug.  1796,  at  Southampton,  and  was 
succeeded  in  hia  business  and  in  the  post  nf 
natbeniBlical  instrument  maker  to  the  king 
is  brother,  Dudley  Adams.  His  works 
■  '  ■  1  Essay  on  Electricity,  to  which 
I  Essay  on  Magnetism'  (17841. 


"i.  •E«sny»oniheMicn)Sei)pe'(l787).  3. 'An 
Kasay  on  Vision,  briefly  explaining  the  &bric 
of  the  eye'  (1789).  4.  '  Astronomioftl  and 
Geograptucal  Essays'  (1790).  6.  'A  Short 
Dissertation  on  the  Barometer'  (1790). 
6.  '  Geometrical  and  Graphical  Essays,  con- 
taining a  description  of  the  mathematical 
instrunenta  used  in  geometry,  civil  and 
military  surTeyiag,IeveUinB  and  perspeclive' 
11790).  7.  'Leclures  on  Natural  nnd  Ex- 
perimental Philosophv,'  in  five  volumes 
(1704).  To  many  of  Adams's  books  elaborate 
plates  were  pubfished  separately,  and  almost 
all  of  them  passed  through  more  tbaji  one 
edition. 


logist.  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus  a 
ten,  and  afterwards  became  professor  of 
languages  at  the  college  of  St.  Omnr.  lie 
left  for  Edinburgh  mi  the  breaking  out  of 
the  French  revolution.  After  serving  as  a 
missionary  for  many  years  he  died  at  Dublin, 
7  Dee.  1803.  Heh'ad  it  iu  contemplation 
to  publish  his  '  Tour  through  the  Hebrides,' 
being  much  disgiiatod  with  tho  work  of  that 
'  ungrateful  depreciating  cynic,  Dr.  Johnson.' 
His  work  on  the '  Pronunciation  of  the  Eng- 
lish Language'  eonlaius,  according  to  Park, 
'  many  iuKcnioiis  remarks  on  languages  and 
dialects,  though  the  style  of  the  writer  is  cha- 
racterised by  much  whimsical  eccentricity.' 
He  was  the  author  of  the  following  work^: 
1.  '  Early  Rules  for  taking  a  Likeness '  (fiom 
ttei'renchofBonamici),8vo,  1792.  2.'Oratio 
Academica,  Anglice  et  liatine  conacripta,' 
8to,  1793.  3.  '  Euphonoiogia  Lingua  Angli- 
canie,  Laline  et  Oallice  scripla,  1794,  8vo. 
4.  'Ilie  Pronunciation  of  the  English  Lan- 
guage vindicated  from  imputed  Anomaly  and 
Caprice,  in  two  parts,  with  an  Appendix  on  the 
Dialects  of  Human  Speech  in  all  Countries, 
and  an  Analytical  Discussion  and  Vindica- 
tion of  the  Dialect  of  Scotland"  (Edinb.  1790, 
8yo).  5.  '  Rule  Britannia,  or  the  Flattery  of 
Free  Subjects  paraphrased  and  expounded,' 
8vo,  1768.  6.  'A  Sermon  preached  at  the 
Catholic  Chapel  of  St.  Patrick,  Sobo  Souare, 
March  7,  the  day  of  public  fast,'  8vo,  1798. 


ADAMS,  JdHN  (/.  ISW),  topomipher, 

waaaharrifllerof thelnnerTemple.  Inl677 
he  enjtraved  on  eopper  a  map  of  England  . 
and  Wales '  full  aii  feet  square,'  the  special 
featureof  which  was  that  the  distance  of  each 
town  from  its  nearest  neighbours  was 'entred 


Adams 


98 


Adams 


in  figtires  in  computed  and  measured  miles ' 
(see  Phil.  Trans,  xii.  886).  But  the  work  was 
declared  by  critical  friends  to  be  very  roughly 
done,  and  Adams  set  to  work  to  improve  it. 
To  supply  temporarily  the  many  omissions 
of  villages,  he  laboriously  drew  up,  in  1680, 
the  '  Index  Villaris,  or  an  Alphabetical  Table 
of  all  OitieSy  Market-towns,  Parishes,  Villages, 
Private  Seats  in  England  and  Wales,'  and 
dedicated  it  to  Charles  11.  This  '  Index '  he 
reprinted  with  elaborate  additions  in  1690, 
and  again  in  1700.  Meanwhile,  under  the 
patronage  of  several  members  of  the  Royal 
Society,  he  undert.ook  a  survey  of  the  whole 
country,  in  order  to  make  ms  map  as  full 
and  correct  as  possible.  He  completed  his 
journeys  before  1686,  and  in  that  year  pub- 
lished his  newljr  revised  map  under  the  title 
of '  AngliaB  totius  tabula.*  A  reissue,  called 
*  A  New  Map  of  England/  is  ascribed  in  the 
British  Museum  Catalogue  to  1693.  Re- 
duced and  coloured  copies  of  the  revised  map, 
which  was  of  the  original  size  (i.e.  six  feet 
souare),  were  sold  with  the  second  and  third 
eoitions  of  the  *  Index  Villaris.'  Adams  has 
been  identified,  on  inadequate  grounds,  with 
a  *  Joannes  AdamusTransylvanus,' the  author 
of  a  Latin  poem  describing  the  city  of  Lon- 
don, which  was  translated  into  English  verse 
about  1675,  and  is  reprinted  in  '  Harleian 
Miscellany,'  x.  189-60. 

[Gough*8  British  Topography,  i.  50-1,  724; 
Preface  to  Adams's  Index,  1680  ;  Lowndes's 
Bibliognipher's  Manual,  ed.  Bohn ;  S.  D.  U.  K. 
Biog.  Diet. ;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  of  Maps  and  of 
Printed  Books.]  S.  L.  L. 

ADAMS,  JOHN  (1662-1720),  provost  of 
King*8  College,  Cambridge,  was  the  son  of  a 
Lisbon  merchant  in  the  city  of  London.  He 
was  educated  at  Eton,  went  to  King's  Col- 
lege, Cambridge,  in  1678,  graduated  B. A.  in 
1682  and  M.A.  1686.  He  afterwards  tra- 
velled in  France  and  Italy,  and  became  an 
accomplished  linguist.  He  was  presented 
by  Jeffreys  to  Hickam  in  Leicestersliire  in 
1687.  ite  afterwards  became  rector  of  St. 
Alban^s,  Wood  Street,  in  the  gift  of  Eton 
College,  and  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of 
St.  Bartholomew  bv  the  lord  chancellor 
Harcourt.  He  became  prebendary  of  Can- 
terbury in  1702  and  canon  of  Windsor  in 
1708.  He  was  chaplain  to  King  William 
and  to  Queen  Anne,  with  the  last  of  whom 
he  was  a  great  favourite.  Swift  dined  with 
him  at  Windsor,  and  says  that  he  was  *  very 
obliging'  (Journal  to  SUllOf  12  Aug.,  16  and 
20  Sept.  1711).  In  1712  he  was  elected 
provost  of  KiiL^s  College,  and  resigned  the 
lectureship  of  St.  Clement  Danes.  He  was 
Boyle  lecturer  in  1703,  but  his  lectures  were 


never  printed.  He  died  of  apoplexy  on  29  Jan. 
1720.  He  was  considered  to  be  an  eloquent 
preacher,  and  fifteen  of  hia  sermons  are  in 
print. 

[Chahners's  Dictionary;  Addit.  MSS.  5802, 
135,  136  ;  Harwood's  Alumni  Etonenses.] 

ADAMS,  JOHN  (1760  P-1814),  a  volu- 
minous compiler  of  books  for  young  readers, 
was  bom  at  Aberdeen  about  1750.  Hav- 
ing graduated  at  the  university  there,  he 
obtained  a  preaching  license,  ana  coming  to 
London  was  appointed  minister  of  the 
Scotch  church  in  Hatton  Garden.  Subse- 
quently he  opened  a  school  or  '  academy '  at 
Putney,  which  proved  very  successful.  He 
died  at  Putney  in  1814.  Most  of  his  nume^ 
rous  works  passed  through  many  editions, 
and  were  largely  used  in  schools.  Among 
them  may  be  mentioned:  1.  *The  Flowers 
of  Ancient  History,'  1788,  reviewed  in  the 
*  Gentleman's  Magazine '  for  April  1788 
(IviiL  389).  2.  *  Elegant  Anecdotes  and 
Bon  Mots,^  1790.  3.  *  A  View  of  Universal 
History'  (3  vols.),  1795,  which  includes  a 
brief  account  of  almost  every  country  in  the 
world   down   to   the   date  of   pubucation. 

4.  *  The  Flowers  of  Modem  History,'  1796. 

5.  *  Curious  Thoughts  on  the  History  of 
Man,'  1799.  6.  *The  Flowers  of  Modem 
Travels'  (4th  edition),  1802.  Adams  also 
published  by  subscription  a  volume  of  ser- 
mons dedicated  to  Lord  Grantham  in  1805, 
and  he  was  the  author  of  a  very  popular 
Latin  schoolbook,  entitled  'Lectiones  Se- 
lect re,'  which  reached  an  eleventh  edition  in 
1823. 

[Gorton's  Biog.  Diet.  Appendix  ;  S.  D.  U.  K. 
Biog.  Diet.;  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.]  S.  L.  L. 

ADAMS,  JOHN(1760?-1829),al8o  known 
as  Alexandbb  Smith,  seaman,  mutineer,  and 
settler,  was  serving  under  this  latter  name  as 
an  able  seaman  on  board  H.M.S.  Bounty  at  the 
time  of  the  mutiny  and  piratic«.l  seizure  of 
that  ship  28  April  1789  [see  Bligh,  Wil- 
liam]. In  this  mutiny  he  took  a  prominent 
part,  and  stood  sentry  over  the  captain  durimi^ 
the  preparations  for  turning  him  adrift.  Ai- 
tei^waras,  when  the  ship  returned  to  Tahiti, 
where  several  of  the  ship's  company  deter- 
mined to  stay.  Smith,  with  eight  others,  was 
of  opinion  that  such  a  plan  was  too  dange- 
rous. Tliese  nine  men  accordingly  put  to  sea 
in  the  Bounty,  taking  with  them  from  the 
island  the  women  they  had  married  and  half 
a  dozen  men  as  servants ;  and  notwithstand- 
ing the  close  search  that  was  made  for  them 
[see  Hetwood,  Peter]  nothing  was  heard 
of  them  for  nearly  twenty  years.  In  1808  a 
Mr.  Folger,  commanding  an  American  mer- 


tbOB  left  the  ODf  t 


ItLpbI 


ams 

i-hant  eliip,  atcidentnllT  lund«d  at  Pilcaim's 
Ifliind,  and  found  thetv  a  mixi^  popukliou 
of  tliirtj-live  souls,  sp«iJiiD)[  EoffbDli,  imd 
govtiroHil  b^  a  cen&in  Alexauder  twiitk,  who 
made  no  secret  of  being  one  of  I  lie  mutinecre 
of  the  Bounty.  Accomiug  to  hie  slory  tbpT 
had  nude  tliis  island  after  If aring Tahiti, una, 
liaring  rniulved  to  sMtle  thi>re,  ran  the  ehip 
on  shnrt,  look  out  of  her  all  tliHt  thej-  coulif, 
und  eel  her  on  ftre ;  but  four  years  later 
the  Tahilian  men  ni«e  one  night  and  mur- 
dered all  the  Englishmen,  Smith  alone  es- 
cs[nitg,  and  be  severely  wouuded.  In  re- 
Tenw  for  this  the  women,  h1«>  in  the  dead 
-'njght,  killed  all  the  murderer*.  Smith  bf^inp 
■  '    ■'  »n  on  the  island,  with 

'□men  and  several  chil- 
e  story  was  reported  to  the  admi' 
nltj  by  tlie  senior  officers  at  ^'nlparaiso  and 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  but  no  steps  were  t^en  lo 
Terify  it:  and  it  was  either  not  known  or 
forgotten  wlien,  on  17  Sejit.  1814,  Sir  Thomas 
Stajnea  and  Captain  Pioon  in  the  frigateij 
Briton  and  Tagus,  on  tneir  way  from  tlie 
Marmiesas  to  Valparaiso,  touched  at  the  same 
island,  not  knowing  eiacllv  wliat  it  was,  the 
latitude  and  longitude  as  laid  down  on  the 
diart  being  extremely  erroneous.  To  their 
«urprise  they  found  lliat  this  unknown  island 
waa  inhabited  by  an  English-speaking  race, 
descended,  as  they  were  told,  from  the  muti- 
aeera  of  the  Bounty,  and  educated  In  the 
preoeptB  of  Christianity  bv  Smith,  who  now 
•mlled  himself  Adams.  lie  is  described  as 
being  at  this  time  (181  J)  a  man  of  venerable 
appearance,  and  about  sixty  years  old.  At 
first  he  naturally  aupposed  that  the  ships  of 
war  had  come  with  tlie  intention  of  seizing 
him  and  sending  him  to  England,  but  was 
leoMured  by  his  visitors,  who  seem  to  have 
_  .j^niMdered  the  lapse  of  time  und  the  good 
"  'tmutent  of  the  island  as  expiating  the  of- 
»  of  which  he  had  been  guilty.  '  His  ex- 
"iry  conduct  and  fatherly  care  of  tlie 
A  of  the  little  colony,'  wrote  Sir  Thomas 
, '  could  not  but  command  admiration. 
jto  pious  manner  in  which  all  those  born  on 

it  loUnd  lutve  been  reared,  the  correct  sense 

f  qf  nligion  which  ha«  been  instilled  into  their 
roung  minds  by  this  old  man,  has  given 
him   the   pre-eminence   over  the   whole   of 

In  1625  the  island  was  again  visited  bv 
lain  Ueecbey  in  H.M.S.  Blossom.  Re 
eribea  Adotns  us  an  old  man  now  in  bis 
v~fiftb  year,  which  is  possibly  understated, 
Bven  years  before  Sir  Thomas  Staines  bad 
a  of  him  08  sixtv,  and  '  venerable '  ' 


e  he  came  to  the  island ;  but  com- 


99 


Adams 


paring  it  with  whul  hi'  luid  formerly  told  Sir 
Thoauis  Staines  Ihe  conclusion  is  tliat  little 
or  no  reliance  is  to  be  placed  on  it.  A  cer- 
tain part  of  the  story  of  the  settlement  of 
Piteaim's  Island  is  thus  necessarily  lost ;  for 
Adams,  as  the  only  white  survivor,  was  the 
only  witness.  No  one  seems  to  have  thought 
that  anything  could  be  gained  by  examining 
the  old  women  who  cume  to  the  island  with 
him.  It  may  be  interesting  to  add  to  this 
account  thai  Be\  eral  of  the  Fitcaim  islanden, 
who  had  become  too  numerous  for  their  old 
home,  were  in  1866  transported  To  Norfolk 
I-land. 

Adams  dind  in  1839.  His  later  life  is  often 
referred  to  as  an  example  of  a  sincere  and 
practical  rejientonce  following  on  a  career  of 
crime.  It  appears  easy  lo  overrate  its  value 
a*  such.  Of  Adams's  antecedents  we  know 
nothing;  but  be  must  have  been,  in  many 
respecis,  an  exceptional  man,  for  the  average 
able  seaman  of  1789  was  certainly  not  quali- 
fied to  train  young  children  in  the  principles 
of  morality  or  religion,  or  to  teach  them  to 
speak  the  correct  English  which  lliese  island- 
ers liad  leumt.  We  may,  tlierefore,  almost 
ansume  that  he  had  bad  an  education  very 
unusual  in  his  rank  in  life.  And  for  the  rest 
there  were  many  circiUnBlancea  atleuding  the 
celebrated  mutmy  of  the  Bounty  which  tend 
to  distinguish  it  as  a  naval  and  a  legal  rather 
than  a  moral  crime. 

[Sir  John  Barrow's  Eventful  Hislory  of  tlie 
Uutiny  nod  Pinitioil  Seinire  of  H.M.S.  Bounly, 
ISmo,  1831 ;  MamhairB  Koyal  Naval  Biography 
(Sir  Tliomas  Staines),  snppl.  part  1  (vol.  v.),  p. 
96 ;  ShiltiliMir's  Narrative  of  the  Briton's  Voy- 
aBe(1817>.pp.  81-97;  F.W.  Beecbey's Narrative 
rfa  Voj-agetotbE  Pacific,  i.  49-100,  with  a  good 
portrait  at  p.  61.]  J.  K.  L, 

ADAMS,  .lUSEPH,  M.D.  (1756-1818), 

was  tlie  son  of  an  apothecary  in  Basinghall 
Street.  After  attending  Hunter's  lecture* 
at  St.  Bartholomew's,  he  began  biisinesa  as 
an  apotbecory;  but  in  1796  obtained  the 
M.D.  degree  from  Aberdeen  and  settled  at 
Madeira  as  a  physician.  In  1605,  after  a 
Huceessful  career,  he  was  elected  physician 
to  the  Small-iMX  Ilospilal.  He  was  for  some 
vears  editor  of  the  '  Medical  and  Physical 
Journal.'  He  was  admitted  a  licentiate  of 
the  CoUege  of  Physicians  in  1809  on  the 
special  recommendation  of  the  presideut,  Sir 
Lucas  Ft^ys,  without  passing  througli  the 
ordinary  formalilies,  and  died  from  a  broken 
leg  on  20  June  1818.  He  was  a  warm  ad- 
mirer and  defender  of  John  Hunter,  and 
Euhlished  :  1.  '  Observations  on  Morbid 
'oisons,  Pbiigediena,  and  Cancer,'  1796, 
A  second  edition  of  this,  his  chief  book, 
B.4 


Adams 


lOO 


Adams 


appeared  in  1796.  2.  '  Observations  on  the 
Cfancerous  Breast/  1801.  3.  *A  Ghiide  to 
the  Island  of  Madeira,'  1801.  4.  *  Answer 
to  Directions  against  the  Cow-pox.'  5.  *  A 
Popular  View  of  Vaccine  Inoculation/  1807. 
6.  'An  Inquiry  into  the  Laws  of  different 
Epidemic  Diseases/  1809.  7.  *A  Philo- 
sophical Dissertation  on  Hereditary  Pecu- 
liarities of  the  Human  Constitution/  1814. 
8.  'Memoirs  of  the  Life  and  Doctrines  of 
the  late  John  Hunter,  Esq./  1816.  Also  a 
few  pamphlets,  and  many  contributions  to 
the  '  Liondon  Medical  and  Physical  Journal ' 
(cf.  xii.  141,  193,  332,  552). 

[Monk's  College  of  Physicians,  iii.  76 ;  London 
Medical  and  Physical  Journal,  xxii.  87*  xl.  86.] 

ADAMS,  RICHARD  (1619-1661),  col- 
lector of  verse,  the  second  son  of  Sir  Tnomas 
Adams,  alderman  of  London,  was  bom  on 
6  Jan.  1619-20 ;  admitted  fellow-commoner 
of  Catherine  Hall,  Cambridffe,  28  April  1635 ; 
died  13  June  1661.  Among  tneHarleianMSS. 
is  a  thin  quarto  (No.  3889)  lettered  on  the 
outside  *  R.  Adams.  Poems.'  One  or  two 
short  pieces  of  inferior  merit  are  signed  *  R.  | 
Adams/  or  *  R.  A.,'  but  most  of  the  poems 
in  the  collection  are  accessible  in  print. 
Like  so  many  of  the  manuscript  collections 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  Harl.  MS.  3889 
is  no  doubt  a  medley  of  verses  by  various 
hands.  Adams  certainly  cannot  be  the  au- 
thor of  the  delightful  song,  *  Pan,  leave 
piping,  the  gods  have  done  feasting '  (some- 
times callea  'The  Green  Gown,'  or  *The 
Fetching  Home  of  the  May '),  for  the  words 
of  that  sonff  were  composed,  according  to 
the  best  authority,  not  later  than  1635  (vide 
Westminster  Drollery,  ed.  Ebsworth,  p.  54, 
Appendix).  The  capital  verses  on  *  Oliver 
Routing  the  Rump,  1653,'  beginning  *  Will 
you  heare  a  strange  thing  never  heard  of 
before  ? '  were  first  printed  in  the  *  Merry  ■■ 
Drollery,'  1661,  p.  53;  they  reappeared  in 
*Wit  and  DroUery/  1661,  n.  260;  and  in 
*  Merry  Drollery  Compleat,'  1670,  and  again 
in  *  Loyal  Songs/  1731 ;  oddlv  enough,  they 
are  not  in  the  *Rump  Collection.  This 
song  is  unsigned  in  Adams's  commonplace 
book ;  and  judging  from  the  signed  verses  it 
is  far  better  than  anything  he  could  have 
written. 

[Information  from  Mr.  Ebsworth ;  Harl.  MS. 
3889;  Cooper's  New  Biographical  Dictionary.] 

A.  H.  B. 

ADAMS,  RICHARD  (1626  ?- 1698), 
ejected  minister,  was  the  sixth  in  lineal  suc- 
cession of  a  family  of  ministers ;  his  father 
was  incumbent  of  Wirrall,  Cheshire;  his 
grandfSather  was  rector  of  Woodchurch,  Che- 


shire. He  studied  first  at  Cambridge,  where 
he  graduated  M.A.  on  26  March  1644 ;  en- 
tered at  Brasenose,  Oxford,  on  24  March 
1646,  aged  about  twenty,  and  graduated 
B.A.  in  1648  and  M.A.  in  1651.  He  became 
fellow  of  Brasenose,  but  resigned  in  1655, 
on  being  admitted  to  the  rectory  of  St.  Mil- 
dred's, Bread  Street.  From  this  he  retired 
in  1662  as  a  nonconformist,  and  became 
pastor  of  a  small  congregation  in  South- 
wark.  His  ecclesiastical  views  were  pres- 
byterian;  he  was  a  practical  preacher,  a 
devout  and  quiet  man.  He  died  on  7  Feb. 
1698,  leaving  a  widow.  He  was  the  editor 
of  the  expositions  of  Philippians  and  Colos- 
sians  in  Matthew  Poole's  *  Annotations  upon 
the  Holy  Bible,'  1683-5,  a  work  based  on 
the  same  author's  *  Synopsis  Criticorum/ 
1669-76.  He  published  a  *  Funeral  Sermon ' 
for  Henry  Hurst,  1690;  other  sermons  of 
his  are  in  the '  Morning  Exercises  at  Cripple- 
gate/  1660-90,  reprinted  1844-6. 

[Funeral  Sermon  by  Dr.  John  Howe,  1698 ; 
Coles'  MS.  Athense  Cantab.  Brit.  Mus. ;  Wood's 
Athense  Oxon. ;  Calamy's  Account ;  Walker'^ 
SuflTerings.]  A.  G. 

ADAMS,  ROBERT  (</.  1595^,  archi- 
tect, was  author  of  a  large  plan  or  Middle- 
burgh,  dated  1588,  and  a  pen-and-ink  draw- 
ing intended  to  demonstrate  the  complete 
defensibility  of  London,  called  'Thamesia 
Descriptio.'  With  the  same  object  he  *  drew 
and  engraved/  according  to  Walpole, '  repre- 
sentations of  the  several  actions  while  the 
Spanish  Armada  was  on  the  British  coasts.' 
It  seems,  however,  that  Ryther  engraved 
them.  Adams  was  *  surveyor  of  the  queen's- 
buildings '  and  a  *  man  of  abilities.'  An  in- 
scription to  his  memory  is  in  the  north  aisle 
of  Greenwich  Church. 

[Walpole's  Anecdotes  of  Painting ;  Redgrave's 
Diet,  of  English  Artists.]  E.  R. 

ADAMS,  ROBERT  (1791-1875),  sur- 
geon, was  bom  about  1791  in  Ireland,  but 
of  his  early  life  nothing  is  known.  He  en- 
tered Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  became 
B.A.  in  1814,  proceeded  M.A.  in  1832,  but 
not  M.D.  till  1842.  He  began  the  study  of 
medicine  by  apprenticeship  to  Dr.  William 
Hartigan,  became  licentiate  of  the  Royal  Col- 
lege of  Surgeons  of  Ireland  in  1815,  and  was 
elected  fellow  in  1818.  After  spending  some 
time  on  the  Continent  to  perfect  his  medical 
and  surgical  knowledge,  he  returned  to  Dublin 
to  practise,  and  was  elected  surgeon  succea- 
sively  to  the  Jervis  Street  Hospital  and  the 
Richmond  Hospital.  He  took  part  in  found- 
ing the  Richmond  (afterwards  called  the 
Carmichael)  School  of  Medicine,  and  lectured 


Adams 


lOI 


Adams 


there  on  surgery  for  some  years.  He  was 
three  times  elected  president  of  the  Koyal 
College  of  Siii^;eons  of  Ireland,  and  in  1861 
was  appointed  surgeon  to  the  queen  in  Ire- 
land and  regius  professor  of  suigeiy  in  the 
university  of  Dublin.  Adams  had  a  high 
reputation  as  a  surgeon  and  pathological  ana- 
tomist. His  flEunecniefly  rests  on  his*  Treatise 
on  Rheumatic  Gout,  or  Chronic  Rheumatic 
^Vrthritis  of  aU  the  Joints  (Svo,  London,  1867, 
with  an  Atlas  of  niustrations  in  4to;  2nd 
edition,  1873).  This  work,  though  describing 
a  disease  more  or  less  known  lor  centuries, 
contains  so  much  novel  and  important  re- 
search as  to  have  become  the  classical  work 
on  the  subject.  Dr.  Adams  also  wrote  an 
t^ivay  on '  Disease  of  the  Heart '  in  the  Dublin 
Hospital  Reports,  and  contributed  to  Todd's 
'Cyclopaedia  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology' 
some  articles  on  'Abnormal  Conditions  of 
the  Joints,'  besides  other  papers  in  medical 
journals.     He  died  on  13  Jan.  1875. 

[Medical  Times  and  Gazette,  1875,  i.  133.] 

J.  F.  P. 

ADAMS,  SARAH  FLOWER  (1805- 
1848),  poetess,  wife  of  William  Bridges 
Adams,  and  daughter  of  Benjamin  and 
.sister  of  Eliza  Flower  [see  Adams,  Wil- 
liam Bridges,  and  Floweb,  BenjaminJ, 
was  bom  at  Great  Harlow,  Essex,  2'2  Feb. 
1806.  After  the  death  of  her  father  in  1827 
fihe  lived  with  the  family  of  Mr.  W.  J.  Fox, 
and  became  a  contributor  to  the  '  Monthly 
Repository,'  then  conducted  by  him.  In 
18^  she  married  Mr.  W.  B.  Adams,  and 
died  of  decline  in  August  1848.  Her  prin-  | 
cipal  work,  *  Vivia  Perpetua,  a  Dramatic 
Poem,'  was  published  in  1841.  She  is  like-  ' 
wise  authoress  of  numerous  contributions  to 
the  *  Monthly  Repository,'  chiefly  in  the  | 
years  1834  and  1835,  and  of  a  long  poem  in 
ballad  metre,  entitled  *  The  Royal  Progress,' 
on  the  surrender  of  the  sovereignty  of  the 
Isle  of  Wight  to  Edward  I  by  Isabella, 
Countess  of  Albemarle,  which  appeared  in 
the  '  Illuminated  Magazine '  for  1845.  She 
also  composed  several  hymns,  set  to  music 
by  her  sister,  and  used  in  the  services  at 
linsbury  Chapel;  numerous  unpublished 
poems  on  social  and  political  subjects,  princi- 
pally written  for  the  Anti-Corn  Law  League, 
specimens  of  which  will  be  found  in  the 
fourth  volume  of  Fox's  *  Lectures  to  the 
Working  Classes ; '  and  a  little  religious 
catechism  entitled  '  The  Flock  at  the  !<  oun- 
tain.'  Although  Mrs.  Adams  was  endowed 
with  so  much  dramatic  talent  as  to  have 
meditated  adopting  the  stage  as  a  profession, 
the  bent  of  her  literary  genius  was  rather 
lyrical  than  dramatic.     'Vivia  Perpetua,' 


but  moderately  interesting  as  a  play,  is 
couched  throughout  in  a  mie  strain  oi  im- 
passioned emotion,  symbolising,  in  the  guise 
of  Vivia's  conversion  to  Christianity,  the 
authoress's  own  devotion  to  the  high  ideals 
which  inspired  her  life.  This  truth  of  feeling 
redeems  Mrs.  Adams's  eloquence  from  the  im- 
putation of  rhetoric,  and,  notwithstanding  the 
artlessne&s  of  the  construction  and  the  con- 
ventionality of  the  stage  accessories,  renders 
her  work  genuinely  impressive.  Vivia's  mo- 
nologne  on  forswearing  the  altar  of  Jupiter  is 
especially  eloquent.  The  authoress,  however, 
was  more  happily  inspired  in  her  hymns, 
which,  as  simple  expressions  of  devotional 
feeling  at  once  pure  and  passionate,  can 
hardly  be  surpassed.  *  Nearer  to  Thee' — 
often  erroneously  attributed  to  Mrs.  Beecher 
Stowe — is  known  wherever  the  English  lan- 
guage is  spoken;  and  the  lines  beginning 
*  He  sendeth  sun,  He  sendeth  shower,'  are 
I  even  more  exauisite  in  their  blended  spirit 
I  of  fervour  and  resignation.  All  who  knew 
I  Mrs.  Adams  personally  speak  of  her  with 
enthusiasm ;  she  is  described  as  a  woman  of 
singular  beauty  and  attractiveness,  delicate 
and  truly  feminine,  high-minded,  and  in  her 
days  of  health  playful  and  high-spirited.  She 
len  no  descenaants. 

[W.  J.  Fox,  Lectures  addressed  chiefly  to  the 
Working  Classes,  vol.  iv.  lect.  9 ;  Westminster 
Review,  vol.  1.  pp.  540-42 ;  private  information 
from  Mrs.  Bridell  Fox  and  Mr.  W.  J.  Linton.] 

E.  G. 

ADAMS,  THOMAS  (rf.  1620  ?),  printer, 
son  of  Thomas  Adams,  yeoman,  of  Neen 
Savage,  Shropshire,  was  first  apprenticed  to 
Oliver  Wilkes,  stationer,  on  29  Sept.  1682, 
for  seven  years,  and  turned  over  to  Gfeorge 
Bishop  on  14  Oct.  1583,  for  the  same  period. 
He  was  admitted  a  freeman  of  the  Station- 
ers' Company  on  15  Oct.  1590,  and  came  upon 
the  livery  1  July  1598.  He  appears  to  have 
commenced  business  by  having  the  books, 
ballads,  &c.,  printed  by  Robert  Walley,  as- 
signed to  him  12  Oct.  1591,  and  from  that 
time  to  1614  a  considerable  number  of  entries 
may  be  found  to  his  name  in  the  registers 
(Akbeb's  Transcript^  vols.  iii.  and  iv.).  They 
include  books  in  all  classes ;  some  were  issued 
jointly  with  John  Oxenbridge,  Peter  Short, 
and  John  Newbury,  &c.  He  also  printed 
music  books ;  among  others,  pieces  by  John 
Dowland,  the  lutenist,  and  Tnomas  llavens- 
croft.  On  14  March  1611,  he  is  described 
as  younger  warden,  and  as  the  purchaser  of 
the  entire  stock  of  Bishop,  his  former  mas- 
ter, including  the  remainders  of  sixty  im- 
portant works  (ib.  iii.  453-^).  He  became 
warden  in  1614,  and  died  about  1620.    In 


Adams  102  Adams 

the  latter  year  he  is  recorded  as  a  benefactor    tary  on  the  '  Second  Epistle  of  St.  Peter' 
to  the  company  in  the  sum  of  100/.,  to  be 
defrayed  for  public  charges  at  the  discretion 
of  the  court. 


i folio),  dedicated  to  Sir  Henrie  Marten,  Knt. 
'n  1653,  in  a  pathetic  little  epistle  before 
*  God's  Anger  and  Man's  Comfort' — two  ser- 
mons first  recovered  by  the  present  writer 
— he  addresses  Hhe  most  honourable  and 
charitable  benefiEUStors,  whom  Gk>d  hath  ho- 
noured for  His  almoners,  and  sanctified  to 
be  His  dispensers  of  the  fruits  of  charity  and 
mercy,  in  this  my  necesntous  and  decrepit 
old  agt^    Newcourt  and  Walker  enter  him 


[Ames's  Typo^.  Antiquities,  ed.  Herbert,  iu 
1305;  Nichols's  Lit.  AneodoteM,  iii.  593.] 

H.  R.  T. 

ADAM&  THOMAS  (fi,  1612-ie63), 
a  divine  who  was  pronounced  by  Robert 
Southey  to  be  *  the  prose  Shakespeare  of 

puritan  theologians  .  .  .  scarcely  inferior  to  j  as  *  sequestered,'  but  neither  adduces  autho- 
Fuller  in  wit  or  to  Taylor  in  fancy,'  has  left  fity  or  proof,  and  there  is  little  probability 
only  the  most  meagre  personal  memorials  |  in  the  statement.  Adams's  vehement  and 
behind  him.  His  many  title-pages  and  |  courageous  denunciation  of  popery  ofiended 
epistles  dedicatory  seem  to  be  almost  the  i  Laud,  and  there  is  to  be  sought  the  secret  of 
sole  sources  of  information  now  available.  '  his  later  neglect.  He  must  have  died  before 
From  these   we  ascertain  that  he  was  in    the  Restoration. 

1612  *  a  preacher  of  the  Gospel  at  Willing-  Thomas  Adams  stands  in  the  forefront  of 
ton '  in  Bedfordshire,  between  Bedford  and  |  our  great  English  preachers.  He  is  not  so 
St.  Neots.  Here  he  is  found  in  1614,  and  sustained  as  Jeremy  Taylor,  nor  so  continu- 
from  this  sequestered  rural  parish  issued  his  |  ously  sparkling  as  Thomas  Fuller,  but  he  is 
*  Heaven  and  Earth  Reconciled,'  *  The  Devil's  surpassinglyeloquent  and  brilliant,  and  much 
Banquet,'  and  other  of  his  quaintly  titled  i  more  thought-laden  than  either.  He  lays 
sermons.  On  21  Dec.  1614  he  became  vicar  '  under  contribution  the  spoils  of  an  omni- 
of  Wingrave,  Bucks,  which  he  is  said  to  have  vorous  learning  and  recondite  reading;  nor 
held  until  1636.  From  1618  to  1623  he  !  less  noticeable  is  the  vigour  with  which  a 
held  the  preachership  of  St.  Gregory's  under  *  character'  is  dashed  off,  in  the  style  of 
St.  Paul^  Cathedral,  and  during  the  same  0\'erburv  or  Earle,  and  a  *  portrait '  taken 
period  preached  occasionallv  at  St.  Paul's  outmatching  John  Bunyan.  It  is  impos- 
Cross  and  Whitehall.  He  was  likewise  ^obser-  |  sible  to  overstate  his  convincing  fervour 
vant  chaplain'  to  Sir  Henrie  Montague,  lord  \  and  his  resistless  impressiveness  of  appeal, 
chief  justice  of  England.  To  Montague  he  !  in  spite  of  faults  of  sudden  incongruity  and 
dedicated,  in  1618,  *The  Happiness  of  the  lapses  of  taste.  His  works  have  been  repub- 
Church;  or  a  description  of  those  Spiri- '  lished  in  Nichol's  *  Puritan  Divines' (3  vols, 
tual  Prerogatives  wherewith  Christ  hath  Hvo,  1862),  edited  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Thomas 
endowed  her  considered  in  contemplations  Smith,  and  with  a  life  by  Professor  Angus, 
upon  part  of  the  twelfth  chapter  to  the  He-  and  his  *  Commentary  on  the  Second  Epistle 
brews ;  being  the  sum  of  divers  sermons  of  St.  Peter '  by  Sherman, 
preached  in  St.  Gregorie's,lx)ndon,  by  Thomas  [Worfc*  as  ubove;  Lipscomb's  Buckingham- 
Adams,  preacher  there.'  Tliroughout  these  shire,  iii.  536  ;  Newcourt's  Repertorium,  i.  302; 
and  later  vears  his  epistles  dedicatory  audinci-  '  Walker's  Sufferings  of  the  Clergy,  part  ii.  p.  164 ; 
dental  references  show  that  ho  lived  on  friend-    Life  by  Dr.  Angus,  as  aboTe-l  A.  B.  G. 

liest  and  most  intimate  terms  (*  inward '  is 

his  word)  with  the  foremost  men  in  state  ADAMS,  Sir  THOMAS  (1686-1667), 
and  church :  William,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  Sir  '  lord  mayor  of  London,  was  bom  at  Wem,  in 
Thomas  Egerton,  Lord  Ellesmere,  and  others  Shropshire,  in  the  year  1686,  and,  after  being 
are  addressed  as  personal  friends  rather  than  i  educated  at  Cambridge,  carried  on  business 
mere  nobles  or  patrons.  In  1629  he  collected  as  a  draper  in  Loudon.  In  1639  he  was 
into  a  massive  folio  his  numerous  occasional  chosen  sheriff  of  Loudon,  and  became  master 
,sermons,  which,  in  contrast  with  Henry  of  the  Drapers'  Company  and  alderman  of 
Smith's  small  duodecimos,  had  been  printed  the  ward  ot  Portsoken.  In  this  capacity  his 
in  small  quartos.  John  Bunyan  was  then  name  appears  in  May  1640  as  making  a  re- 
only  two  years  old,  but  it  seems  certain  turn  of  such  persons  in  that  ward  as  were 
that  the  Bedfordshire  preacher's  quartos  and  capable  of  lending  money  to  the  king.  He 
great  folio  came  to  be  known  and  devoured  always  appears  as  a  consistent  royalist,  and, 
by  the  *  immortal  dreamer.'  His  *  Sermons '  though  returned  as  a  member,  never  sat 
as  thus  collected  he  dedicated  to  the  ^parish-  in  parliament.  In  1646  he  was  elected  to 
loners  of  St.  Bonnet's,  near  to  Paul's  Wharf,  the  office  of  lord  mayor.  During  the  year 
London/  and  to  Lords  Pembroke  and  Man-  '  of  his  mayoralty  his  house  was  searched  in 
cheater.    In  1638  appeared  a  vast  Commen-    hopes  of  finding  the  king,  who  it  was  sup- 


Adams 


103 


Adams 


y  there  concetiled.  For  his  loyally 
i  king  he  was  kept  for  eomt!  time  a 
»r  in  the  Tower,  and  van  i^xcliiJed 
Ik  kU  public  offic«e.  At  the  RestomtioD 
hi-  was  one  of  the  deputit^  &om  the  city  of 
Loudon  to  ihcHoguv  to  attend  on  CharleH  IT 
□n  Ids  return  from  Breda  tn  England,  and 
with  the  rest  of  the  deputies  receiTed  the 
honour  of  ItDJghlhood,  and  nfter  tlie  Ileato- 
Tftlioii  was  created  a  buronet  June  13,  16B0. 
During  hia  lifetime  he  founded  and  endowed 
the  &(«  school  of  Wem,  his  native  place,  and 
praaeuted  to  it  the  house  in  wliicD  be  was 
bom.  He  also  founded  the  Arabic  Lecture 
si  Cambridge,  to  which  he  gave  401.  a.  year  for 
ever,  and,  al  the  iiistigiLtion  of  Mr.Wheelock, 
thr>  hnt  reader  of  Arabic,  bore  the  expense 
of  a  translation  of  the  Ooepels  into  the  Per- 
sian language  for  circulntion  in  that  country, 
with  aviewto  IheconTeraionof  Mahometans. 
lie  is  described  at  havingbeen  a  devout  mem- 
ber of  the  English  church,  and  a  regular 
ronuniuueant  at  the  monrlJy  celebrations  of 
the  sacrament.  In  his  oM  a^  he  was  afflicted 
with  the  stiMiei  which  earned  him  oS  in  his 
>^d  year,  Si  Feb.  1667.  Though  four  of 
his  sons  survived  him,  the  Iiarunetcy  became 
extinct  before  the  end  of  the  last  century, 
having  been  held  by  live  of  his  descendants. 
He  was  buried  at  Sjirowston  in  Norfolk 
iBlohefibld's  Norfolk,  x,  460),  and  his 
funeral  sermon  was  preached  in  the  church 
of  St.  Catharine  Cree,  by  his  friend  and 
former  tellow-coniniisBioner  at  the  Ua^e, 
Dr.  Nathaniel  Hardy,  10  March  following. 
This  sermon,  which  contains  a  fulsome  pone- 
mic  written  in  the  womt  taste,  was  printed 
in  1668.  Moat  «f  it  was  reiiroduced  111  Wil- 
ford's  'Memorials,' p.  S7,  which  is  the  autho- 
rity for  most  of  the  facts  of  his  life.  It  is  said 
(hat  thr  stone  taken  &om  htm  after  his  death 
wdghed  more  than  36  ounces,  and  was  pre- 
firrvBd  at  Cambridge.  There  is  a  long  I^tin 
inscription  on  his  monument  at  Sprowston, 
written  in  the  style  of  the  period,  which  may 
be  w^n  in  Wilford's  '  Memorials,'  appendix, 
pp.  37, 28. 

[WUford'n  Memorials  of  Eminent  Persons ; 
?«*•«  Dcaideratn  Cnfioim;  Fuller's  Worthier; 
Kimbers  BttronMnge:  Domestic  Statu  Fspers; 
flehiaiie'ii  AD){liie  Metropolis.]  N.  P. 

ADAMS,  THOMAS  (1633  ?-l  670),  one 
nf  the  ejected  divines  of  1662,  was  bom  at 
Woodchureh.  Cheshire,  where  his  father  and 
grandfather,  the  owners  of  Ihcadvowson,  were 
both  beneficed.  Entering  Brasenose  College 
inJnlyl649,hebecBraeB.A.on8FBb.  1653, 
iind  fellow  the  aame  vear.  He  was  M.A,  on 
'2^  June  1655,  and  leeturuMJenn.  Afl^r  a 
diiitinguiahed  career  at  college  he  was  gect(>d 


from  bis  fellowship  for  nonconformity  in  1662, 
and  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  ascliap- 
luin  in  private  families.  He  died  on  11  Dec. 
1670.  His  learning,  piety ^good-humouF,  and 
diligencearecelebratedbyC^uny.  Uewrote: 
'  Prot«8tBnt  Union,  or  Principled  of  Ksll^n 
wharein  tlie  Dissenters  agree  with  the  Church 
of  England ; '  and  '  The  Main  Principles  of 
ChristiaD  Religion,'  In  107  articles,  1676 
and  1677,  profaeed  by  his  younger  brother 
liichard  (the  ejected  minister  of  St.  Mil- 
dred's, Bread  Street,  London),  and  addressed 
to  the  inhabitants  of  Wirrall. 

[Wiwd's  Athens' (Bliss),  iv.  604;  l'u»li,  ii.  170, 
187;  CftUmj"6  AL-eouDt  (1713).  p.  06;  Harl. 
MS.  2163,  40,78;  UiLHtrclIn  Not. Ci»tr. (Chechain 
Soc.)  i.  180-1  ;  OrmerrHls  Hist,  CbetJiire,  ii. 
6-U.]  J.E.  B. 

ADAMS,THOMAS(I730?-I761),bri^tt- 
dier--general,  commenced  his  military  service 
in  1 1 47  as  a  volunti'er  with  the  army  under 
the  command  of  the  Biike  of  Cumberiand  in 
the  Netherlands.  Un  'J&  June  of  the  some 
year  he  obtained  a  commission  a»  ensign  in 
the  37th  foot,  in  which  regiment  he  roec  to 
the  rank  of  captain  nine  years  lat<>r.  He 
was  subsequently  transferred  to  the  84th 
foot,  and  wae  serving  as  a  major  in  that 
regiment  in  India,  when,  in  1763,  five  years 
after  the  battle  of  Plassey,  he  was  appointed 
to  the  conunand  of  the  united  forces  of  the 
crown  and  of  the  East  India  Company  in 
Bengal.  It  was  a  very  critical  period  in 
British  Indian  histon'.  Notwithstanding 
the  victory  at  Plassey,  the  Brit  ish  power  was 
by  no  means  so  completely  eetabbshed  H6  to 
be  free  from  the  riak  of  overthrow.  CUve 
WBK  in  England.  Mir  Ka^im,  the  astute 
minister  and  son-in-law  of  that  MirJaffier 
whom  Clive  had  placed  upon  the  throne  of 
Bengal  in  place  of  8nrij-ud-dowlah,  had  in 
turn  displactHl  his  moster  and  had  been  for- 
mally invested  as  nawab  at  Patna  in  the 
previous  year.  The  vices  of  venality  and 
corruption  which  Clive,  himself  by  no  means 
ovetHicrupuJous,  Lad  described  as  the  chief 
dangen  to  British  rule  in  India,  were  ram- 
pant in  the  Calcutta  council  chamber.  By 
the  unscrupulous  action  of  the  council  and 
by  the  rapacity  of  the  subordinate  servants 
of  the  company  trade  was  disorganised,  the 
nairib  was  deprived  of  his  revenues,  and 
the  British  name  was  mpidly  becoming 
synonymous  with  oppression  iind  fraud.  Dis- 
putes on  the  subject  of  transit  duties  and  an 
unjuntifiable  attack  made  by  Mr.  Ellis,  one 
of  the  membersof  the  council,  upon  the  city 
of  Patna,  followed  by  the  death  of  Mr. 
Amyatt.  who  had  been  sent  as  an  envoy  to 
the  nawab,  and  who  was  killed  by  the  troops 


Adams 


104 


Adams 


of  the  latter  when  relating  an  attempt  to 
make  him  prisoner,  brought  on  war  between 
the  company  and  the  nawab.  The  forces  of 
the  latter  numbered  40,000  men,  including 
25,000  infantry  trained  and  disciplined  on 
the  European  system,  and  a  regiment  of 
excellent  artillerymen  well  supplied  with 
^uns.  To  oppose  this  force,  Major  Adams 
had  under  his  command  a  small  body  of 
troops,  variously  estimated  at  from  2,800  to 
3,000,  of  whom  only  860  were  Europeans. 
His  artillery  also  was  inferior  to  that  of  the 
enemy.  The  campaign  commenced  on  2  July 
1763,  and  lasted  for  four  months,  in  the 
course  of  which  Adams  fought  four  actions, 
took  two  considerable  forts  and  nearly  500 
pieces  of  cannon,  and  totally  defeated  the 
most  powerful  native  army  that  upto  that 
time  had  confronted  us  in  India.  The  two 
principal  battles  were  those  of  Gheriah  and 
Andwanala.  The  former  lasted  for  four 
hours ;  the  issue  was  at  one  time  doubtful, 
the  naw&b's  troops  breaking  through  a  por- 
tion of  the  Engbsh  line  and  capturing  two 
guns,  but  the  gallantry  of  the  Europeans 
and  steadiness  of  the  sepoys  under  Adamses 
excellent  generalship  saved  the  day,  and  the 
enemy  were  compelled  to  retreat  with  the 
loss  of  all  their  guns  and  stores.  At  the 
close  of  the  campaign  Major  Adams  was 
compelled  by  ill-health  to  resign  his  com- 
mand, and  died  at  Calcutta  in  January  1764. 
As  soon  as  the  intelligence  of  the  campaign 
reached  England,  Adams  was  advanced  to 
the  rank  of  brigadieivgeneral,  but  he  had 
already  been  dead  some  months  when  his 
commission  was  issued.  He  is  described  by 
a  recent  military  historian  as  a  man  who  '  to 
calmness  and  coolness  in  the  field  of  battle 
united  great  decision  of  character  and  clear- 
ness of  vision  not  to  be  surpassed.  He  could 
plan  a  campaign  and  lead  an  army.' 

[Sir  Mutakharin's  TransactioDS  in  India ;  Mill's 
History  of  British  India  ;  Marshman's  Historv 
of  India ;  Malleson's  Decisive  Battles  of  India.] 

ADAMS,  WILLIAM  {d.  1620),  navi- 
gator, was  bom,  as  he  himself  tells  us, '  in  a 
town  called  GiUingham,  two  English  miles 
from  Rochester,  one  mile  from  Chatham, 
where  the  king's  ships  do  lie.'  At  the  age  of 
twelve  he  began  his  seafaring  life,  being  ap- 

?renticed  to  Master  Nicholas  Di^gins  of 
iimehouse,  with  whom  he  remained  for 
twelve  years.  He  afterwards  entered  the 
navy,  acting  as  master  and  pilot,  and  for 
about  eleven  or  twelve  years  served  the  com- 
pany of  Barbary  merchants,  until  the  opening 
of  tne  Butch  trade  with  India  tempted  him 
'to  make  a  little  experience  of  the  small 


knowledge  which  God  had  ffiven  him'  in 
that  *  Inoish  traffick.'  Accordingly  in  1598 
he  joined,  as  pilot-major,  a  fleet  of  five  ships 
fitted  out  by  the  Rotterdam  merchants  and 
commanded  by  Jacob  Mahu.  The  vessels 
were  small,  ranging  in  size  from  75  tons  to 
250  tons,  but  were  overcrowded  with  men. 
The  Charity,  the  ship  in  which  Adams  sailed, 
was  of  160  tons  and  carried  110  men.  Sailing 
from  the  Texel  on  24  June,  the  expedition 
be^n  a  voyage  which  was  to  prove  one  long 
series  of  disasters.  Sickness  broke  out,  and 
on  reaching  the  Cape  Yerd  islands  on  21  Aug. 
a  rest  of  three  weeks  was  found  necessary. 
Then  the  commander  Mahu  died,  and  the 
fleet  was  driven  to  the  coast  of  Guinea,  and 
another  landing  to  refresh  the  sick  took  place 
at  Cape  Gonsafves,  south  of  the  line.  But 
here  rever  attacked  the  crews,  so  that  their 
leaders  determined  at  once  to  sail  for  Brazil, 
which  they  did,  and  coming  on  the  island  of 
Annabon  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea,  they  at- 
tacked the  town  and  obtained  sup{)lies.  Thus 
were  lost  two  months  on  the  Airican  coast, 
and  from  the  middle  of  November  to  the  be- 
diming of  April  1599,  the  ships  lay  tossing 
m  the  South  Atlantic.  At  length  they  en- 
tered the  Straits  of  Magellan,  but  only  to  be 
caught  by  the  winter  and  to  remain  there 
till  24  Sept.  before  they  entered  the  South 
Sea.  Haraly  clear  of  the  straits,  the  fleet 
was  scatterea  by  a  storm.  Two  of  the  ships 
were  driven  back  into  the  straits,  and  even- 
tually returned  to  Holland.  Of  the  others, 
one  was  captured  by  a  Spanish  cruiser,  and 
the  Charity  and  the  admiral-ship  Hope  finally 
met  again  on  the  coast  of  Chili.  But  the 
commanders  and  a  great  part  of  the  crews  of 
both  ships  were  killed  in  ambushes  by  the 
natives,  and  among  them  Thomas,  the  brother 
of  William  Adams.  Thus  reduced  to  extre- 
mity and  fearing  to  be  taken  by  the  Spaniards, 
the  survivors  took  council  and  finally  deter- 
mined to  stand  away  boldly  for  Japan,  where 
they  hoped  to  find  a  market  for  the  woollen 
cloth  which  formed  a  large  part  of  their 
cargo.  Leaving  the  coast  of  Chili  on  27  Nov., 
the  two  ships  sailed  on  prosperously  for  some 
three  or  four  montlis ;  out  then  bad  weather 
came  on  and  they  were  separated.  The  Hope 
was  never  heard  of  again ;  the  Charity  held 
on,  and  at  last,  with  most  of  her  crew  sick 
or  d3ring,  and  with  only  some  half-dozen  men 
able  to  stand  on  their  feet,  she  sighted  Japan, 
and  on  19  April  1600  anchored  off  the  coast  of 
Bungo  in  the  island  of  Kiushiu.  The  unfor- 
tunate mariners  were  received  with  kindness, 
and  notice  of  their  arrival  was  at  once  sent 
to  the  capital  city  Ozaka,  from  whence  orders 
were  soon  after  received  for  Adams  to  be 
despatched  thither. 


In  laae  the  fftinous  soldier  Tiiiko  Snmn 
^or  Hid£]ioetu),  wko  Imd  Tuisi<il  Itimgulf  to 
the  head  of  affkin,  hail  dir^,  Ivaviiig  un  in- 
fant son.  The  chief  guardian  of  ihti  yming 
prince  woa  Ij^tbeu,  an  old  fellow-eol^er  (it 
Tniku  Snina,  nod  the  influence  and  power 
which  he  g^edily  neqtiired  roused  the 
jealous)'  uf  bts  rivals.  A  dvil  war  liruke 
out,  and  at  the  rcry  moinenl  when  Adnms 
avt  foot  in  Japan,  th«  two  factions  wt^re  jjre- 
piuinff  for  action,  which  resulted  a  few 
months  laiOT  tOctober  1600)  in  s  decisive 
victory  for  Ij&yesa.  Thp  coi>queror  became 
the  actual  nder  of  the  country,  although 
he  did  not  receive  the  title  of  Shogun  tiU 
ItXUt. 

ItefitrelvfyMUjtbi'n,' the  emperor,' Adams 
was  brought  and  examined  as  to  hia  country 
and  the  cause  of  liis  coming-  He  was  ihen 
kept  ui  prison  for  nearly  six  weeks,  and, 
nltbough  kindly  freBte<],  lived  in  dread  of 
death,  expecting  to  Imi  led  out  to  undergo 
the  native  punislunent  of  crucifixion.  In- 
deed the  Portuguese  of  Nagasaki  tried  to 
■      nusde  the  Japanese  that  the  Dutch  were 

Ves  and  deserved  to  be  executed;    but 

Syasi),  with  the  fairness  which  always  dis- 
fuiabed  hie  dealings  with  foreigners,  re~ 

einiah  men  who  had  done  liim  no 
e  sat  Adsms  at  liberty  and  re- 
im  to  his  comrades,  and  ordered  a 
Oy  alloiVMice  of  rice  niid  a  small  annual 
ItiBitm  to  be  given  to  them.  Hut  the  ship 
t'niild  nut  be  cleared ;  and  Ho.Bflersome  waste 
of  money  in  the  cause,  tliecrew  divided  what 
pwnaioed '  and  everj'  one  took  hia  way  where 
he  thought  beet .' 

Then  negitn  the  intercourse  between  Iy§- 
vneu  and  Adams  which  led  rapidly  to  the 
advancement  of  the  lalt«r.  'Hie  practical 
^^■gUshman  hod  found  favour  in  the  eyes 
Hf  Ute  lagaciouK  ruler.  In  simple  langiinge 
^■"■iniB  [ells  the  story  of  hie  auccesa.  He 
t  for  the  Shogun  a  small  ship  of  SO  tons, 
F  which  means  I  came  in  more  favour 
wttfa  hiin,  an  that  I  came  often  in  his  presence, 
who  from  time  to  time  gave  me  presents  and 
nt  length  a  yearly  stipeiul  to  live  upon,  much 
about  seventy  ducats  W  the  year,  with  two 
pounds  of  nee  a  tlay,  daily.  Now  being  in 
such  grace  and  favour,  by  reason  I  learned 
liim  some  points  of  geometry  and  under-  : 
nlanding  of  the  art  of  mathematice  with  , 
■ither  ihtugv,  I  pleased  him  so  that  what  I  | 
said  he  would  not  contrary.'  He  also  built  . 
o  fccond  ship  of  110  tons,  which  was 


'  land,  with  eighty  or  ninety  husbaDdmen  that 
be  Hs  my  slaves  or  servants.'  This  estate  was 
at  H6mi  near  Vokosukn,  and  has  been 
scribed  as  having '  100  farms  or  households 
upon  it,  besides  others  under  them,  oil  which 
■ire  his  vossaU,  and  he  hath  power  of  Ufe  and 
death  over  them,  they  being  hia  slaves,  and 
he  as  absolute  authority  over  them  ea  any 
tuuo(orking)  in  Japon  hath  over  liisTaasals' 
lCi)CVi'sIHary,i.  181).  But  whatever  favours 
lyfiyasu  might  grant,  there  was  one  which 
he  steadily  denied.  After  five  yeora  Adnius 
Bsked  leave  to  return  to  England,  where  he 
had  left  a  wife  and  two  children,  but  was 
refused.  Another  application,  when  the  in- 
spiriting news  came  that  the  Dutch  were  at 

I  Achin  and  I'atani,  fared  no  better. 

At  length,  in  1609,  Dutch  ships  appeared 
in  the  port  of  Firando  ■"  ■•—  --' — — ' 


Engliahn 
^Wtbe«^ 

^■fc  whi< 


"worthy  eomish  to  conj  home  the  Spanish 

tnior  of  Ihe  PhiUppine  Islands,  who  was 

•ked  vn  the  coast  of  Japan.    Finallv,  to 

oite   his  services,  ly^yosu  bestowed  on 

n  estate  'like  unto  a  lordship  in  Eng- 


the  extreme  west 
of  the  kingdom,  and  got  leave  to  establish  a 
factory.  Two  years  after  another  vessel  ar- 
rived, BJid  two  tommissionent  were  sent  up 
to  court,  and  by  Adams's  influence  obtained 
ample  trading  privileges.  And  now  for  the 
tinit  time  the  exile  learned  that  Englishmen 
were  trading  in  the  East,  and  so  indited  his 
well-known  letter  '  to  my  unknown  friends 
and  countrymen,'  telhug  the  ston^  of  his 
misfortunes  and  calling  ^r  help.  This  letter 
WHS  written  inOctobi'r  1611,  sad  reached  the 
English  factory  in  Hnntani  early  in  1612. 
But  Adams's  story  was  already  known  in 
England  through  reports  of  the  Dutch,  and 
I  K  trading  fleet  of  three  ships  hod  sailed  in 
April  1611  to  open  trade  with  Japan.  On 
I  13  June  1613  the  Clove,  under  command  of 
!  Captain  John  Saris,  saileil  into  the  harbour 
I  »f  Firando.  Adams  was  siunmoned,  and  a 
I  last,  on  39  July,  found  himself  again  among 
his  countrymen.  Next  followed  a  journey 
by  Saris  in  company  with  Adams  to  Suruga, 
lyfiyasu's  head-quarters,  in  order  to  obtain 
trading  privileges;  and  by  the  end  of  Novem- 
ber an  EngUsh  factory  was  formally  settled 
at  Firando.  Adams,  in  one  of  his  letters, 
had  advised  the  choice  of  n  place  in  ' 
enstern  parts  of  the  kingdom,  nearer 
great  cities,  instead  of  a  port  where  the 
Dutch  were  already  in  possession  of  the  mar- 
ket. However,  the  advice  came  too  late ; 
Firando  was  chosen,  and  eight  EngliBhmen 
were  appointed  momburs  of  the  factory.  The 
chief^  or  cape-merchant  as  he  was  called, 
■was  Richard  Cocks,  whose  diary  has  sur- 
vived to  give  us  the  history  of  this  early 
English  settlement  tu  Japan.  Next  in  ranli 
cojne  Adams  himself,  wlio,  postponing  his 
long  wished-for  return  to  England,  now 
entered  the  service  of  the  companv,  When 
he  accompanied  Saris  to  court,  he  had  at.  last 
got  lyfyasu's  leave  to  return  to  hia  country. 


Adams 


io6 


Adams 


He  did  not  choose  to  do  so  and  take  passage 
in  the  Clove,  then  on  the  point  of  sailing, 
according    to    his    own    account,    because 
of  '  some  discourtesies '  received  from  Saris. 
The  latter,  indeed,  was  unduly  suspicious  of 
Adams,  and  tried  to  drive  a  hard  bargain 
with   him   on  the  terms   of    his  proposed 
service.     But  there  were  pressing  reasons 
why  he  should  remain,  at  least  for  a  time, 
in  Japan.     He  had  a  Japanese  wife  and 
two  ctiildren,  and  he  was  ul  provided  with 
money.    He  was  ambitious,  too,  to  discover 
the  north-west  or  north-east  passage  to  Eng- 
land, and  this  may  have  influenced  him.    In 
the  end  he  agreed  to  enter  the  company's 
service  for  100/.  a  year,  payable  at  tlie  end 
of  two  years.     His  actual  term  of  service 
extended  from  24  Nov.  1613  to  24  Dec.  1616, 
and  during  that  time  he  was  chiefly  employed 
in  trading  voyages  and  in  accompanying  the 
English  to  tne  court  of  the  Shogun  when  ! 
they  carried  up  the  customary  presents  or  | 
on  other  occasions.     In  1615,  in  a  voyage  | 
which  was  intended  for  Siam,  but  which  j 
failed  in  its  object,  he  put  into  the  Loochoo  ; 
Islands,  which  had  been  lately  added  to  the 
Japanese  dominion.    The  next  year  he  made  ; 
H  successful  voyage  to  Siam,  and  in  1617  and 
1618  he  twice  visited  Cochin  China. 

In  1616  Adams's  patron  Iy6yasu  died  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  Hid^tada,  who 
soon  gave  proof  of  hostility  to  foreigners; 
and  although  Cocks  states  that  Adams  was 
in  favour  with  this  Shogun  also,  his  influ- 
ence was  evidently  of  no  great  weight.  The 
privileges  of  both  English  and  Dutch  were 
curtailed,  and  the  persecution  of  Christians, 
which  for  some  time  had  practically  ceased,  ; 
now  broke  out  with  renewed  violence.  The  , 
English  venture  in  Japan  had  also  by  this 
time  proved  a  failure,  and  to  make  matters 
worse  the  Dutch  declared  war  and  took 
En^ish  shipping  and  attacked  our  factory 
at  Firando.  Peace  was  scarcely  restored 
when,  on  16  May  1620,  Adams  died.  A 
little  more  than  three  vears  after,  in  Decern- 
ber  1623,  the  English  factory  was  dissolved 
and  our  countrymen  withdrew  from  Japan. 
There  is  no  record  of  Adams's  age  at  the 
time  of  his  death,  but  it  was  probably  more 
than  sixty  years,  as  he  could  hardly  have 
been  under  forty  when  lie  landed  in  Japan. 
He  left  about  500/.,  which  he  bequeathed  in 
equal  portions  to  his  wife  and  daughter  who 
survived  him  in  England,  and  to  his  son  and 
daughter  in  Japan.  His  will  was  preserved 
at  one  time  in  the  archives  of  the  East  India 
Company ;  but  it  has  now  disappeared.  He 
lies  buried  on  the  summit  of  the  hill  above 
the  village  of  H^mi-mura  (the  site  of  his 
estate)  and  overlooking  the  harbour  of  Yoko- 


suka.  In  1872  Mr.  James  Walter  discovered 
his  tomb  with  that  of  his  Japanese  wife,  who 
survived  him  thirteen  years.  Adams's  me- 
mory lived  in  Japan.  A  street  in  Tedo, 
Anjin  Cho  fPilot  Street),  was  named  after 
him,  Anjin  oama  having  been  his  Japanese 
title ;  and  an  annual  celebration  is  still  held 
in  honour  of  the  Englishman  who  was  once 
*  in  such  favour  with  two  emperors  of  Japan 
as  never  was  any  christian  in  these  parts  of 
the  world.' 

[Adams's  Letters  printed  in  Purchas  his  Pil- 
grimes,  part  i. ;  Randall's  Memorials  of  the 
Bmpire  of  Japon  (Hakluyt  Society),  1860  ;  Hil- 
dreth  8  Japan,  1856  ;  Gnifis,  The  Mikado's  Em- 
pire, 1876,  p.  262;  Diary  of  Richard  Cocks 
(Hakluyt  Society),  1883  ;  The  Far  East  News- 
paper (Yokohama),  vol.  iii.  No.  1.]    E.  M.  T. 

ADAMS,  WILLIAM  (1706-1789),divine, 
was  bom  at  Shrewsbury  17  Auff.  1706,  and  at 
the  age  of  thirteen  was  entered  at  Pembroke 
College,  Oxford.    He  took  his  M.A.  degree  in 
1727,  Decame  fellow  of  his  college,  and,in  1734, 
tutor  in  place  of  Mr.  Jorden.  Samuel  John- 
son, bom  in  1709,  had  been  one  of  Jorden's 
pupils;  and  during  his  short  university  ca- 
reer, 1728-9,  formed  a  friendship  with  Adams 
which  lasted  till  Johnson's  death.     In  1730 
Adams  was  presented  to  the  curacy  of  St. 
Chad's  in  Shrewsbury,  and  ceased  to  reside. 
In  1766  he  became  rector  of  Counde  in  Shrop- 
shire ;  and,  in  1766,  took  his  B.D.  and  D.I). 
degrees  in  Oxford.     He  was  elected  to  the 
mastership  of  Pembroke,  to  which  was  at« 
tached  a  prebend  of  Gloucester,  in  1776,  and 
resigned  St.  Chad's.  He  was  afterwards  made 
archdeacon  of  Llandaff.     He  retained  these 
offices  and  the  rectory  of  Counde  till  his  death 
in  the  prebendal  house  at  Gloucester,  13  Jan. 
1789.     He  married  Miss  Sarah  Hunt,  and 
left  a  daughter,  married,  in  1788,  to  B.  Hyatt 
of  Painswick  in  Gloucestershire.     Adams's 
friendship  with  Johnson  is  commemorated 
by  Boswell,  to  whom  he  gave  some  informa- 
tion about   their  common  friend.     Adams 
attended  the  first  representation  of  *  Irene '  in 
1749.   He  tried  to  reconcile  Johnson  to  Ches- 
terfield's incivility  in  1764,  though  at  the 
same  time  taking  a  message  from  Warburton 
to  Johnson  approving  oi  his  *  manly  beha- 
viour.'   In  June  1784  Johnson,  accompanied 
by  Boswell,  paid  a  visit  to  Adams  at  Oxford. 
Johnson  stayed  at  Pembroke  lodge  for  a  fort- 
night, and  was  greatly  pleased  by  the  atten- 
tions of  Adams  and  his  daughter.     Adams 
published  some  occasional  sermons,  one  of 
wliich  *  On  True  and  False  Doctrine,'  preached 
at  St.  Chad's,  4  Sept.    1769,  and  directed 
against  the  methodist  doctrines  of  W.  Ro- 
mayiie,  led  to  some  controversy,  in  which 


neilfaer  of  the  priDcipats  took  {lurt.  Hiathii'f 
work  is  an  '  Eeiay  on  Mr.  Hume's  Essay  on 
Mimclm,  hy  WilLum  Adams,  &[.  A.,  chaplain 
lo  thu  BUiinp  of  Llaudaff,'  175*2.  It  is  said  ' 
It)  have  been  the  first  answer  to  Hume,  whose  ' 
cagny  wua  first  publislued  in  1748  ^Bcston'b  ' 
Li/r  of  Hume,  i.  286),  and  was  a  temperate 
statement  of  the  argument  that  the  ctivine  I 
powrr  supplies  an  lulei^uatf  cAiue  for  the  I 
production  of  the  alleged  effects,  which 
are  therefore   credible   upon   sufficient  e^■i-  ' 

[l.if«  in  Chnlmfita'i  Dictionarj  'from  prirate 
mfomiatioQ ; '  Gent.  Has.  voLlix. ;  RavlinEwii  ' 
■""■'•'•■-  Illustrationc,  v.  277  : 
L.  S.      , 

ADAMS,  WILLLiM  {/.  1790),  potter,  , 
was  a  favourite  pupil  of  Joaiah  Wedgwood. 
■  While  with  him  he  executed  some  of  his  ' 
finest  pi«!e»  in  the  Jasper  ware.  He  sub-  ■ 
aoqueDtlj  went  into  business  on  his  own  ' 
jucount,  and  produced  much  of  this  beautiful 
ware,  niodeired  with  great  care.'  Leaving  , 
Wedgwood  hesettled  at  Tunatal  I,  and  started  i 
s  business  under  the  style  of  '  William  ' 
Adams  &.  Co.'  An  exquisite  vase,  said  to 
be  Wedgwund's  last  work,  was  made  by  hjm 
ifliGaiguiiction  with  William  Adams.  Adams  i 
-*■  iibetweenl«)4andl807(CHAPFBR8,672).  , 

the  excellence  of  his  work  he  mi^ht  claim 
Sldgli  place  amongst  English  eera; 
vui£,  nowever,  no  fresh  departt 
art,  and  produced  little  that  wu 


1^' 


16;  Shaw'ii  ITiHCor;  uf  StafTon^ihirH  Pul- 
_*;  ChaSbn's  Eeramic  Gallerv,  figs.  334, 
;  ChaSors'i  Harks  and  MonognuDs  on  Pot- 

-    'Putcslain,  p.  871,]  E.  R. 


ADAMS,  Sib  WILLIAM.  [9eeIUwfloi)f.] 

ADAMS,  WILLL\M  (1814-1848),  au- 
thor of  tile  'Sacred  Allegories,' was  a  mem- 
ber of  an  old  Warwickshire  family,  being 
thn  aeooud  son  of  Mr-  Serieant  Adams,  by 
his  marriage  with  Miss  EtiiB  Nation,  daughter 
of  a  well-lmown  Exeter  banker.  He  was 
Kducflted  at  Eton  and  Oxford,  and  between 
llie  time  of  his  leaving  school  and  entering 
the  university  was  tlie  pupil  of  Dr.  Brnsse, 
author  uf  ■  Brasse's  Greek  Oradus,'  by  whom 
eat  abilities  were  first  appreciated, 
tained  a  post  mastership  at  Merton,and 
6  took  a  double  first-class,  his  elder 
r  having  gained  a  similar  distinction 
en  montlii'  previously.  In  tS37  he 
e  fellow  and  tutor  of  his  college,  and 
)  vicar  of  St.  PBter'i-in-the-Easl,  a 
1  living  gunumlly  held  by  a  resident 


fellow.  AVitli  his  immediate  prtMlecesBor  at 
St.  Peter's.  Bishop  Hamilton,  and  Ins  imme- 
diate successor,  Bisliop  Hobhouae.Mr.  Adams 
was  very  intimate.  He  always  took  a  deep 
interest  in  the  welfare  of  the  parish,  and  has 
left  UB  an  interesting  memorial  of  his  incum- 
bency in  his  well-known  '  Warnings  of  the 
Uolr  Week.'  a  set  of  lectttres  preached  at 
8t.  i'eter's  in  Holy  Week,  1W2.  In  the 
spring  of  this  year  he  went  to  Eton  as  one 
of  the  examiners  for  the  Newcastle  scholar- 
ship, and,  while  bathing  there,  was  all  but 
drowned,  and  caught  a  violent  cold  which, 
flying  to  his  lungs,  ultimately  proved  fatal. 
It  WHS  hoped  that  a  few  months  of  residence 
in  a.  warm  climate  would  restore  his  health, 
and  he  accordingly  passed  the  winter  of  1842 
in  Madeira.  But  the  disaase  had  gained  too 
firm  a  bold  to  be  checked,  and  he  resigned 
bin  living,  settling  at  Bonchurch,  Isle  of 
"Wight.  Here  he  passed  the  last  few  years 
of  his  life,  busily  engaged  with  his  pen,  and 
taking  part  in  every  effort  to  improve  the 
spiritual  condition  of  the  neighbourhood. 
One  of  his  last  public  acts  was  to  lay  the 
foundation-«tone  of  the  new  church  at  Bon- 
church :  and  a  few  montlis  later  his  remains 
were  laid  in  the  churchyard  of  the  old 
church,  where,  by  a  happy  design,  \m  grave 
hns  the  '  shadow  of  the  cross  ^ever  resting 

All  Adams's  allegories  were  published 
when  he  was  virtually  a  dying  man.  'The 
Shadow  of  the  Cross,'  wntttn  at  Arborne 
Cottage,  near  Chertsey.  in  the  summer  of 
1842,  was  followed  by  the  'Distant  Uills' 
in  1814.  The  design  of  both  was  to  show 
the  privileges  of  the  baptised  Christian  and 
the  danger  of  forfeiting  those  privileges. 
His  next  work,  the  '  Fall  of  OriEsue,'  was 
less  siicceBsful ;  not  from  any  falling  off  in 
point  of  composition,  for  everything  that 
A-domH  wrote  was  written  in  the  same  pure 
and  graceful  style,  but  because  the  choice  of 
subject  was  less  happy.  It  is  simply  an 
English  version  of  the  story  of  Herodotus, 
with  a  christian  colouring.  But  his  next 
production,  the  '  Old  Man's  Home,'  was  the 
most  successful  of  all  bis  works.  Perhapa 
the  fact  that  the  scene  of  it  was  liud  in  the 
beautiful  Undurcliff,  which  he  knew  and 
loved  so  well  and  described  so  vividly,  may 
have  been  one  cause  of  its  success.  But  the 
story  itself  is  a  singularly  impressive  one, 
and  additional  interest  will  be  attaclied  to 
the  '  old  man,'  who  is  represented  a«  hover- 
ing on  the  borderland  between  sanity  and 
insanity,  but  full  of  true  aspirations  which 
to  bis  keepers  were  unintelligible,  when  it 
is  known  that  the  author's  father  had  done 
much  lo  promote  a  more  considerate  treat- 


Adams  io3  Adams 


j/;«rfit  '/f  x}^  iii.»jta*:,  Tl>  •?  vrr  Tk«  «  Tp^i'liI  27!:«  of  LLJl^  and  in  Xovember  of  the  same 
U  vo  ■  J r:  rA:  wj t L  •  ?>:  j^^:  W  -.. ri« t  :^  L.  Tir  y -e^r  ir-  irfc»  admined  into  the  College  of  Ad- 
•  K -  fi/^i!  M«r-»»»*rry *^r»  -»  *-  -mri  v.-r a  'i  -^ n;  :  Lr  "s  .•arr-*.  '>U *inin^  a  high  reputation  for  busi- 
\fry  IhMt  iri'^firL*  'A  A'iAX£.-\  2:f»>.  I*.?  •>'>-  nrr^!^  c&{i*c::  rand  mastery  of  legal  details,  he 
j<^rt  in  to  illiiAtr*:^  ^:-r  Un^rr  of  a  wr-.fiz.  ryrnirrAl  valuable  senice  on  seTeral  im- 
iifj'l  t  h*:  M«-*-*^ift'?*-*  '/f  a  rlirt*' .  u-^it  of  ZE.r-r.TY  :  j^.  r-in:  <>>mmi5«ion$.  He  served  on  the  com- 
ftfid  in  ih«;  MiTvArion  of  *L>:  ':harurt^7»  ::.r  aii-^<on  appoint^  in  ISll  to  regulate  the 
"AriU'T »^hoH>  a  drainatic  pjw^r  wLlch  !:<«  had  yr^i^icv  of  the  Tioe-admindty  courts  abroid| 
not  \9iffhr*:  'li-pUv<:d.  Hi^r*:  i^  a  v*:rT  -ImiLir  and  •'•n  that  which  was  occupied  from  1815  till 
'lory  written  in  Ijntin  >a'  fiarlaan  in  the  four-  1  S:!4  in  inquiring  into  the  duties,  offices,  and 
K-^rnth  (reritury.  fVr^irfe^  the  work^  which  salaries  of  the  courts  of  justice  and  the  ecde- 
U;ar  William  A'larn-'i-  nam*r.  ther»-  ar-r  two  siastical  courts  of  England.  His  chief  claim 
'ith^r>%  which  ar»f  to  U*  nr^ri^M^fl  v*  him.  the  to  distinction  is.  however,  the  part  he  took 
•Ch*?jTySfon#-»',  or  Charlton  Sch*^!*^*!/ a  capital  in  thtr  negotiations  for  a  treaty  with  the 
*tory,  'l*rMrrv<j'lly  i^jpiilar  with  b^»v-.  for  the  Unii»fd  States  in  1^14  after  the  capture  of 
romph:tion  and  e'iitinff  of  which  th»;  public  Washington;  hewasoneofthethreeoomiiii»- 
iK  indebt';'!  to  hit  broth«;r,  fhe  It«;v.  II.  C.  sioners  sent  to  represent  England,  and  wu 
AdamH,  a  wf;Il-kriown  author;  and 'Silvio/  entrusted  with  the  sole  preparation  of  the 
an  nIh;gorv  writt'rn  b«ffor»{  any  of  the  otherif,  despatches  relating  to  maritime  law,  the 
and  r*:v\ntif\  and  piibli«h*;il  with  u  mr^le-^t  most  delicate  and  important  part  of  the  ne- 
]frf'far'^;  by  anotlwrr  brrnher  in  ]f<^'2.  gotiation.     In  1815  lie  was  also  named  one 

Thti  iKipulnrity  of  AdamM^  allegories,  of  the  three  plenipotentiaries  sent  to  conclude 
whirh,  (fHHulnH  pahHing  thmugh  many  edi-  a  convention  of  commerce  between  Great 
tioHM  in  KngliHh,  have  Ij^-rm  translated  into  Britain  and  the  United  States,  which  was 
iiion;  than  on<;  mrxleni  liiii^'uage,  has  been  signed  on  3  July.  Excessive  labour  con- 
oiit  of  all  proportion  to  their  apparent  slight- '  nected  with  the  preparation  of  the  case 
iii^HM,  The  cir(riiniHtaiin<*H  of  thffir  composi-  against  Queen  Caroline  had  serious  effects 
tiori,  no  doubt,  giv(;  a  tinge  of  romantic  in-  on  his  health,  and  in  1825  he  was  compelled 
U*n'.Hi  til  tlipui — un  iiitfrcHt  which  exttmds  on  this  account  to  resign  his  profession.  He 
to  till)  briitf  cariHT  of  tli(>ir  ]>ious  and  gifted  spent  the  last  years  of  his  liie  in  retirement 
iiiitlior.  liut  fij)iirt  from  tiiiH,  thort^  is  a  ,  at  Thorpe  in  Surrey,  where  he  died  11  June 
piTiiliar  fiiHrinution  iilniut   thiuii  which  car-    1851. 

ri.'K  tli«i  HMMJiir  along,  and  which  thoroughly  (  [ae„t.Mag.(now8eries\xxxvi.  197-9;  Annual 
n-lliTtM  l.lu«  |MTMOiml  Hmracter  at  the  man.  ,  Regintor,  xciii.  297.]  T.  F.  H. 

Me    IiimI    a    Hiiigiilar   gift   of  attracting  all 

KiridH  of  !HM,|,I..  to  him,  from  the  highly'  ADAMS,  WILLIAM  BRIDGES  (1797- 
niltivatrd  Oxoiiinii  down  to  the  Honchurch  '  I872),wa8an  ingenious  and  prolific  inventor 
IMMHniil,  wlm  uhimI  to  npi-ak  of  him  after  his  !  in  the  early  days  of  railroads.  The  invention 
tlrat  li  aM  *  t  lie  goiwl  gi'nt  h'lnan.'  ;  hy  which  he  is  best  known  is  the  fish-joint  for 

, .,  „     ,         ,       .        ,    ...  I  the  railsof  railways.  Before  the  date  of  thisin- 

IMn.MOM.  P';'";f/;;J  ';»/'••  iX'"" L*)oTT.*    vention(1847)engineer8hadfailedinall their 
um.h„,vh.  ^;—  ^^'«»»^;;>.  •'•  W..  1H»0;  N.al«H  ,  efforts  to  contrive  a  joint  which  should  firmly 
Ivirtlilv  itoHtiiiir  rliu'dH  of  ilu*  Just :  intorniatioii  1       -^    ^i  1       /•  "ii.         -^       1 -i       n      •  ' 

ln..n  Tho   K.V    11.  (\   A.h.inH,  tho  Kov.   (N>kiT  '  ^^'^^  H«   ^'^u  ""^  ^^^^  rails  while  allowing 
\.|.,i.,N.  aiul  ( '.  VVairon  A.I.i.iim.  Ivs.,..  all  l>n>ih..rH  '  ^ff  ^^^^^  \?  be  carried  over  them     Bridges 
uf  William   A.laniH.  an«l  fn.ni  iho  Kov.  K.  W.  -^^""»»«PPl»e<^  the  well-known 'fish' or  over- 
IW'Xuxo  K  n.ill.VM.  his  vrry  iiit  inuiti-  tViiMul  J  liipi^ng  plate  to  the  ends  of  the  rails,  and  set 

,1.  If.  0.      .  the  joint  in  the  space  between  two  of  the  sup- 
])orting  *  chairs,'  instead  of  immediately  over 

ADAMS,  WILLIAM,  LL.l).  ^1772-  a  •  chair/ so  that  the  destructive  effect  of  the 
IhM),  a  Irai'iu'd  lawyer,  was  tho  yonngi'st  pr»'ssiin»  between  the  wheels  and  the  chair 
fioii  \\\'  Pati«MUM«  'riuMiias  Adams,  HlaziT  of  was  avoided.  This  joint  is  still  universally 
liioiMMirt  of  Kitig*M  lUmrh,  and  was  Ihtrn  at  ustnl  on  railways.  Adams  also  originated 
:H^  llntion  (ianltMi,  !i<Mulon,  Lt  Jan.  177l\  manv  valuable  improvements  in  rolling  stock, 
\\\  III'*  latii«MVN  Nulo  ht«  was  ronutvtod  with  and  ilid  much  to  reduce  the  inordinate  weight 
nil  old  Ivt^ox  (aiuilx,  ami  his  niothorwasa  of  the  earlier  locomotives.  For  a  time  he 
d««M'i«iulau(  yA'  WiUiani  of  \V\krhani.  Ho  man u fact iinnl  railway  plant  at  works  at 
Will  oduratod  at  Tunbriduv  st'tund,  and  in  Bow,  but  he  was  unsuccessful  alike  in  his 
1 1  ss  ruiiMcd  IVinitx  II  a  11,  i^a  in  bridge*,  of  oomnirriMal  enterprises  and  in  his  inventions, 
xxliu'h  ho  Uvaiuo  a  tt'llow,  .\t  the  agi'  of  His  works  failed,  and  he  realised  but  small 
(\>ou(\  tUo  ho  Iv^an  \k^  at  loud  tho  tvurls  at  urv^tit  fnmi  any  of  his  many  patents;  even  that 
hort*»V'/  rouuuous.     In  IT^H*  hoi\H*k  tho  dt>-    for  th»'  ti>h-jomt  brtnight  him  in  very  little, 


Adam  son 


109 


Adam  son 


kod  soon  paused  mii  of  hh  hands.  He  look 
onl  no  1«S£  than  lhiny-tw)])]ileTils.  Hcnidi'it  , 
patents  connects)  irilh  railways  he  pntent^d  , 
unprovements  in  earrUpM forcommonroads.  ' 
in  ship  pmpuUinn,  ffiins.  wood-carving  nnd  ' 
other  muilunpH.  He  wne  the  author  of 
MTernl  boolte — ■  EofflTsh  PUaBuro  Carringec,' 
1837; 'Railways and  Permanent  W»v,'l«51; 
'  RowIb  and  Ra'il*.'  1 862— nnd  of  mpnloirs  and 
articles  ianumerahli'.  He  rpnd  several  papers 
to  the  Society  of  Art«  and  the  Institution 
of  Civil  Engineers,  and  contributed  largely 
M  the  journal  of  the  first-nnmed  aociety,  as 
■well  as  to  many  of  the  scientific  and  lech- 
nicAl  prriodieala.  Besides  his  writings  on 
technical  subjects,  be  was  the  author  of 
aererftl  political  pamphlets,  published  under 
the  pseudonym  of  Junius  Redivivud.  Most 
of  tbe-sr  were  issued  about  the  time  of  the 
Vm  Reform  BilL  He  died  at  Broadstairs, 
uid  was  buried  at  St.  Peter's.  In  18^  be 
■suned  Samh  Flower  [see  Adams,  Sasab 
Plowbk]. 

[A  very  foil  biogmphieul  notioe  in  Engineer- 
ing Dempaper.  26  July  1873  (liv.  G3),  nnd  n 
ihinter  (ketch  in  tho  Jonma!  of  Iho  .Society  of 
Art*.  2  August  18T3(m.  763):  Men  of  tho  Time 
(dghtb  edition).]  H-  T.  W. 

ADAMSON,  HEXnV  (d.  163fl),  poelieal 
«Titer,anativeofPartb,  was  the  son  of  James 
AdiLm»on,who  had  been  dean  of  guild  in  16(X), 
aud  provost  in  1610  and  1611,  He  was  the 
author  of  '  The  Miisea  Threnodie  or  Mirtb- 
fidl  Hoiiming  on  the  Death  of  Master  Gall. 
Cimtuaiiig  varietie  of  pleasant  poeticall  de- 
ecriptionSf  morall  instructions,  bistj^rical  nar- 
rations and  dirine  observations,  with  the 
mo«t  reniarkahle  antiquities  of  Scotland, 
especially  at  Perth'  (Edinburgh,  1638,  41o). 
The  multifarious  contents  of  the  book  bear 
out  the  promise  of  the  elaborate  title.  Pre- 
ceding l^e  elegy  is  a  whimsical  description, 
in  rhjmed  octosyllabic  verses,  of  the  curio- 
sittea  (which  the  owner  used  to  fancifullv 
call  hi*  '  gabions ')  in  Mr.  Geo,  Kuthven's 
cloEet.  Tbe  elegy  itself  gives  n  long  account 
of  the  antiquities  of  Perth  and  the  neigh- 
bourhood ;  Ruthven  Dtid  Oall  are  introduced 
ae  speakers,  and  the  '  gabions '  are  made  to 
bear  a  pari.  It  was  chiefly  owing  to  the 
encouragement  and  advice  of  William  Drum- 
mond,  of  Hawtbomden,  that  this  curious 
poem  wa»  published.  In  tbe  year  after  its 
miMication  the  author  died  prematurely. 
He  had  been  trained  for  the  pulpit.  A  very 
etaboraio  edition  of  the  '  Miisea  Tlirenodie ' 
waa  issued  (in  two  volumes)  in  1774  by  a 
Scotch  sntiquaT7,  James  Cant. 

[Cant's  pnfaM  to  thBUaaes  Threnodie,  1774.] 


ADAMSON,  JOHN  id.  1658),  was  prin- 
cipal of  tbi'  university  of  Edinburgh  and  a 
bosom  friend  of  Andrew  Melville  ;  ha  is  de- 
serving of  remembrance  as  the  editor  of 'Ta 
rSir  Muufruv  EirrdSui.  The  Miises  \S'elcome 
to  the  High  and  Mighty  Prinar  lotnea  by  the 
grace  of  God  Kingof  Great  Brit aine,  France, 
'  and  Ireland,  Defender  of  tbe  Faith,  &c.  At 
his  Majeslie's  happie  Returne  to  his  oldeaud 
native  Kiugdome  of  Scotland,  after  14  yeeree 
absence,  in  Anno  161".  Digested  according 
^  to  the  order  of  his  Majesties  Progresse.  By 
I.  A.  [John  Adam  son].' 

John  Adamson  was  son  of  Henry  Adatn- 
i  son,  jirovost  of  Perth,  and  grandson  of  Dr. 
Patrick  Adamson,  archbishop  of  St.  An- 
I  drew*!*  [see  Abamson,  Patbick].  Educated 
in  'grammar'  learning  in  his  native  city, 
Masler  Adamson  proceeded  early  to  ibe 
university  of  St.  Andrew's,  where  auhse- 
I  queatly  be  held  the  profeiwoi^hip  of  philo- 
I  Bophy.  In  1569  he  was  appointed  to  one  of 
.  tbe  professorial  churs  in  the  university  of 
I  Edinburgh,  which  office  he  held  with  great 
1  reputation  until  1604.  In  1604,  having  been 
I  presented  to  the  church  of  North  Berwick, 
he  resigned  bis  professorship.  Later  he  was 
]  Iranslaied  to  the  parish  of^  Libberton,  near 
Edinbiircrh,  In  1625,  ou  the  death  of  Dr. 
!  Robert  Boyd  of  Trochrig,  he  was  appointed 
,  principal  of  the  university  of  Kdinburgh,  and 
Med  the  post  till  1653,  the  year  of  his  death; 
I  whenhewassueceededbythe'hoIyLeighton.' 
It  is  believed  that  hecoUectedlbe  Latin  ^oems 
.  of  Andrew  Melville,  entitled '  Viri  clanssimi 
A.  Meh-ini  Mvsie'  (1620).  His  'Dioptra 
Glorim  Divinie'  (1637)  is  a  masteriy  com- 
:  meutary  on  Psalm  XIX,  and  his  '  Methodus 
I  Religionis  Christiante'  (1637)  bos  much  of 
I  the  terseness  and  suggestivene«<Eof  Musculus. 
,  His  •  Traveller's  Jtiy,  to  which  is  added  The 
Ark'  (1623),  has  been  undeservedly  over- 
I  looked  by  the  historians  of  Scottish  poetry. 
'  The  '  Muses  Welcome '  preserved  meecbes 
and  *  theses '  and  poems  by  himself  and  nearly 
all  his  famous  contemporaries — e.g.  David 
j  and  Alexander  Hume,  Drummond  of  Haw- 
tbomden, David  Wedderbum,  Dr.  Robert 
Boyd,  David  Primrose.  The  gem  of  the  col- 
'  lection  is  Dnimmond's  '  Panegyricke  to  the 
'  King,'  which  contains  his  enumeration  of  the 
rivers  of  Scotland, done  withapioturesqueness 
I  and  felicity  of  characterisation  not  inferior 
I  to  Michael  Drayton.  Nichols's  '  Progresses 
'  of  James  I '  preserves  the  '  speeches." 

I  [The  Musm'  Welcome,  nt  snpra;  MelvillBS 
I  Muse  (ib.);  Dr.  M'Crie'a  Andrew  Melvillo,  ii. 
I  4fi6.  611;  Corser's  Colleclaaen  Anglo-Poetios, 
I  i.  12-U;  Work.'  ennmorated ;  MS.S.  at  North 
,  Berwick,  Libbarton,  Edinburgh.]        A.  B.  G. 


Adamson 


no 


Adamson 


ADAMSON,  JOHN  (1787-1855),  anti- 
quary and  Portuguese  scholar,  was  the  last 
surviving  son  of  Lieutenant  Outhbert  Adam- 
son, R.N.,  by  liis second  wife  Mary  Huthwaite. 
He  was  bom  on  13  Sept.  1787  at  his  father*s 
house  in  Gateshead,  and,  having  been  edu- 
cated at  the  Newcastle  Grammar  School, 
entered,  in  1803,  the  counting-house  of  his 
elder  brother  Blythman,  a  merchant  in 
Lisbon.  The  anticipation  of  the  French  in- 
vasion of  1807  caused  him  to  leave  the 
country,  but  he  was  already  full  of  that 
devotion  to  Portgual  which  was  to  fashion 
his  literary  career.  While  at  Lisbon  he 
studied  the  language  and  collected  a  few 
books,  among  them  being  the  tragedy  of 
Dona  Ignez  de  Castro,  translated  and  printed 
by  him  in  1808  as  his  first  attempt  in  author- 
ship. On  his  return  to  England  he  became 
articled  to  Thomas  Davidson,  a  Newcastle 
solicitor  and  clerk  of  the  peace  for  Northum- 
berland, to  whom  the '  Memoirs  of  Camoens ' 
were  afterwards  dedicated  by  him  *  as  a 
token  of  respect  and  esteem.*  In  1810  he 
printed  a  small  collection  of  sonnets,  chiefly 
translations  from  the  minor  works  of  Camoens. 
The  year  following  he  was  appointed  under- 
sheriff  of  Newcastle,  and  retained  the  oflice 
until  the  passing  of  the  Municipal  Corpora- 
tion Act  m  1835.  He  became  a  member  of 
the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of 
Newcastle  about  this  time,  and  was  from 
1825  to  his  death  one  of  its  secretaries.  On 
3  Dec.  1812  he  married  his  cousin,  Elizabeth 
Huthwaite,  who  subsequently  bore  him  four 
sons  and  three  daughters.  He  was  one  of 
the  founders  of  the  Antiquarian  Society  of 
Newcastle  in  1813,  and  was  then  appointed 
secretary  with  the  Rev.  J.  Hodgson.  That 
he  held  the  oflice  with  useful  effect  is  shown 
by  the  issue  of  a  printed  catalogue  of  the 
library  three  years  after,  followed  by  sup- 
plements. 

Newcastle  during  the  early  part  of  this 
century  numbered  many  notable  antiquaries 
and  book  collectors  among  its  townsmen. 
Specially  eminent  were  John  Fenwick,  J. 
Trotter  ferockett,  and  the  Rev.  J.  Hodgson, 
who  with  Adamson  were  the  chief  founders 
of  the  Typographical  Society  of  Newcastle, 
which  was  to  consist  of  only  thirty  members. 
The  books  brought  out  under  the  auspices 
of  this  body  are  well  and  uniformly  pnnted 
in  crown  octavo,  and  are  illustratea  with 
vignettes  of  the  arms  and  devices  of  the 
respective  editors,  cut  in  wood  by  Bewick 
ana  his  pupils.  The  edition  was  usually  a 
limited  one,  and  in  most  instances  for  private 
circulation  only.  The  first  in  the  series  was 
*  Cheviot,'  edited  in  1817  by  Adamson,  under 
whose  care  ten  other  trifles  in  verse  were 


issued  between  1817  and  1831.  His  more 
considerable  productions,  with  the  exception 
of  the  *  Memoirs  of  Camoens,'  published  by 
Longman,  also  rank  among  the  publications 
of  the  society.  All  of  these  possess  his  device 
by  Bewick  on  the  title-page,  a  ruined  Gothic 
arch  embowered  in  trees,  in  1820  appeared 
the  work  by  which  his  name  is  best  remem- 
bered, and  which  still  retains  its  value  as 
a  storehouse  of  well-arranged  facts — *  The 
Memoirs  of  Camoens.'  It  was  well  re- 
ceived, Robert  Southey  (Quar.  Review,  1822, 
April)  speaking  warmly  in  its  favour.  The 
two  volumes  comprehend  a  life  of  the  poet, 
notices  concemingthe  rimaaor  smaller  poems, 
a  translation  of  an  essay  by  Dom  Joze  Maria 
de  Souza,  an  account  of  the  translations  and 
translators  of  the  '  Lusiad,'  a  view  of  the 
editions  of  Camoens,  and  notices  of  his 
commentators  and  apologists.  Portuguese 
literature  was  not,  however,  Adamson's  sole 

Sursuit.  He  was  attentive  to  his  professional 
uties,  and  interested  himself  in  local  affairs. 
He  was  also  a  skilled  numismatist,  and  de- 
voted much  attention  to  conchology.  His 
* Conchological  Tables'  (1823)  is  a  useful 
guide  for  amateurs:  his  private  cabinet  com- 
prehended 3,000  different  species.  He  also 
collected  fossils  and  minerals;  the  former 
were  presented  by  him  to  the  museum  at 
Newcastle,  and  tne  latter  to  the  university 
of  Durham.  In  1836  he  printed  a  catalogue 
of  his  Portuguese  library  under  the  name 
of  *Bibliotheca  Lusitana.'  Tlie  books  are 
carefully  described,  and  the  notes  contain 
much  bibliographic€Ll  information.  It  was  a 
remarkable  collection,  brought  together  by 
the  labour  of  twenty-five  years  and  the  ex- 
penditure of  much  money.  Unfortimately, 
with  tlie  exception  of  the  volumes  relating 
to  Camoens  and  a  few  others,  the  library 
was  destroyed  by  a  fire  on  16  April  1849. 
His  love  for  the  sonnet  prompted  him  to 
bring  out,  in  1842,  the  first  part  of  a  collec- 
tion entitled '  Lusitania  Dlustrata,'  consisting 
of  translations  from  Portuguese  sonnetteers 
and  biographical  notices.  This  was  followed, 
in  1846,  by  a  second  part  devoted  to  ballads. 
As  regards  his  merit  as  a  translator,  it  is 
enough  to  observe  that  a  somewhat  austere 
rendering  of  the  original  is  his  chief  cha- 
racteristic. In  1845  he  printed  another  small 
volume  of  original  and  translated  sonnets, 
and  in  1853  appeared  his  last  work,  being 
an  edition  of  the  first  five  cantos  of  the 
*■  Lusiad,'  translated  by  his  deceased  Mend, 
Quillanan,  with  preface,  lists  of  editions  and 
translations,  and  a  few  notes  by  the  editor. 
As  a  reward  for  his  services  in  connection 
with  the  literature  of  her  country,  the  Queen 
of  Portugal  had  conferred  upon  him  the 


Adamson 


Adamson 


knighlbooils  of  Christ  and  of  the  Tower  luid 
Sword-  Ui?  was  a  ffllow  of  the  Soeiety  of 
ADtiqiuuittft  of  London,  and  a  mtmbt^r  of 
tnuiy  English  and  continental  philoBophical 
■ud  sDliquarian  bodies.  In  spite  of  felling 
h^Jtli  he  continued  bis  ordin&rf  occnpatinnit 
to  within  three  dsTS  of  his  death,  which  tnoli 

; lace  on  27  Sept.'lS^.  He  liee  buried  at 
nunond  CBtnelfry,  near  Newcaelle. 
Bis  vrriling*  are;  1.  'Dons  Igneji  de 
Cwlro,  a  tnifred;  from  the  PurtugueBo  of 
Niouls  l.uic,  with  rem&rkB  on  the  history  of  ' 
that  unfortunate  lady.'  Newcastle,  1808,  j 
I:tmo.  pp.  \'24.    2. '  Sonnets  from  the  Portn- 

Kif<w  of  Luis  de  Camoens,  &c.  [translated 
f  J.  A.y  [Newcastle,  1810;[.  3.  'Catalogue 
d  the  Library  of  the  Antiquarian  Society  ' 
of  Newcastle- upon-Tvne,  by  J.  A.,  Beoretary.'  I 
NiiwduilK  1816, 4toi  and  Supplement,  1823.  i 
I.  'Cheriol,  a  Pwlieal  Fragment,  b\-  R. 
ttTh»rton],  [nd.  by  .1.  A.].'  Newcastle, "iHir  , 
<^ewcllatllT  Typogmphical  Soc.),  5.  'Tlie 
Maitisgi^  of  the  Coi|uet  and  the  Alwine  [ed. 
hj  J.  A.].'  Newcnstle,  1817  (N.Trp.  Soc.). 
a  • !  Jnae  addresswl  to  Lady  Byron  [written 
by  Mr».  Cockle,  ed.  by  J.  A.].^  Newcastlf, 
1817  ;  20  copies  priialely  printed  (N.  Typ. 
Soc.).  7.  'Reply  to  Lord  Byron's  "Fare 
th«w  well  "  fwntW'n  bv  Mm.  dotkle,  ed.  by 
J.  AJ.'  NfiwCMtle,  'ISI?  (N.  Typ.  Sw.). 
«.  '  Eipgy  m  the  Memory  of  H.R.II.  the 
Princess  Charlotte  of  Wafea,  by  Mrs.  Cockle 
fed.  bv  J.  A.].'  Newcastle,  S.  Hodgson, 
|817  {N.  Typ.  Soc.).  9.  'Elegy  on  the 
TWth  "f  his  1b1«  Maiesty  George  Til,  by 
Mrs.  Ciokle'  [ed.  by  J.  AJ.  Newcastle,  S. 
HodMon,  ISlf.cr.  8vo,pp.  fl  (N.-fyp.  Soc,). 
10.  "MemoirB  of  the  Life  and  Writings  of 
Lnia  do  Ciunoens.'  London,  Longman,  1820, 
3T<^cr.l4v«,porIraitsBnd plates.  11.  'Con- 
chnlpeicnl  Tables,  compiled  principally  for  the 
ttse  of  shell  collectors  [by  J.  A.].'  Newcastle, 
1825  (N.iyp.  Soc. ).  12.  'Verses  written  at 
ihehoowe  of^Mr.  Henderson,  at  Longleeford, 
ni»r  Cheviot,  during  the  wintt*  nf  1817  [by 
Ilia  son,  ed.  bv  J.  A.].'  Nnwca^tle,  1823  (N. 
Tjp.  Sfic.).  13.  '  Lines  to  a  Boy  pursiiinga 
Ituii«rfly,  bv  a  l^dv  [Hrs.  Septimus  Hodgson, 
«L  by  J.  A.].'  fJewcastle,  1826  (N.  Typ. 
Roc.).  14.  '  Epistle  to  Prospro,  bv  Joae 
Maria  ()<•  Psndo,  traniilated  into  English  by 
Hrughl  SfnlvinJ.  [clioplain]  of  H.M.S.  Cam- 
bndge  Ui.  bv  J.  A  J,  Newcjwile,  1838  (N. 
Tj-p.  Sw.).  15.  -The  Tynemoulh  Nun,  a 
Poem,  by  Rnben  White  fed.  by  J.  A.].' 
Newcastle,  182S  fN.  Typ.  Soc.).  16.  'Im- 
perii caput.  p(  rerum  pulclierriintt  Itoina,  Car- 
men latlniim  apud  scliulam  Novocastrensem 
Bunro  niunismate  donatum,  auotori^  E.  H. 
.\dain>on.anii08xiv.  nato[0d.  J.  A.].'  Novia 
('*alti*,  1881  (N.  Typ.  Soc.),     17.  'An  Ae- 


caunl  of  the  niscovery  nt  Hexham,  in  North- 
ntaberlnncl,  of  a  Units  Vessel  containing  a 
numbiT  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Coins  caUed 
Stffatr,-wlt\i  3f>  plates '(in  Areh^oloffia,  xxv. 
1834,  pp,  279-310),  'Further  Aocoimt  ..  . 
with  I  plates'  (tA.  xxvi.1836,  pp,  346-6). 
18.  ■  Bib  Moth  eca  Lusitana,  or  Catalogue  ot 
Books  and  Tracts  rolating  to  the  History, 
Literature,  and  PoetiT  of  Portugal,  forming 
part  of  the  library  of  J.  A.'  Newcoatle,  1836 
(N.  Typ.  Soc.).  Ifl.  'Lnsituuia  Lllustrata, 
Notices  of  the  History,  Antiquities,  Litera- 
ture, &c.  of  Portugal :  Literary  Department, 
part  i.  Selection  of  Sonnets,  with  Biogrspllt- 
cal  Sket«li>w  of  the  vVuthors.'  Newcastle, 
1842.      'The  same:    Literary   Department, 

Krt  ii.  Minstrelsy-'  Newcastle,  1846  (N. 
p.  Soc.).  20.  'IleplvafCamoens.'  New- 
castle. 1845.  21.  'linnets.'  Newcastle, 
imfi.  22.  '  The  Lusittd  of  Luis  de  Co- 
raoens,  books  i.  to  v. ;  translated  by  Edward 
tjuillauan,  with  miles  by  J.  A.'  London, 
ISTvl 

[Notea  and  Qneriee,  Istseriw,  i.  178,  viii.  104. 
2S7;  Miirtin'aCat.otBookaPriT.  Printed,  183*, 
p.  419,  &c. ;  Dibdin's  Northern  Toor,  1838,  i. 
332,  Sec;  Gent.  Mag.  IS£S  (Dec.),  6S7.] 

H.R.T. 

ADAMSON,  PATRICK  (1537-1692),  n 

distinguished  ^otch  prelate,  was  born  at 
Perth  on  or  ab.mt  16  March  1536-7.  His 
enemies  taunted  him  with  being  a  baker's 
son — '  ane  baxter's  sone,  ane  beggar  home ' 
(Sbmpil's  Ijeffmd  of  fhe  Ili-hoji  of  St. 
Andrew'»  Life,\r>ii\):  but  in  the  biographical 
sketch  by  his  son-in-law,  Thomas  Wilson, 
appended  to  the  posthumous  tract, '  De  Sacro 
Pas(«ris  Munere,'  1619,  be  is  said  to  have 
been  bom  'parentibus  ingenuis  et  stirpe 
hcnesta.'  He  was  educated  first  at  the 
grammar  school,  Perth,  and  afterwards  at 
the  university  of  St.  Andrews,  where  he  took 
his  mnater's  degree  in  1558  under  the  name 
of  PatriciuBConstyne.  Two  years  afterwards, 
as  Mr.  Patrick  Cfonsteane,  he  was  declared 
qualified  by  the  general  atisembly  for  mi- 
nistering and  teaching,  and  in  1563  was  ap- 
pointed minister  of  Ceres  in  Fife.  In  the 
general  assembly  at  Edinburgh,  in  June 
1564,  he  begged  to  be  allowed  to  travel  into 
France  and  other  countries  in  order  to  in- 
crease his  knowledge,  but  was  forbidden  to 
leave  his  congregation  without  special  license 
from  the  assembly.  In  the  same  year  he 
wrote  a  copy  of  Latin  hexameters  (included 
in  his  '  Poemata  Sacra,'  1619),  in  which  he 
assailed  the  Romanists  of  Aberdeen.  The 
title  of  the  piece  is  '  De  Papistarum  Super- 
stitiosis  Ineptiis.'  Early  in  1566  he  threw 
up  bis  clurge,  and  went  to  France  as  tnUir 


Adamson 


112 


Adamson 


to  the  eldest  son  of  Sir  James  MacgiU,  of '  now,  when  my  lord  eetteth  the  benefice,  and 


llankeillor,  clerk-gener&L  In  the  following 
June,  while  he  was  residing  with  his  pupil  at 
Paris,  Adamson  (called  variously,  at  this  date, 


the  bishop  serveth  for  a  portion  out  of  the 
benefice  to  make  my  lora's  title  sure;  the 
Lord's  bishop  is  the  true  minister  of  the 


Conston, Constant, Constean, or Constantine)  GospelL"'  Three  years  afterwards  (1576) 
published  a  poem  of  thanksgiving  on  the  '  he  was  one  of  the  deputies  named  by  the 
occasionofthebirth  of  the  son  of  Mary  Queen  '  general  assembly  to  oiscuss  questions  re- 
ef Scots.  The  mfant  was  described  in  the  title  &ting  to  the  jurisdiction  of  the  kirk  with 
as '  serenissimus  nrinceps '  of  Scotland,  Eng-  commissioners  appointed  by  the  regent 
land,  France,  ana  Ireland,  an  act  of  indis-  :  Moreton ;  and  witn  two  others  he  was  chosen 
cretion  which  g^ave  such  offence  that  the  '  in  1576  to  report  the  proceedings  to  the 
author  was  imjirisoned  for  six  months.  On  |  regent.  A^bout  this  time  he  appears  to  have 
his  release,  which  he  owed  to  the  intercession  '  finally  adopted  the  name  Adamson  in  pre- 
of  his  royal  mistress,  he  moved  into  the  |  ference  to  Constant.  His  adyersaries  did  not 
province  of  Poitou,  and  afterwards  to  Padua ;  ;  fail  to  twit  him  on  his  change  of  name : — 
thence  he  proceeded  to  Geneva,  where  he 
made  the  acquaintance  of  Theodore  Beza  and 
studied  Calvmistic  theology.  On  the  home- 
ward journey  he  revisited  Paris  with  his 
pupil,  but,  finding  it  distracted  by  civil . 
war  (1567-8),  thought  it  prudent  to  retire 
to  Bourges,  where  he  lay  concealed  for  seven 
months  at  an  inn.  Here  Adamson  beguiled 
the  time  by  translating  the  Book  of  Joo  into 


Twyae  his  suniaime  bes  mensuome ; 
To  be  called  Costeine  he  the*  schame, 
He  tuke  up  Costantine  to  name. 

•  •  •  •  a 

Now  Docto'  Adamsone  at  last. 

On  the  death  of  Douglas,  in  October  1576,. 
Adamson,  who  had  been  serving  as  chaplain 
to  the  regent,  was  raised  to  the  archbishopric 


Latin  hexameters,  and  composing  a  Latin  >  of  St.  Andrews.     Before  his  installation  he- 


tragedy  on  the  subject  of  H^rod.  He  also 
made  a  Latin  translation  of  the  Scottish 
Confession  of  Faith.  The  exact  date  of  his 
return  is  unknown ;  but  in  March  1571  the 
assembly,  *  seeing  there  were  so  few  labourers 
in  the  Lord's  vineyarde,'  urged  him  strongly 
to  return  to  the  ministry,  a  request  to  which 
he  agreed  by  letter  at  the  meeting  of  the 
assembly  in  the  following  August.  Some 
of  his  biographers  state  that  he  was  in  Paris 
at  the  time  of  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholo- 
mew in  1572,  but  MacCrie  (Notes  to  the 
Life  of  Andrew  Melville)  showed  that  this  is 
a  mistake  arising  from  a  misunderstanding 
of  Adamson's  words  in  the  dedication  of  his 
Catechism,  *  Scripsi  quidem  in  Gallia  in  ipso 
furore  * — words  which  merely  contain  a  refer- 
ence to  the  civil  war  of  1567-8.  On  rejoin- 
ing the  ministry  Adamson  was  presented  to 
the  living  of  Paisley.  In  1672  he  published 
at  St.  Andrews  lus  Catechism,  under  the 
title  of  '  Catechismus  Latino  sermone  reddi- 
tus  et  in  libros  quattuor  digestus,'  which  he 
had  composed  for  the  use  oi  the  yoimg  king ; 
and  this  was  followed  by  his  Latin  translation 
of  the  Scottish  Confession  of  Faith,  *  Confessio 
Fidei  et  Doctrinse  per  Ecclesiam  Reformatam 
Scotifld  recepta.'  On  8  Feb.  in  this  year  he 
preached  a  sermon  on  the  occasion  of  the 
elevation  of  John  Douglas,  rector  of  St. 
Andrews  University,  to  the  archbishopric  of 
that  diocese.  '  In  his  sermon,'  says  Calder- 
wood,  *  he  made  three  sorts  of  bishops,  '^  My 
lord  bishop,"  "  my  lord's  bishop,"  and  "  the 
Lord's  bishop."  "  My  lord  bishon,"  said  he, 
<<  was  in  time  of  papistrie ;  my  lora's  bishop  is 


had  declared  that  he  would  resist  any  attempt 
on  the  part  of  the  assembly  to  deprive  him 
of  his  privileges ;  and  his  life  now  became 
one  constant  struggle  with  the  presbytenan 
party.  In  April  1577  he  was  ordered  by 
the  assembly  to  appear  before  certain  com- 
missioners to  answer  the  charge  of  havings 
entered  upon  the  archbishopric  without  being 
duly  consecrated.  On  this  occasion  he  ap- 
pears to  have  made  submission  to  the  as- 
sembly; but  in  Julv  1579  other  charges 
were  brought  against  nim — that  he  had  voted 
in  parliament  without  the  assembly's  per- 
mission, that  he  had  opposed  from  his  place- 
in  parliament  the  interests  of  the  church, 
and  that  he  had  collated  to  benefices;  for 
which  offences  he  was  again  ordered  to  ap- 
pear before  commissioners.  To  escape  from 
his  opponents  he  retired  to  the  castle  of  St. 
Andrews,  where  he  was  prostrated  by  a  great 
illness  (*a  great  fedity*  he  c^ls  it)y.m>i]i 
which  his  medical  attendants  could  give  hint 
no  relief.  In  his  extremity  he  sought  the 
assistance  of  a  wisewoman,  Alison  Pearson^ 
who  treated  him  so  successAilly  that  he  com- 
pletely recovered.  His  enemies  ascribed  his 
cure  to  witchcraft,  seized  the  unfortunato 
woman,  and  confined  her  in  the  castle  of  St. 
Andrews,  whence,  with  the  connivance  of 
the  archbishop,  she  contrived  to  escape.  A 
few  years  afterwards  (1588)  she  was  again 
apprehended,  and  after  a  trial  before  the 
court  of  justiciary  was  committed  to  the 
fiames ;  one  of  the  charges  brought  against 
her  being  that  she  had  concocted  for  the 
archbishop  a  beverage  of  ewe's  milk,  claret^ 


Adamson 


quhilk 


licrbs  &c,  makiuK '  une  qiurt  utt  anis,  ui 
lirdranh  itit  t^a  <lrnrh|.ia,  twB  Hindrie  ayitt 
lPlTr*iRRK'»  Criminal  Trials,  i.  165).  In 
June  1&S3  AdnmiKin  delivertd  some  piiwer- 
ful  iUfrtiiulU'  brfort-  thn  king,  '  mspired,'  bhvs 
Llftlderwood.  'wilU  uuother  spirit  thon  fnilli- 
ful  paetora  are.'  Ac  tli(>  end  uf  this  yvnr  \\e 
wNt  ajt  Jami-s's  ambaMadur  to  tht  court  of 
(Jiuc^  Eliiabelb,  pretending,  as  Us  ^Dcmicx 
al)«gv»l,  that  he  was  RoinK  In  Spa  for  th<^ 
Kkke  of  his  health.  Of  his  proceedings  in 
lymdon  the  mtiriet  Scmpil  ha.?  K>VFin  a  coarse 
aomunl.  which  i^  followed  with  mucli  satb- 
ractioQ  bv  Caldcrwood.  If  one  may  believ<! 
lhe«e  authorities,  thi^  archbishop  coni-tantly 
d-'ftAuded  bl«  creditors,  and  was  a  rer;  groiw 
liver.  From  the bifhopof  London  (il.  was  as- 
•erted  I  he  bormweil  a  gown  lo  pi'each  in,  and 
nerprretunirsIitifrotntheFreneliambasiidor 
hr  tiwd  to  borrow  a  hundred  pounds,  hut  had 
to  bu  content  with  ten.  lie  had  only  one 
audience  with  the  queen,  and  on  that  cwcnsion 
hia  conduct  in  the  precincts  of  the  palace — 
ooder  the  verrwalfa — was  su  unseemly  that  | 
benariTiwlTeccapedacudgellingat  thehandi^  i 
nf  the  fratcKecper.  Ilis  enemies  accused  bim 
of  ttailig  all  possible  misrepresentations  dur- 
ing Ilis  stay  in  England  lo  bring  reproach 
aiion  the  |>re«bTterinn  party :  but  none  could 
deny  that  his  eloquent^  attracted  many 
lirarvni.  and  thai  he  was  held  in  high  respect 
hv  Bngliah  churchmen  for  learning  and 
(Utility,  In  thn  following  Hay  he  returned 
!■>  Sootlanit.and  sat  in  the  parliament  which 
mot  on  the  22nd  of  that  month.  Strong 
metunrM  were  passed  in  this  parliament 
agwnat  the  presbjterians,  ,\daniiion  ond 
Mcifitgomery  being  the  leading  counsellors. 
Itut  i^iile  ho  stood  high  in  the  king's  favour 
luid  constantly  preached  before  him,  Adamson 
hnrsme  daily  an  object  of  greater  dislike  to 
thu  people,  BO  much  so  that  on  one  occasion, 
wtim  he  WDii  preaching  at  the  High  Church, 
Edinburgh,  the  majority  of  the  congregation 
from  iheir  seats  and  abruptly  left  the 
„  In  15S5  he  published  a  '  Declara- 
of  the  King's  Majesty's  Intention  in  the 
Acts  nf  Parliament,'  a  tract  which  gnve 
^  It  oiTniice  to  the  presbyterion  party,  espe- 
aallr  when  it  was  inserted  two  years  afler- 
wari*  in  Thynne's  continuation  of  Holins- 
liml.  'willi  on  odious  preface  of  alledged 
Uwasonti  prefixed  unto  it.  liong  afterwards, 
'  1046,  at  the  lime  of  the  civil  wars,  this 
I"   reprinted — and   by   ibe 

|7The  ciMe  of  1S8.5  witnessed  the  return  to 

Aland  of  Andrew  Melville,  with  many  of 

e  noMamen  who  had  fled  to  England  after 

■  tnid  of  Kuihven  :  and  now  the  prospects 

f  the  presbrterian  porly  bi'gnn  to  brigoten. 


^EaAct 
^^Bri«t  oil 


When  the  synod  of  fife  met  at  St.  Andrews 
in  the  following  April,  a  violent  attack  was 
made  on  Adamson  In-  .lames  Melville,  pm- 
fe««w>r  of  theology,  the  nephew  of  Andrew. 
The  scene  was  animated.  At  Melville's  side 
throughout  the  delivery-  of  the  nddn-ss  sot 
the  archbishop.  .A.ftcr  making  some  obser- 
Tittions  of  a  j^neral  charBCter  on  the  disci- 
pline of  the  kirk.  Melville  turned  fiercely  on 
Adamson,  sketched  shortly  the  history  of  his 
life,  upbraiding  him  with  his  ojipoaition  to 
Ibe  kirk,  and  assured  him  that  the  'Dragon 
bed  so  Btlnged  him  with  the  ppysoun  and 
venome  of  avarice  ond  ambition,  that  swell- 
ing exorbitanllie  out  of  measure,  he  threat- 
ned  the  wTacke  and  destnictioun  of  the 
whole  bodie  in  case  he  were  not  tymouelie 
and  with  courage  cut  off"  (C«i.t)BKWOon). 
S«eing  there  was  no  chance  of  gaining  a  fair 
hearing,  Adamson  mode  no  attempt  at  an 
elaborate  defence.  At  a  lalermeetmgof  the 
synod  he  was  charged  to  offer  eumiisaion 
(1)  for  his  transgression  of  the  ordinances  of 
the  general  assembly ;  (2)  for  the  injuries 
he  had  inflicted  on  the  kirk :  (3)  for  his  con- 
tRm]Jtuoua  bearing  before  the  synod;  (4)  fur 
'opin  avowing  of  antichristian  poprie  and 
bluephemouB  herp.'sy.'  In  answer  to  these 
charges  the  archbishop,  appearing  in  person, 
denied  that  the  synod  had  any  jurisdiction 
over  him,  and  ap]>eBled  to  the  king  and  par- 
liament, Then,  taking  the  charges  sevewlly. 
he  contended  (1)  that  his  suspension  by  the 
assembly  was  illegal  ,■  (2)  that  all  he  hod 
done  was  done  openly  from  his  seal,  in  parlia- 
ment: (3)  that  the  complaint  wtu  too  geneml. 
but  that  he  was  prepared  to  snswpr  any  par- 
ticular charge  set  down  in  writing;  (4) that 
he  had  shown  himself  from  his  earliest  years 
8  public  opponent  of  popery.  But  these 
answers  did  not  satisfy  his  opponents,  and 
the  synod  passed  sentence  of  excommunicn- 
lioa  on  the  arehbisbop,  who  replied  by  ea- 
communicsting  Andrew  and  James  Melville 
with  some  olbprs.  In  thi-  following  month 
the  general  assembly  remitted  the  sentencf 
of  excommunication  passed  by  the  synod,  as 
the  illegality  of  the  synod's  proceedings  was 
obvious;    and   the  Melvilles,  for  the  active' 

5 art  they  had  taken,  did  not  escape  the  king's 
ispleasure,  Andrew  being  ordered  to  reside 
in  his  native  plac*  until  further  notice,  and 
James  being  dismissed  to  bis  profeasoriiil 
duties.  As  archbishop  of  S(.  Andrews, 
Adamson  was  er  officto  chancellor  of  the 
university,  and  he  was  now  reguimd  by  the 
king  to  give  public  lessons,  which  the  whole 
university  was  to  attend  (.TiMiis  Mulvillr's 
Diary).  At  the  ne.it  meeting  of  the  as- 
sembly (June  I58T)  more  trouble  awaited 
him.     He  was  clmrged  with  detaining   the 


Adam  son 


114 


Adamson 


Htipends  of  certain  ministers  within  his  dio- 
cese,  and  with  allowing  himself  to  be  put  to 
the  horn  for  not  setthng  the  chiims  of  his 
creditors.  It  was  further  alleged  that  he  had 
failed  to  supply  two  gallons  of  wine  for  the 
celebration  of  communion.  At  the  time 
when  these  charges  were  occupying  the  as- 
sembly's attention,  the  poet  Du  Bartas  was 
in  Scotland;  and  the  king,  for  the  amuse- 
ment and  edification  of  nis  distinguished 
guest,  determined  that  a  disputation  should 
take  place  between  the  rival  champions, 
. Vndrew  Melville  and  Adamson.  Worn  was 
^^int  to  Melville  that  the  king  and  Du  Bartas 
would  attend  his  lecture  in  the  class-room. 
MelviUe  replied  that  the  lecture  had  been 
just  delivered;  but  this  excuse  would  not 
serve,  and  within  an  hour's  space  he  had  to 
lecture  again.  Adamson  listened  to  the  ad- 
dress, which  dealt  with  the  recent  legislation 
against  the  kirk,  and  the  next  morning  de- 
livered a  discourse  in  defence  of  the  episcopal 
system.  Melville  followed  with  a  second 
address,  in  which  he  directed  his  argument 
not  against  Adamson,  but  against  certain 
popish  writers,  whose  opinions  on  church- 
government  bore  a  marked  resemblance  to 
the  views  propounded  by  the  archbishop. 
At  the  close  of  the  lecture  Adamson  was 
too  dismayed  to  make  any  reply,  but  the 
king  came  to  his  aid  with  a  rambling  pe- 
dantic dissertation.  It  should  be  added 
that  this  curioufl  narrative  rests  solely  on 
the  authority  of  Adamson's  opponent,  James 
Mt'lville. 

In  August  1588  Adamson  was  once  more 
assailed  by  the  assembly,  thf,  charges  being 
that  he  had  solemnised  the  marriage  of  the 
Earl  of  Huntley  with  the  daughter  of  the 
Duke  of  Lennox,  and  that  he  had  abstracted 
^ome  entries  and  mutilated  others  in  the 
assembly's  registers.  As  he  did  not  appear 
iu  person  to  answer  these  charges,  the 
matter  was  referred  to  the  presbytery  at 
Edinburgh,  who  excommunicated  him — a 
sentence  which  was  confirmed  by  the  general 
assembly.  His  situation  was  now  oue  of 
some  dimcultv.  The  king,  whose  help  had 
been  so  useral  in  the  past,  now  deserted 
him,  and  granted  the  revenue  of  the  see  to 
the  Duke  of  Lennox.  It  was  in  vain  that 
uVdamson  tried  to  gain  favour  by  dedicating 
to  James  Latin  translations  of  the  Lamen- 
tations of  .Jeremiah  and  the  Book  of  Reve- 
lation, both  published  in  1590.  Weighed 
down  by  sickness  and  poverty,  he  appealed 
in  his  distress  to  his  ola  opponent,  Andrew 
Melville,  who,  moved  by  pity,  induced  the 
presbytery  of  St.  Andrews  to  remit  the  sen- 
tence of  excommunication  on  condition  that 
Adamson  should  make  a  free  confession  of 


his  errors.  On  8  April  the  archbishop's  sig- 
nature was  obtained  for  the  Recantation, 
and  on  12  May  for  an  Answer  to  and  Refu- 
tation of  the  book  falsely  called  the  '  Eang's 
Declaration;'  a  ratification  of  both  being 
exacted  from  him  on  10  June.  The  episcopid 
writers  affirm  that  the  Recantation  and 
Answer  are  purely  fictitious,  and  that  the 
archbishop  was  induced  to  sign  documents 
of  which  the  contents  were  misrepresented. 
The  earliest  printed  edition  of  the  papers  is 
dated  1598.  They  were  afterwards  turned 
into  Latin,  and  printed  at  the  end  of  Mel- 
vin's  'Poemata,  1620.  If,  as  is  probably 
the  case,  the  Recantation  is  spurious,  Adam- 
son was  merely  served  as  he  had  served  his 
opponent  Lawson,  who,  dying  in  the  full 
conviction  of  the  truth  of  presbyterian  prin- 
ciples, was  represented  by  the  archbishon— 
who  actually  forged  a  testament  to  tnat 
effect — to  have  abiured  presbyterianism  and 
to  have  exhorted  nis  brethren  on  his  death- 
bed to  embrace  the  episcopal  system  (Calder- 
wood).  Adamson  aied  on  19  Feb.  1592,  a 
few  months  before  the  passing  of  the  '  Rati- 
fication of  the  Liberty  of  the  True  Kirk,'  a 
measure  which  secured  the  triumph  of  his 
adversaries. 

His  character  has  been  variously  estimated. 
^A  man  he  was  of  great  learning,'  says 
Spottiswood  (vL  385),  *  and  a  most  persua- 
sive preacher,  but  an  ill  administrator  of  the 
church  patrimony.'  Wilson,  his  son-in-law, 
styles  him  '  divinus  theologus,  linguae  sacrse 
sui  temporis  coryphaeus,  politioris  omnis 
disciplinse  et  scientise  thesaurus,'  and  so  on. 
His  ability  was  allowed  even  byhis  enemies. 
James  Melville's  words  are :  '  This  man  had 
many  great  gifts,  but  especially  excelled  in  the 
tongue  and  pen  ;  and  yet  for  abusing  of  the 
same  against  Christ,  all  use  of  both  the  one 
and  the  other  was  taken  from  him,  when  be 
was  in  greatest  misery  and  had  most  need  of 
them.' 

By  his  wife  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  William 
Arthur,  of  Kemis,  he  had  two  sons,  James 
and  Patrick,  and  a  daughter,  who  became 
the  wife  of  Thomas  WQson,  advocate.  In 
1619  his  collected  works  were  published  by 
his  son-in-law,  under  the  title  of  *  Reveren- 
dissimi  in  Christo  Patris  Patricii  Adamsoni, 
Sancti-Andreje  in  Scotia  Archiepiscopi  dig- 
nissimi  ac  doctissimi,  Poemata  Sacra,  cum  aliis 
opuRCulis ;  studio  ac  industria  Tho.  Voluseni, 
J.  C,  expolita  et  recognita,'  Londini,  4to. 
With  the  exception  of  *  Jobus,'  a  Latin  ver- 
sion of  the  Book  of  Job,  most  of  the  pieces 
in  this  collection  had  been  printed  during 
the  author's  lifetime.  *  Jobus,'  with  the 
Latin  versions  of  the  Decalogue  (from  book  ii. 
of  the  Catechism)  and  the  Lamentations  of 


Swfden  brook  e 


JrTenitah,  ij  included  in  vnL  ii.  of  Lauder's 
'  Poetarum  Scoionim  Muaie  Siicrte,'  Edinb. 
17%  3e|NUVtel;  bum  lixe  coUeclian,  WIIikiii 
also  published  Ivo  treatisea  of  Adiimeon'E, 
oBo  ontitled  'Db  Sucro  Puloris  Mimere 
incUtUB.'Lund.  IIIIO:  the  other,  'Rtfutatin 
tibelli  (le  Heffimiiit'  Bci'lesiui  Scolicunw,' 
lem  In  thn  dedication  of  the  ypreion  of 
iCefelat iooa  (1590)  Adonuon  tuentionii  t.liul 
be  bftd  written  a  book  against  his  oppo- 
iieQt«  und»  the  title  of  -  Peillus,'  and  in 
the  dedication  of  the  'Catechism'  (1572) 
he  mentioDB  that  hn  was  pngsged  on  n,  treii- 
tiae,  '  D«  Politia  Moeaica.'  \\  il^n,  iit  the 
Uogrft^ical  sketch  appended  to  the  '  De  . 
Sacro  Pastoria  Manere,  gives  the  titles  of 
terefsl  works  of  Adamson's,  '  qiutt  fere  om-  | 
nia,  tetoporis  injuria  et  malevolonim  ho- 
minnm  ndiis  ntque  invidift  hue  illuc  dig-  , 
kcta,  in  rarias  sunt  manus  diBcerpto,'  p.  21.  , 
They  include  Latin  versions  of  EtclesiasteB, 
Ilaaiel,  and  the  Minor  Prophets ;  Conmien- 
luiaa  on  St.  Paul's  Epistles ;  and  Annals  of  i 
EnpUndandScotland.  TheeditorofMelvin'a 
'PaoiQata'  rouDdly  charges  Wliaon  with  i 
drawing  up  a  fictitious  list,  of  the  aichbishop'e 
writings. 

[Calderwood'B  True  History  of  the  Church  of  , 
SontJaDil,  Wodrow  Somety.  i~T;  Book  of  the  ' 
Datrvml  KiikofScotliuul;  SputtuivooirK  His- ' 
•arj  of  ihc  Church  of  Scollimd  ;  Life  bj  Wil«)D, 
afmiKd  to  I>e  Sacra  Fiutoriit  Munere.  16)9: 
J«a)w  Melvil'H  Diary,  BanruitynB  C'lab;  Ualyall's  ' 
ilcottifh  PoemiuftheSixtwulh  Century.  ISDl ;  ' 
Mdtin'*  Poemota.  1820;  Cut.  of  .Sooii-h  Swte 
pAfen.  pp.  100.  239,  240,  312.  be.;  MacCrle'a 
Uiv  of  AndrBw  MeWltp ;  S.  D.  U,  K.  Biographi- 
cal Kctioniiry  (art.  by  Cniik) ;  Andetvon's  Scot- 
tiah  Hatiou;  Sivtt'ti  Fasti  t^ocle^in  Anslicsris^.1 
A.  H.  B. 

ADAMSON,  THOMAS  (J?.  ifieOt,  master 
guftner  iu  Kiiig  CUurie?  H's  tmin  of  artillery, 

Eibliated,  in  IflPO,  u  ireaii«,>  of  Thomas 
iggee,  entitled  '  Kiiplnnd's  I'-^feiice,  n  Trea- 
iW  coiiceming  Invai^iou,'  TliomnH  Digger 
(a  ton  of  Leonard  Digges  the  elder)  had 
been  DiiiMter-iuaster-general  of  Queen  Eliza- 
bi-lhV  forces  in  the  Low  Countries ;  and  his 
treatise  had  been  exhibited  in  writing  to 
the  Earl  of  Ijeiceiter  sliortlv  before  the 
Snaniah  invasion  in  1588.  When  the  fear 
01  a  French  invasion  was  imminent,  Adam- 
ton  edited  this  tract  with  additions  of  his 
own,  giving  an  account  of 'such  stores  of 
war  and  other  materials  as  are  requisite  for 
the  defence  of  a  fort,  a  train  of  artllleTf ,  and 
fill  a  magaxine  belonging  to  a  field  army ; ' 
adiUiif  ^o  a  list  (f)  of  the  ships  of  war, 
(2)  oiihe  governors  of  the  garriscms  of  Eng- 
l»iidj  (3)  of  the  lord  lieutenants  and  hiffh 
»henfc   of   the   counties    adjacent   lo    iLe 


coastB ;  and  coiicludiug  hh  Iract  by  a  state- 
meat  of  The  wages  paid  per  month  to  the 
nIKccrs  and  seamen  in  the  fleet. 


[Englnnd's  Defence 


X  M.] 


1.  H.  B. 


ADDA  (d.  566),  king  of  Bemicia,  the 
eldeet  son  of  Ida,  founder  tif  the  Anglian 
kingdom  of  Bemiciu,  succeirfed  his  father 
in  5fi9,  and,  according  to  Nennius,  reigned 
eight  years.  Simeon  of  Durham  and  the 
Chronologin,  prefixed  to  Bishop  More's  MS. 
of  Biedu,  place  the  reieu  of  Olappa  lastinff 
for  line  year  between  the  reigns  of  Ida  and 
Adda.  The  Oeneulogia  in  the  Appendix  to 
Florence  of  Worcester  makes  Adda  reign 
for  aeveu  years  after  ihe  death  of  his  father, 
and  putsClappa  (Olaiipal  after  him.  The 
early  Northumbrian  cnronology  ia  confused 
and  uncertain  (see  Mon.  Hint.  Brit.  p.  75 
note).  The  gradual  conquest  made  by  the 
Ilemicians,  ia  which  at  one  time  the  invader* 
and  al  another  the  natives  were  victorious, 
must  have  made  the  reign  of  Adda  full  of 
fighting.  He  died  in  .Vtu.  Tlie  name  Adda 
may  probably  be  discemeii  in  conjunction 
with  the  patronymic  syllnble  in//  iu  Adding- 

[NVnniuB  ;  Simeou  of  Dnrhaiii ;  App.  to  FIo- 
reiioa  of  WorcBoter ;  Mon.  Hist.  Bril.  74,  76. 290, 

aai.j  w.  H. 

ADDENBROOKE,  JIPlIN  {1680-1719), 

founder  of  the  liospitHl  which  beara  his  name 
at  Cambridge,  was  bom  in  1680  at  Swinford 
Rceis  in  Staffordshire.  He  was  educated  at 
Calnurine  Hall,  Cambridge,  graduated  B.A. 
1701,  M.A.  1705,  and  was  elected  a  fellow 
of  the  college.  In  1706  he  was  admitted  an 
extra-licentiate  of  the  College  of  Physiciana, 
and  took  a  M.D.  degree  at  Cambridge  in  1712. 
Of  his  practice  nothing  is  known.  In  1714 
Dr.  Addenbrooke  publislirfil  'A  Short  Essav 
upon  Freethinking.'  He  praises  Bentlej^s 
repl^'  to  Collins,  and  gives  as  his  reason  for 
joining  ia  the  controversy  thai  freethinkers 
are  so  set  against  clergymen  that  they  may 
care  more  for  what  a  hiyraan  says.  A  man 
may  think  as  &eely,  he  ^ayi,  who  believes  n 
proposition  as  one  who  does  not.  Two  things 
are  essential  to  true  freethinking— absence  of 
prejudice  and  the  full  exertion  of  abilities  of 
thought.   The  uudei'st ending  may  be  distem- 

Kred,  and  is  so  more  ')ften  than  the  body. 
ence  no  man  can  det.'mrine  the  guilt  of 
another  in  having  erron"oua  ouinions.  These 
are  the  chief  points  of  Addenbrooke's  rather 
indefinite  essay.  He  died  in  1719,  and  be- 
queathed about  4,000/.  'to  erect  and  maintun 
a  small  physical  hospilal'  at  Cambridge,  a 
foundation  which   has    ■jince    been   of   the 


Addington 


ii6 


Addington 


greatest  service  to  the  study  of  physic  in 
that  university.  There  is  a  tablet  to  his 
memory  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Catharine's. 

[Munk's  College  of  Physicians,  ii.  14.1 

N.  M. 

ADDINGTON,  ANTHONY,  M.D.(1713- 
1790),  physician,  father  of  the  first  Viscount 
Sidmouth,  was  bom  on  13  Dec.  1713.  He  was 
the  youngest  son  of  an  Oxfordshire  gentleman, 
the  owner  and  occupier  of  a  moderately  sized 
estate  at  Twyford  in  that  county,  where  the 
family  had  been  settled  for  generations.  He 
was  sent  as  a  commoner  to  Winchester 
School,  and  was  elected  thence  to  Trinity 
College,  Oxford.  He  took  his  B.A.  degree 
in  1739,  that  of  M.A.  in  1740,  and  having 
fixed  on  medicine  as  his  profession,  he  gra- 
duated M.B.  of  Oxford  in  1741,  and  M.D.  in 
1744.     About  this  last  dat«  he  settled  as  a 

Shysician  at  Keadiug,  marrying,  in  1745,  the 
aughter  of  the  heaa-mast«r  of  the  grammar 
school  there.  He  obtained  a  good  general 
practice,  and  a  special  reputation  for  the  treat- 
ment of  mental  disease.  He  built  a  house 
contiguous  to  his  own  for  the  reception  of 
his  insane  patients.  In  1753  Addington  pub- 
lished, witn  a  dedication  to  the  loras  of  the 
admiralty,  *An  Essay  on  the  Sea  Scurvy, 
wherein  is  proposed  an  easy  method  of  curing 
that  distemper  at  sea,  and  of  preserving 
water  sweet  for  any  cruise  or  voyage.'  The 
essay  displayed  considerable  reading,  but  was 
even  then  of  little  practical  value.  Tlie 
method  proposed  for  preserving  the  fresh- 
ness of  water  at  sea  was  the  addition  to  it 
of  muriatic  acid,  the  hydrochloric  acid  of 
more  recent  chemistry. 

In  1754  Addington  left  Heading  for  Lon- 
don. In  1755  he  was  a  candidate  of  the 
College  of  Physicians,  in  1756  a  Fellow, 
and,  being  Censor  in  1757,  delivered  the  Gul- 
stonian  Lecture.  For  twenty  years  Adding- 
ton practised  in  I^ondon  with  eminent  success. 
Among  his  patients  was  Lord  Chatham,  his 
professional  connection  with  whom  ripened 
into  something  like  confidential  friendship. 
In  the  *  Chatham  Correspondence  '  there  are 
several  letters  from  the  statesman  indicating 
a  warm  personal  interest  in  the  physician  ana 
his  family.  During  his  severe  illness  in  1767 
Chatham  respectfullv  declined  (Jeorge  IH's 
suggestion  that  another  physician  should  be 
called  in  to  Dr.  Addington's  assistance.  The 
opposition  saw  in  this  confidence  a  proof  that 
Chatham's  disease  could  only  be  insanity. 
This  gossip,  with  injurious  reflections  on 
Addington  8  professional  character,  is  repro- 
duced m  one  of  Horace  Walpole's  letters  to 
Mann  (April  5, 1767;  Letters^  1857,  v.  45), 
in  which  Addington  is  referred  to  as  '  orig^i- 


nally  a  mad  doctor'  and  as  'a  kind  of  em- 
piric '  (see  also  Walpole's  Memoirs  of  the 
iteign  of  George  III,  ii.  450).  Chatham,  in 
a  grateful  letter  to  Addin^on,  ascribed  hi» 
recovery  to  his  physician's  *  judicious  sagacity 
and  land  care.'  j'our  years  before,  Adding- 
ton had  restored  to  health  Chatham's  second 
son,  William  Pitt,  by  a  course  of  treatment 
which  included  the  seductive  remedy  of  port, 
wine  (Lord  Stanhope's  Life  of  Pitt,  2nd 
edition,  i.  12). 

Chatham  seems  to  have  sometimes  used 
Addington  as  his  mouthpiece  in  society,  and 
in  communicating  to  him  a  striking  memo- 
randum of  his  views  on  the  future  of  the 
struggle  with  the  American  colonists  in  the 
July  of  1776,  Chatham  strictly  enjoine<l  him, 
when  repeating  them  in  conversation"  with 
others,  to  employ  *the  very  words'  of  the 
written  paper.  Addington  s  excessive  zeal 
was  pernaps  concerned  in  the  misunder- 
standing between  Chatham  and  Bute  in  the 
winter  of  1778.  Sir  James  Wright,  a  friend 
of  Lord  Bute,  told  Addington,  who  was 
his  physician,  that  Bute  desired  to  see 
Chatham  recalled  to  office.  Addington 
communicated  this  statement  to  Chatham, 
with  the  doubtful  addition  that  Bute  desired 
a  coalition  ministry,  of  which  Chatham 
should  be  the  head  and  he  himself  a  member. 
Chatham  was  indignant  with  the  project, 
which  Bute  disclaimed.  But  some  months 
after  Chatham's  death  in  the  same  year  a 
report  was  diffused,  originated,  according  to 
Horace  Walpole  {Lcist  Journals,  ii.  275),  by 
Bute,  that  the  overtures  had  been  made  bv 
Chatham  to  Bute.  To  rebut  this  insinuation 
a  statement  was  drawn  up  and  issued,  pro- 
bably by  Lady  Chatham  and  William  Pitt, 
certainly  not  by  Addington,  to  whom  its 
authorship  is  generally  ascribed,  though  both 
external  and  internal  evidence  proves  tlie  con- 
trary. It  was  entitled  *  An  Authentic  Ac- 
count of  the  Pnrt.  taken  by  the  lat«  Earl  of 
Cliatliam  in  a  Transaction  which  passed  in 
the  Beginning  of  the  Year  1778.'  It  con- 
sisted of  letters  from  and  to  Addington,  Sir 
James  Wright,  and  Chatham,  and  of  *■  Dr. 
Addington's  narrative  of  the  transaction.' 
The  statement  and  the  controversial  corre- 
spondence to  which  it  gavo  rise  were  re- 
printed in  the  'Annual  Register'  for  1778, 
and  what  is  essential  in  them  is  to  be  found 
in  the  appendix  to  Thackeray's  *  Chatham.' 

In  1780  Addington  retire<l  with  savings 
sufficient  for  the  purchase  of  the  valuable 
reversionary  estate  of  Upottery,  in  Devon- 
shire. His  last  years  were  passed  at  Reading, 
where  he  attended  the  poor  gratuitously. 
He  was  called  in  by  the  Prince  of  Wales  to 
attend  George  III  in  1788,  and  was  examined 


Addington 


'7 


Addington 


befcrtf  p&rliBmeTitaTy  co^l^litt»^s  in  re^rtl 
to  thp  kind's  coadition.  He  nlont^  fojvcolU 
ihi-  surly  rwcoTtry  which  HCtimlly  took  plnct, 
on  th«  noatul  that  he  lied  ii>M'er  known 
B  cas«  of  insanity,  not  precede  by  tnulun- 
cfafdr,  which  vaa  not  cored  within  twelve 
ntunths. 

During  his  last  Ulnees  he  was  ^ratified 
bv  tlw  news  that  his  eldest  bob,  thi-  new 
Speaker,  had  b^en  voted  a  wilury  of  0,000'. 
«  year,  in  place  of  the  umvious  plan  of 
nrnunttration  hy  fee«  and  sinecures.  Bo 
rvmarkeil  to  a  youug<er  Mn:  'This  is  but 
the  b^nnin^  of  thai  bnv's  career.'  lie 
waa  buried  in  the  churdi  at  p'ringford 
br  the  side  of  bis  wife,  whom  ho  lost  in 

[Pulew's  JAtt  and  Correnponilenor  at  thrflnit 
Viwdosl  Sidmoulh  (IS4T),  *ul.  i. ;  Mnnk's  l.'ul- 
tut  of  Phyaieinni.  2ild  td.  (1878),  ii.  198; 
Cbtlhunnnrra«p«m)eRTO(l84a).vnLiv.;  Pnrtiu' 
■MUry  HlHtiiry,  xivii.  092.]  K.  t:. 

ADDINGTON,  HENRY,  first  Viscount 
SnwotrTR  (1767-iH44),  was  the  son  of 
Or.  ;Viilhonv  AJdinifton  [see  Addisoton,  . 
.indOKT}.  'WhenfivcyearBold  hewassent 
MachonI  at  Cheam,  where  be  remained  about 
six  years.  He  tlien  entered  Wiiithesfer  iis 
a  commoner,  and  in  1771  was  iidniitlcd  lo 
Lincoln's  lun.  A  liieloiig  friendship  furmed 
at  WinchcBterwithGeorjfeHunt.inirlordjthen 
■n  aMititanl  master,  and  afternnmH  wnnien  , 
lift  fas  col  lep",  a  ndsLiocBSsively  bishop  of  Glou-  | 
o-SI^r  and  Hen>ford,  is  a  proof  of  the  high 
character  which  .addington  bore  at  school,  i 
.\fter  a  year's  residence  as  a  jirivate  pupil  | 
with  l>r.  noodenougb,  afterwards  hishop  of 


r  of  firosenose. 
there  appears  to  have  been  Kludioiis.  He 
ijx>k  tlip  it'gree  of  B.A.  in  177>4,  and  the 
nwit  year  obtained  the  chancellor's  medal 
fijr  an  English  essay,  ^^liile  at  Oxford  he 
■howvtd  n  lofte  for  writing  English  verses, 
in  which  he  occasionally  indulged  in  after 
lifethoiighwithnogreat  success.  On  leaving 
theuniviTsity  he  turned  to  the  stndv  of  law. 
In  1781  he  married  Ursula  Mary,  daughter 
uf  lieonard  Hammond  of  Clieam.  He  was 
tntimatt-  with  William  Pitt  froln  childhood, 
and  this  intimacy  led  him  to  leave  ilie 
law  for  H  political  cnre«r.  He  was  elected 
.M.P.  for  Deviles  in  1783.  At  the  end  of 
that  year  Pitt  formed  his  Urst  ndminiatrution, 
and  Adilin^nn  was  one  of  his  wonneat  sup- 
{lorlpni.  Till!  minister  endeavoured  in  vain 
to  excite  ihe  ambition  of  his  tri^nd,  and 
(fauugh  in  17h6  Addingl«n  whs  persuaded 
to  wcond  the  addnws,  he  hardly  nver  spoke 
in  porliameui.    He  devoted  himself  to  com- 


mittees and  to  learning  (he  practice  and 
procedure  of  the  house.  Addington's  temper 
and  character,  however,  won  him  universal 
esteem,  and  his  friendship  with  Pitt  enhanced 
his  importance.  In  1789  the  influence  of  Pitt 
procured  hie  election  as  speaker.  He  was 
well  fitted  for  this  office,  which  he  held  with 
great  credit  for  eleven  years  and  in  three 
parliaments.  In  the  session  after  his  elec- 
tion the  salary  of  the  speaker,  which  up  to 
that  time  had  been  derived  from  fluctuating 
sources,  was  fixed  at  6,000/.  a  year.    A  pro- 

!o(ial  appears  lo  have  been  made  to  him  in 
708  that  he  sliould  enter  the  cabinet  as  se- 
cretary of  stale,  but  he  preferred  to  keep  the 
gpeokeraliip.  Until  1796  mucli  of  his  time 
WHS  'taken  up  by  the  proceedings  against 
Warren  Hastings.  In  connection  with  this 
CHse  the  speaker  concurred  in  the  constitu- 
tional maxim,  etilablixbed  in  1790,  that  an 
impeaclimetit  is  not  abated  by  a  dissolution. 
During  this  period  of  his  life  Addington 
spent  his  vacations  in  domestic  enjoyment 
aC  Woodley,  an  estate  which  he  bought  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Reading.  In  aft.er 
vears  Addington  said  ihat,  as  early  as  17^, 
Pitt  told  hmi  'that  he  must  make  up  bis 
mind  to  take  the  government.'  The  words 
were  possibly  spoken  under  the  pressure  of  the 
difBcultiea  of  the  time.  They  could  scarcely 
have  been  said  with  serious  inieutiou;  yet 
they  perhaps  show  that  Pitt  was  led  by  tiis 
friendship  to  think  highly  of  Addington'a 
political  abilities,  This  friendship  caused 
the  s]ieaker  on  one  occasion  to  forget  his 
usual  impartiality.  In  the  dispute  which 
took  place  in  the  house  between  Pitt  and 
Tiemey  in  17W,  he  certoinly  allowed  hi» 
friend  to  set  at  nought  the  authority  of  the 
chair.  He  took  uii  means  to  prevent  the 
<|iiarre]  being  carried  further,  aii(],  though  he 
was  informed  that  a  duel  was  arranged,  he 
did  not  interfere  to  stop  it,  and  even  went 
to  Putney  to  be  present  at  the  meeting 
(May'b  Parliantentary  Prariicr,  p.  3381.  a£ 
dington  took  an  active  part  in  the  patriotic 
efforts  which  were  excited  by  the  war,  He 
suggested  the  voluntary  sulwcription  raised 
(1797-6)  to  augment  the  amount  brought 
in  bv  the  assesaed  taxes,  and  gave  2,(mM. 
to  the  fund.  He  also  devoted  much  time 
aad  attention  to  the  Woodley  cavalry,  a 
tmop  of   volunteers  which   was   under   his 

While  Addington  agreed  with  Pitt  as  to 
(he  necessity  of  the  union  with  Ireland,  he 
did  not  approve  of  the  policy  of  concession 
by  which  the  minister  hoped  to  make  the 
union  a  healing  measure.  In  a  debate  in 
e(nnmitte«  on  12  Feh.  1799,  he  made  a  speech 
of  considerable  weight  in  support  of  the  pro- 


Addington 


1X8 


Addington 


jecty  but  declared  that '  if  he  had  to  choose 
between  the  re-enactment  of  the  popery  laws 
and  catholic  emancipation,  coupled  with  par- 
liamentary reform,  as  the  means  of  restoring 
tranquillity  to  Ireland,  he  should  give  the 
preference  to  the  former.'    In  January  1801, 
the  king  openly  expressed  his  abhorrence  of 
the  plan  of  catnolic  relief,  and  wrote  to  the 
speaner,  to  whom  he  had  already  shown  much 
favour,  expressing  his  wish  tlmt  Addington 
*  would  from   himself  open  Pitt's  eyes  on 
the  danger  *  of  agitating  the  question.     Ad- 
dington did  what   he   could,  and  believed 
that  he  had  succeeded  in  his  mission.     But 
Pitt  would  not  g^ve  way.     The  Idng  sent 
for  Addington  and  desired  him  to  take  the 
government.   '  Where,*  he  said, '  am  I  to  turn 
for  support  if  you  do  not  stand  by  me  ? ' 
Addington  at  once  consulted  Pitt,  who  en- 
treated him  to  accept  the  charge,  declaring 
that  he  *  saw  nothing  but  ruin '  if  he  hesi- 
tated.   He  accordingly  set  about  formincp  an 
administration.    As,  however,  the  members 
of  the  cabinet  who  agreed  with  Pitt  on  the 
catholic  question,  and  several  others,  among 
whom  were  Lords  Comwallis  and  Castle- 
reagh  and  Canning,  refused  to  take  office 
under  Addington,  *  he  was  forced  to  call  up 
the  rear  ranks  of  the  old  ministry  to  form 
the  front  ranks  of  a  new  ministry'  (Mao- 
AtTLAY,  Biographies f  p.  212).      The  illness 
of  the  king  delayed  the  actual  change  in  the 
administration.   Addington  had  resigned  the 
speakership,  but  Pitt  still  remained  de  facto 
minister.     Pitt's  friends  took  advantage  of 
the  delay.     They  affected  to  believe  that 
Addington  looked  on  himself  as  a  mere  locum 
tenens  tor  Pitt,  whose  position  as  regards  the 
catholic  question  was  changed  by  an  assur- 
ance which  he  gave  the  king  that  he  would 
not  a^in  enter  on  it  during  his  majesty's 
life.   Pitt  did  not  conceal  his  readiness  to  re- 
turn to  office  if  the  opportunity  were  offered 
liim.      Without  his   authority  his  friends 
urged  Addington   to  retire   in   his  favour. 
Addington  naturally  refused  a  request  which 
implied  his  own  inferiority.  On  14  March  the 
king  was  so  far  convalescent  as  to  be  able 
to  transact  business,  and  Addington  entered 
office  as  first  lord  of  the  treasury  and  chan- 
cellor of  the  exchequer.     The  king  was  de- 
lighted with  his  new  minister.    Addington's 
very  mediocrity  suited  his  master,  and  this 
congeniality,  and  the  fact  that  his  assumption 
of  office  extricated  the  king  from  a  difficulty 
and  promised  the  success  of  his  policy,  were 
expressed  in  the  phrase  *  my  own  chancellor 
of  the  exchequer.'    Official   duty   made   it 
necessary  for  Addington  to  reside  near  Lon- 
don, and  the  king  assigned  him  the  White 
I^ge  in  Richmond  Park.   Pitt  gave  him  his 


warm  support  in  parliament,  and  declared  his 
readiness  to  help  him  whenever  he  needed 
his  advice.  On  his  accession  to  office  the 
question  of  the  eligibility  of  clergymen  to 
sit  in  the  House  of  Commons  came  before 
parliament  in  the  case  of  Home  Tooke.  Ad- 
dington brought  in  and  Carried  a  bill  (41 
Oeo.  Ill,  c.  63)  which  at  once  declares  and 
enacts  their  disqualification  for  member- 
ship. 

Negotiations  for  a  peace  with  France  at 
once  engaged  the  attention  of  the  minister, 
and  he  received  much  help  from  Pitt  in  the 
settlement  of  the  preliminary  articles.  These 
negotiations  arrayed  against  the  government 
a  party  of  tories  led  by  Lord  Grenville  and 
Windham.    This  party  was  called  the  New 
Opposition  to  distinguish  it  from  the  old  whig 
opposition,  which  approved  the  peace.    The 
definitive  treaty,  the  peace  of  Amiens,  was 
signed  in  March  1802.  Although  the  country 
did  not  gain  all  that  it  expected,  the  peace 
was  highly  popular.    The  Foxites  rejoiced, 
and  on  a  motion  of  censure  the  government 
policy  was  approved  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons by  276  to  20.    Pitt  upheld  the  peace, 
though  he  saw  more  clearly  than  Addington 
the  necessity  of  preparing  for  war  at  the  same 
time.    Addington  seems  to  have  believed  in 
the  sincerity  of  Bonaparte.    Some  rest  was 
needfiil  for  the  country,  and  in  after  years 
even  Windham  acknowledged  that,  without 
the  peace  of  Amiens,  England  could  not  have 
maintained  the  struggle.    Addington  was 
over-hasty  in  giving  the  country  the  relief 
it  needed,  and  at  once  put  the  forces  on  a 
peace  footing.     On  one  occasion  Addington 
seemed  careless  of  Pitt's  political  reputation, 
and  a  slight   estrangement   arose   between 
them.   This  passed  away.   But  as  the  course 
pursued  by  tlie  First  Consul  and  the  tone  of 
the  *  Moniteur '  threatened  war,  and  no  ade- 
quate measures  for  defence  were  taken  by 
the  government,  Pitt  grew  dissatisfied  with 
the  conduct  of  affairs,  and  absented  himself 
from  parliament.     The    encroachments   of 
France  caused  the  public  to  feel  less  satis- 
fied with  the  peace.     In  November,  Canning 
formed  a  plan  for  inducing  Addington  to 
resign  by  presenting  him  with  an  address 
calling  on  him  to  give  way  to  Pitt.     The 

Sroject  came  to  Pitt's  knowledge,  and  was 
ropped  by  his  wish.  His  friends  were, 
however,  successful  in  prevailing  on  him  to 
give  no  further  advice  to  the  government. 
The  tone  of  Addington's  financial  statement, 
which  was  considered  boastful  and  invidious, 
exasperated  the  Pittites.  In  the  country  the 
ministry  still  continued  popular  and  was 
upheld  by  the  *  Times.'  This  popularity  de- 
pended on  the  peace,  and,  in  March  1803,  it 


Addington               119  Addington 

became  evident  that  war  was  at  hand.     Ad-  theincapacityofhiscoUeagut^.  TheiHimpous 

dington  proposed  a  lar]g;e  angmentation  of  manner  and  sententious  gravitv  which  he- 

the  na\'7  and  the  emhodiment  of  the  militia,  came  the  sfteaker  s  chair  weiv  ill  ^i^iiited  for 

He  found  his  position  shaken,  and  hoped  to  dehate.     \N  ith  the  countr}-  gentry*  he  was 

strengthen  it  dv  the  help  of  Pitt.     He  first  popular.      Self-satisfied  and   honourable,   a 

prop(^ed  that  they  should  both  hold  office  strong    chuivhman,   narrow   in    mind  and 

unaer  a  first  minister,  whose  position  in  the  sympathies,  he  was  trusted  by  them.     They 

cabinet  should  be  merely  nominaL     When  understood  him,  for  he  was  one  of  them- 

this  proposal  was  refuscNl,  he  o^red  with  selves.     He  was  £rank  and  jovial,  and  used 

great  generosity  that  Pitt  should  be  the  first  in  old  age  to  call  himself  the  last  of  *the 

minister,  and  that  he  should  hold  office  under  port-wine   faction.*     His    very   mediocrity 

him.     Pitt  insisted  on  bringing  Jjord  Gren-  suited  them  better  than  the  lo^iness  of  Pitt, 

ville,  Windham,  and  others  with  him  into  In  his  use  of  patronage  he  did  not  rise  even 

the  administration.     Addington  wished  to  to  the  highest  standard  of  his  time,  for  he 

strengthen  the  existing  ^vemment  by  the  conferred  on  his  son  at  the  age  of  sixteen  the 

addition  of  Pitt.   Pitt  insisted  on  the  virtual  rich  sinecure  of  the  clerkship  of  the  pells, 

dissolution  of  the  cabinet  and  the  introduc-  On  leaving  office,  however,  he  refused  a  peer- 

tion  of  men  who  had  violently  opposed  the  age  and  a  pension. 

measures  of  the  existing  administration.  The  For  a  while  Addington  oppose<l  the  new 

negotiations  &iled.    Addington  did  not  tell  ministry  of  Pitt.     Before  the  close  of  1804, 

the  king  of  his  proposals  until  after  their  however,  the  two  old  friends  were  rectniciled. 

failure,  although  they  implied  a  total  chimge  In  January  1805,  Addington  was  crt^ated  Vis- 

in  the  character  of  the  administration.    The  count  Sidmouth,  and  enten>d  the  cabinet  as 

friendship  between  Addington  and  Pitt  was  president  of  the  council.    Tlie  reconciliation 

for  a  time  wholly  broken.     The  war  was  re-  was  short-lived.   Lord  Sidmouth  pressed  for 

newed  in  May  1803.     The  ministry  gained  places  for  his  friends.   \t  the  same  time  they 

considerable  popularity  by  a   bill  for  the  voted  against  Pitt's  wishes  in  the  matter  of 

armament  of  the  nation.     Before  long  the  the  impeachment  of  his  friend  I-iord  Melville. 

unsatisfiEurtory  character  of  Addin^ons  ar-  Pitt  declared  that  Mheir  conduct  must  be 

rangements  became  apparent.     His  regula-  marked/  and  in  July  Lord  Sidmoutli  left  the 

tions  with  respect   to  the  volunteers  were  ministry.   The  distrt»ssing  illness  of  his  eldest 

such  as  to  discourage  the  movement  and  to  son,  who  died  in  1823,  and  his  own  weak 

curtail  its  efficiency.     The  naval  adminis-  health,  kept  him  for  some  months  u way  from 

tration  of  Lord  St.  Vincent  was  extremely  public  life.  In  FebniarA*  1806,  he  was  invited 

faulty.     Canning  in  his  bitter  verse  poured  to  join  the  coalition   government  of  Lord 

scorn  on  Addington  and  his  colleagues,  on  Grenville  and  Fox,  for  his  compact  i)arty  of 
their  commonplace  abilities  and  measures.  .  some  fifty  adherents  in  the  Commons  and 
The  'Doctor' — the  nickname  given  to  Ad-  j  the  confiilence  wliich  the  king  had  in  him 
dington — ^was  made  the  object  of  coarse  and  .  made  him  a  usefid  ally.  He  dittered  from  his 
violent  satire  by  the  wits.    His  friends  retali-  !  colleagues  in  their  negotiations  with  the  king 

ated  by  beginning  a  war  of  pamphlets.     *  A  on  the  catholic  question,  but  acttnl  honour- 


Few  Cyursory  Remarks,'  by  a  Mr.  Bentley, 
published  without  Addington's  consent,  con- 
tained an  attack  on  Pitt.  The  contempt 
felt  for  Addington  was  changed  into  hatred. 
Karly  in  1804  the  old  and  new  oppositions 
combined  against  him.  *  You  wiU  get  Pitt  in 
again,'  was  Sheridan's  warning  to  Fox.  *•  I 
can't  bear  fools,  anything  but  fools,'  was  his 
rt'ply.  Pitt  at  last  openly  opposed  the  go- 
vernment. The  majority  sank  to  37,  and  Ad- 
dington on  30  Apnl  declared  his  intention 
to  resign.  With  a  respectable  majority  in 
the  house,  with  a  body  of  firm  personal  ad- 
herents, and  with  considerable  influence  in 
the  country,  he  left  office  because  he  could 
not  stand  with  Pitt  a^inst  him,  and  dared 
not  face  the  combination  of  talented  men  of 
all  parties  who  Joined  in  exposing  his  inca- 
pacity. His  inaustry  and  good  intentions 
coula  not  make  up  tor  his  own  dulness  and 


ably  in  not  separating  himself  from  them. 
Some  ofthe  old  Pittite  party  continued  hostile 
to  him,  and  to  please  them  Perceval  passed 
him  over  in  1809,  while  he  tried  to  gain  his 
friends.  The  attempt  failed.  Perceval  after- 
wards offered  him  a  place  in  the  cabinet,  but 
Lord  Sidmouth  would  not  act  with  Canning 
and  refused  the  offer.  Kcclesiast  ical  matters 
always  had  a  charm  for  Lord  Sidmouth,  and 
his  zealous  churchmanship  led  him,  in  1811, 
to  bring  in  a  bill  requiring  all  dissenting 
ministers  to  be  licensed,  and  n?st raining  un- 
licensed preachers.  The  bill  would  nave 
pressed  hardly  on  the  various  nonconformist 
bodies,  and  especially  on  the  Wesley ans.  A 
considerable  outcry  was  made  against  it 
throughout  the  country,  and  on  the  second 
reading  it  was  thrown  out  by  the  lords 
without  a  division.  In  the  summer  of  this 
year  Lady  Sidmouth  died.     On  the  return 


Addington 


1 20 


Addington 


of  Lord  Sidmouth  to  public  affairs  in  1812, 
]ie  accepted  the  presidency  of  the  council  in 
the  cabinet  of  Perceval.  When,  on  Perce- 
val's assassination  about  a  month  afterwards, 
Lord  Liverpool  reconstructed  the  adminis- 


ment  as  tx>  the  unconstitutional  character  of 
this  circular,  and  it  was  rightly  alleged  that 
the  secretary  had  usurped  the  functions  of 
the  legislature.  In  spite  of  the  tremendous 
powers  with  which  he  was  armed.  Lord  Sid- 


tration,  Lord  Sidmouth  accepted  the  office  '  mouth  sustained  a  mortifyii^  defeat  in  the 


of  secretary  of  the  home  department,  which 
he  held  for  ten  years. 

In  1812  the  labouring  classes  were  suffer- 
ing severely  from  the  depression  in  agricul- 
ture and  trade.  Work  was  scarce,  prices 
were  high,  and  were  kept  up  by  protective 


triple  acquittal  of  William  Hone,  who  was 
tried  on  ex  officio  informations  for  the  pub- 
lication of  certain  parodies,  alleged  to  be 
blasphemous  and  sediitious  libels.  The  em- 
ployment of  spies  in  state  cases  occasioned 
various  accusations  to  be  made  in  parlia- 


restraint«.  Riots  broke  out,  and  the  north  I  ment  against  the  ministers,  and  a  charge 
was  disturbed  by  the  outrages  of  the  Ludd-  1  was  brought  against  the  secretary  of  state 
ites.  Kindly  as  Lord  Sidmouth  was  by  :  of  having  fomented  by  these  agents  the  very 
nature,  his  administration  was  severe,  ana,  I  disturbances  which  they  were  supppessing 


with  so  much  severity.  These  charges  were 
rejected,  and,  in  1818,  a  bill  of  indemnity  was 
passed  which  was  regarded  as  the  triumphant 
acquittal  of  the  minister.  About  the  same 
time  the  notorious  Thistlewood  sent  a  chal- 


during  ten  years  of  lawlessness  and  misery, 
he  ruled  with  unwavering  sternness.  He 
carried  a  temporary  measure  for  the  preser- 
vation of  peace  and  for  extending  the  power 
of  the  justices.  Fourteen  Luadites  were 
hanged  in  one  day  at  York.  His  severity 
was  highly  applauded,  and  the  dean  and 
chapter  of  Westminster  made  him  lord  high  1  known  as  the  >fanchester  massacre  (16  Aug. 
steward  of  that  city.  It  was  hoped  that  the  j  1819)  was,  to  some  extent,  the  result  of  the  in- 
opening  of  the  foreign  ports  in  1815  would  '  opportune  exhortations  to  a  display  of  energy 
have  relieved  the  distress  of  the  poor.  But  ]  given  by  the  secretary  of  state.  Lord  Sid- 
in  order  to  keep  up  prices,  the  government    mouth  hastened  to  express  the  thanks  of 


lenge  to  Lord  Sidmouth,  for  which  he  was 
indicted  and  imprisoned.    The  terrible  event 


carried  a  com  law  fixing  the  protecting  price 
of  wheat  at  80*.  a  quarter.     Lord  Sidmouth 


the  government  to  the  magistrates  and  to 
the  troops.     Strong  indignation  was   felt 


considered  that  any  reduction  *  would  be  im-  '  throughout  the  country  at  the  conduct  of 
provident  and  hazardous.'  During  the  de-  1  all  concerned  in  the  massacre.  Upheld  by 
bates  on  this  subject  there  was  some  rioting  ,  the  prince  regent,  who  fully  approved  the 
in  London,  and  the  home  secretary  showed  i  coercive  policy  of  the  minister,  and  by  the 
much  promptness  in  quelling  the  disorders.  '  tory  majority  in  parliament.  Lord  Sidmouth 
In  1816  the  discontent  of  the  working  classes  in  a  reply  from  the  throne  uncourteously  re- 
took a  more  decidedly  political  direction.  1  pelled  a  petition  from  the  common  council 
Up  to  1817  the  government  used  the  ordi-  |  of  London  pray incf  for  an  inquiry,  and  caused 
nary  legal  means  of  repression.  The  more  ,  the  removal  of  Earl  Fitzwilliam  from  his 
dangerous  outbreaks  of  that  year  led  to  1  lord-lieutenancy  for  taking  part  in  a  meeting 
coercive  measures.  After  the  attack  on  the  1  held  on  this  occasion.  In  the  next  ses- 
prince  regent,  Lord  Sidmouth  moved  for  a  |  sion  he  introduced  four  of  those  repressive 
committee  of  secrecy,  for  the  suspension  of  I  measures  which  are  known  as  the  *  Six  Acts.* 
the  Habeas  CJorpus  Act,  and  for  tlie  revival  |  In  common  with  the  other  cabinet  ministers, 
of  the  laws  against  seditious  meetings.  Other    Lord  Sidmouth  escaped  the  dan^r  of  the  Cato 

Street  conspiracy;  and  he  haa  a  full  share 

in  the  shame  and  unpopularity  which  the 

I  proceedings  against  Queen  Caroline  brought 


measures 


of  the  like  character  were  also 
adopted.  At  the  same  time  the  state  trials 
were  disgracefully  mismanaged,  and  the  Spa 

Fields  rioters  escaped  without  punishment,  i  upon  the  government. 
Lord  Sidmouth  determined  to  strike  at  what '  Desire  for  rest  caused  Lord  Sidmouth  to 
he  believed  to  be  the  root  of  the  disorder  of  |  retire  from  office  in  1821,  though  he  remained 
the  time  by  a  rigorous  enforcement  of  the  a  member  of  the  cabinet.  In  1823  he  married, 
laws  restraining  the  liberty  of  the  press.  '  as  his  second  wife,  Mary  Anne,  daughter  of 
He  issued  a  circular  to  the  lords  lieutenant  j  Lord  Stowell  and  widow  of  Mr.  T.  Townsend. 
of  counties,  setting  forth  the  opinion  of  the  i  On  the  death  of  Lord  Stowell  in  1833,  Lord 
law  officers  of  the  crown  with  respect  to  the  Sidmouth  received  a  considerable  increase  of 
power  of  justices  over  those  charged  with  fortune  and  resigned  a  crown  pension  which 
the  publication  of  blasphemous  or  seditious  had  been  granted  to  him  in  1817.  He  re- 
libels,  and  instructinjB^  them  as  to  how  they  '  tired  from  the  cabinet  in  1824,  because  he 
should  deal  with  unlicensed  vendors  of  pam-  >  disapproved  the  recognition  of  the  indepen* 
phlets.    Opinions  were  expressed  in  parlia-    dence  of  Buenos  Ayres.    After  that  date  he 


Addington 


121 


Addison 


seldom  attended  parliament.  Consistent  to 
his  old  tory  politics  he  opposed  catholic 
emancipation  in  his  last  speech  (April  18^), 
and  voted  against  the  Keform  Bill  (May 
18^32)  in  the  last  division  in  which  he  tooK 
part  in  person.  His  old  age  was  happy  and 
nonoured,  saddened  only  by  the  deaths  of  his 
friends,  and  especially  by  the  death  of  his 
wife,  which  took  place  in  1842.  He  loved 
to  talk  of  old  times  and  to  remember  that 
many  of  liis  former  political  enemies  had 
been  reconciled  to  him.  From  a  generous 
affection  for  the  memory  of  Pitt,  he  destroyed 
all  the  papers  which  seemed  to  him  to  prove 
that  his  former  friend  had  treated  him 
badly.  He  died  on  16  Feb.  1844,  and  was 
buried  at  Mortlake.  He  left  one  son  and 
four  daughters. 

[Pellew's  Life  of  Sidmouth ;  Stanhope's  Life 
-of  Pitt ;  MemoriaLs  of  C.  J.  Fox,  ed.  Lord  J. 
KiMseU ;  Lord  Malmewbury's  Diaries,  vol.  iv. ; 
Lewis'i*  Administrations  of  Great  Britain,  1783- 
1830;  Eden's  Letters  on  the  Peace,  1802;  A 
Few  Cursory  Remarks,  &c.,  by  a  Near  Observer, 
1803  ;  A  Plain  Answer,  &c.,  1803;  A  Brief  An- 
swer, &c.,  1803;  Spirit  of  the  Public  Journals, 
vii.  viii. ;  Ann.  Reg.;  Eklin.  Rev.  xxviii. '516, 
xxxiii.  187 ;  Walpole's  History  of  England.] 

W.H. 

ADDINGTON,  HENRY  UNWIN 
(1790-1870),  permanent  under-secretary  for 
foreign  affairs,  was  the  son  of  the  Right  Hon. 
John  Addington,  brother  of  the  first  Lord 
Sidmouth,  and  was  bom  24  March  1790.  He 
was  educated  at  Winchester  school,  and 
entered  the  Foreign  Office  in  January  1807. 
After  serving  on  various  diplomatic  missions 
he  in  1814  became  secretary  of  legation  to 
Switzerland,  and  was  afterwards  transferred 
successively  to  Copenhagen  and  Washington. 
Though  he  retired  from  active  service  on  a 
pension  in  1826,  his  experience  was  taken 
advantage  of  on  several  occasions  as  a  pleni- 
potentiary :  in  1826  during  the  negotiations 
with  the  United  States  in  London,  in  1828 
at  the  diet  of  Frankfort,  and  from  1829  to 
1833  at  Madrid.  From  1852  to  1854  he 
acted  as  permanent  under-secretary  of  state 
for  foreign  affairs,  and  on  his  retirement  from 
that  office  he  was  sworn  a  privy  councillor. 
He  died  6  March  1870. 


[Timetf,  8  March  1870.] 


T.  F.  H. 


ADDINGTON,  STEPHEN,  D.D.  (1729- 
1796),  independent  minister,  bom  at  North- 
ampton on  9  June  1729,  was  the  son  of 
Samuel  Addington.  He  was  educated  under 
Doddridge,  whose  academy  he  entered  in 
1746.  He  settled  in  the  ministry  at  Spald- 
wickyHuntingdonBhire.    In  1752  he  married 


Miss  Reymes,  and  removed  to  a  congre^tion 
at  Market  Harborough.  In  1758,  on  tne  re- 
moval of  Dr.  John  Aikin  to  Warrington,  he 
began  to  take  pupils  to  board.  Hence  he 
was  led  to  produce  a  good  many  school- 
books  ;  an  *  Arithmetic,'  a  *  Geographical 
Grammar,*  a  *  Greek  Grammar,'  1  /  61,  and 
other  similar  works.  In  1781  he  removed 
to  London,  to  a  congregation  in  Miles  Lane, 
Cannon  Street.  In  1783  he  became  also  tutor 
in  the  Mile  End  Academy.  In  theology  he 
belonged  to  the  conservative  section  of  dissent. 

I  He  was  affiicted  with  pab^y,  and  died  on 
6  Feb.  1796.    A  list  of  twenty  of  his  publica- 

I  tions  is  given  in  the  'Gentleman's  Magazine,* 

'  1796,  p.  348.  Most  worthy  of  note  are:  1.  *  A 
Dissertation  on  the  Religious  Knowledge  of 
the  Antient  Jews  and  Patriarchs,  containing 

,  an  Enquiry  into  the  Evidences  of  their  Belief 

'  and  Expectation  of  a  Future  State,'  1757. 
2.  *  A  Short  Account  of  the  Holy  Land,' 
1767.  3.  *  The  Christian  Minister's  Reasons 
for  baptizing  Infants,'  1 77 1 .  4.  *  An  Enquiry 
into  tne  Reasons  for  and  against  inclosing 
Open  Fields,'  1772.    5.  '  The  Life  of  PaiU 

,  the  Apostle,  with  critical  and  practical  re- 
marks on  his  Discourses  and  Wntings,'  1784 

I  (a  poor  performance). 

I      [Prot.  Diss.  Mag.  vol.  iii.  (portrait)  ;  Wilson's 
'  Dissenting  Churches.]  A.  G. 

ADDISON,  CHARLES  GREEN- 
STREET  (d.  1866),  le^al  writer,  was  the 
son  of  W.  Dering  Addison,  of  Maidstone. 
In  1838  he  published  ^  Damascus  and  Pal- 
myra,' descriptive  of  an  eastern  journey.  He 
afterwards  wrote  a  *  History  of  the  linight 
Templars,'  the  first  two  editions  of  which 
appeared  in  1842  and  a  third  in  1852.  In 
1843  he  published  another  liistorical  work 
on  the  Temple  Chiurch.  He  was  elected  to 
the  bar  in  1842,  joined  the  home  circuit,  and 
was  a  revising  barrister  for  Kent.  In  1848 
he  married  Frances  Octavia,  twelfth  child  of 
the  Honourable  James  Wolfe  Murray,  Lord 
Cringletie,  by  whom  he  left  seven  cliildren. 
He  is  best  known  as  the  author  of  twolepil 
text-books  of  some  reputation,  a  *  Treatise 
on  the  Law  of  Contracts,'  1845,  and 
*  Wrongs  and  their  Remedies,  a  Treatise  on 
the  Law  of  Torts,'  1860,  which  have  gone 
through  several  editions  in  England  and 
America. 

[Law  Times,  March  10,  1866.] 

ADDISON,  JOHN,  D.D.  (Jl.  1538), 
divine,  a  native  of  the  diocese  of  York,  was 
admitted  to  a  fellowsliip  at  Pembroke  Hall, 
Cambridge,  in  1505,  and  graduated  B.D.  in 
1519,  and  D.D.  in  1523.    He  became  chap- 


Addison  122  Addison 


lain  to  Fisher,  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  in  the  wife,  was  bom  1  May  1672,  at  his  father^a  rec- 
twenty-fifth  year  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VHI  \  tory,  Milaton,near  Amesbury,  Wilts,  and  bap- 
he  was  attainted  by  parliament  of  misprision  tised  the  same  day  on  account  of  his  apparent 
of  treason  for  concealment  of  the  pretended  W  delicacy.  Hisfather,  on  becoming  dean  of  lidi- 
revelations  of  Elizabeth  Barton,  the  *  Holy  l^eld  (1683),  sent  the  boy,  who  had  already 
Maid  of  Kent,'  and  it  was  enacted  that  hef  fleen  at  schools  in  Amesbury  and  Salisbury,  to 
should  lose  his  spiritual  promotions  from  I  a  school  at  Lichfield  ;  and  here,  according  to  a 
20  March  1533-4.  i  story  reported  by  Johnson,  he  was  the  leader 

Dr.  Addison  superintended  the  publication  of  a  *  barring-out.*  He  was  soon  transferred 
of  Bishop  Fishers  *  Assertionis  Lutheranae  to  the  Charterhouse,  though  not  placed  upon 
Confiitatio,*  1523,  and  had  a  grant  from  the  !  the  foundation,  and  there  became  the  hero  of 
king  of  the  sole  printing  of  it  for  tliree  years.  '  Steele,  his  junior  by  three  years.  Steele  saw 
In  or  about  1538  he  ^vrote  a  book  in  support  I  Addison  in  his  home  cirde,  and  long  aft^r- 
of  the  pope's  supremacy  over  all  bishops,  to  ;  wards  (Toiler,  No.  236)  commemorated  ita 
which  a  reply  was  made  by  Cuthbert  Tun-  i  unique  charm.  The  impartial  tenderness  of  ^ 
stal,  bishop  of  Durham,  and  John  Stokesly,  the  father,  he  says,  equally  developed  the  mu-  ' 
bishop  of  London.  tual  affection  of  his  cnildren  and  their  respect 

[Lewi8*8LifeofBiBhopFi8her,i.204,ii.  113,    f^?^*^!^'     Jn  1687,  Addison  was  »Bnt  to 
348,  361,  406 ;  Cooper 8  Athenae  Cnntab.  i.  68  ;    Ji?  ^^^^^^^  college,  Queens  CoU^,  Oxford.    • 
Calendars  of  State  Papers.]  T.  C.      ,  His    classical    acquirements    soon  attracted 

notice,  and  Dr.  Lancaster,  then  fellow  and 

ADDISON,  JOHN  (1766?- 1844),  com-  |  afterguards  provost  of  Queen's,  happening  to 
poser  and  performer  on  the  double  bass,  was  ^  see  some  of  his  Latin  verses,  obtained  for  him 
the  son  of  a  village  mechanic,  and  as  a  child  i  in  1689  one  of  the  demyships  at  Magdalen^ 
showed  considerable  musical  capability,  |  many  of  which  were  then  vacant  in  conse- 
leaming  to  play  on  the  flageolet,  flute,  bas-  ;  quence  of  the  attack  upon  the  privileges  of 
soon,  and  violin.  lie  became  member  of  the  '  tlie  college  by  James  II.  Addison  took  his 
lloyal  Society  of  Musicians  7  Oct.  1753  M.A.  degree  in  1693,  and  gained  a  proba- 
( Records  of  Royal  Soc.  of  Musicians).  He  !  tionary  fellowship  in  1697,  and  a  fellowship 
married,  about  1793,  an  orphan  ward  of  his  in  1698,  which  he  held  till  1711.  He  took 
parents.  Miss  Willems,  who  was  a  niece  of !  pupils,  and  rapidly  acquired  reputation  for 
the  bass  singer  Reinhold,  and  after  her  mar-  ^  elegant  scholarship,  especially  for  his  know- 
riage  sang  herself  with  success  at  Vauxhall.  |  led^  of  Latin  poetry.  His  own  Latin  poems 
She  soon  afterwards  obtained  an  engagement  .  are  highly  praised  by  Johnson,  and  Macaulay^ 
at  Liverpool,  where  her  husband  adopted  the  prefers  him  to  all  his  British  rivals  except 
musical  profession,  playing  first  violoncello  i  Milton  and  Buchanan.  They  include  a  poem 
and  then  double  bass  in  the  orchestra.  The  '  on  the  Peace  of  Ryswick,  on  an  altar-piece 
Addisons  then  went  to  Dublin,  and  in  1796  '  of  the  Resurrection  at  Magdalen,  a  descrip- 
Mrs.  Addison  appeared  at  Covent  Garden  in  ;  tion  of  a  bowling-green,  a  barometer,  and  a 
^Love  in  a  Village.^   In  1797  they  went  to    pupi)et-show,  addresses  to  Dr.  Hannes  and 

~  Burnet  of  the  Charterhouse,  and  a  mock- 

heroic  war  between  the  cranes  and  pigmies. 


Bath,  and  then  to  Dublin  and  Manchester, 
where  John  Addison  for  a  time  abandoned 
music  for  mercantile  speculations  which 
resulted  in  the  loss  of  a  considerable  sum. 
Resuming  his  original  career,  he  made  himself 
known  by  composing  several  now  forgotten 


In  the  last  Macaulay  notes  an  anticipation 
of  Swift's  description  of  the  king  of  Luliput, 
taller  by  the  breadth  of  a  nail  than  any  of 
his  courtiers.    Addison's  classical  reputation 


operas  for  Covent  Garden  and  the  Lyceum,  fioon  extended  to  the  literary  circles  of  Lon« 
the  most  successful  of  w^hich  were  the  lion.  He  wrote  a  poetical  address,  congratu- 
*  Sleeping  Beauty*  (1805)  and  the  *  Russian  llatin^  Drjden  upon  the  translations  from  the 
Impostor*  (1809).  lie  played  the  double  I  classical  poets  by  which  the  veteran  ruler  of 
])a88  for  many  vears  at  the  opera,  and  at  the  [  English  hterature  was  eking  out  a  scanty  in- 
Ancient  and  otlier  concerts,  besides  achieving  "^ 
some  success  as  a  teacher  of  singing.  He 
died  at  Camden  Town  30  Jan.  1844. 


[Grove's  Dictionary  of  Music,  i.  30 ;  Musical 
I'^miner  for  10  Feb.  1844;  The  Georgian  Em 
(1834),  iii.  630;  Gent.  Mag.  1844.]    W.  B.  S. 

ADDISON,  JOSEPH  (1672-1719),  es- 


come.  Dryden  inserted  this  in  the  third  part 
of  the  *  Miscellany  Poems  *  (1693) ;  and  to  the 
fourth  part,  which  appeared  in  1694,  Addison 
contributed  a  translation  of  parts  of  the  fourth 
Georgic,  and  a  didactic  ^  account  of  the  great  • 
est  English  poets.'  The  last  is  dedicated  tc 
H.  S.,  said  to  be  Henry  Sacheverell,  who  wa^ 
Addison  s  contemporary  at  Ma^alen,  and 


sayist,  poet,  and  statesman,  son  of  Lancelot    destined  afterwards  to  be  conspicuous  as  a 
Addison  [see  Addison,  Lancelot]  by  his  first '  political  opponent.  (A  correspondent  of  John- 


Addison  123  Addison 


son's,  howeTer,  ascribes  it  to  a  Manxman  of  poetn-  by  a  penisal  of  Addison's  Latin  verses; 
the  same  name;  see,  too, l^iCKOUi'B Literarj/  and  the  iniluenee  of  Boileau  may  be  traced 
Anecdotes,  i.  113.)  In  1697,  Addison  contn-  in  Addison's  later  writings.  He  left  France 
liuted  an  anonymous  essay  upon  the  Georgics  |  in  December  1700  (misdated  1699  in  his 
to  Dryden's  transition  of  Virpl;  and  in  a  '  *Travels')for  a  tour  through  Italy.  He  sailed 
*  postscript  to  the  -^neis  *  Dryden  repaid  his  !  from  Marseilles  ;  was  driven  by  a  storm  into 
services  by  a  hi^h  compliment  to  the  '  inge-  '  Savona ;  thence  crossed  the  mountains  to 
nious  Mr.  Addison  of  Oxford.*    Referring  to  j  Genoa,  and  travelled  through  Milan  to  Venice, 


Addison's  translation  of  the  fourth  Georgic,  ,  where  his  fanc^  was  struck  bv  a  ^[Totesque 
he  declares  that  *  after  his  "  Bees  "  my  latter  i  play  upon  the  death  of  Cato.  He  visited  the 
swarm  is  scarce  worth  the  hiving.'  ]  little  repubhc  of  San  Marino,  passed  liastily 

Addison  was  thus  taking  a  place  amongst  '  through  Rome,  and  spent  the  Holy  Week  at 
the  professional  authors.  A  correspondence  Naples.  He  climbed  Vesuvius,  visited  the 
withTonson  (published  by  Miss  Aikin)  shows  !  island  of  Capri,  and  returned  by  OstiatoRome. 
..that  the  bookseller  had  engaged  him  for  a  i  where  hespent  the  autumn.  Thence  he  reached 
translation  of  Herodotus.  His  academical  ,  Florence,  and,  crossing  the  Mont  Cenis,  reached 
position  might  suggest  the  intention  of  taking  '  Geneva  in  November  1701.  Throughout,  if 
orders,  expressed  in  the  conclusion  of  the  I  we  are  to  judge  from  liis  narrative,  he  seems 
poem  to  H.  S.  (3  April  1694).    Tickell  says  j  to  have  considered  the  Hcenerj'  a.<«  designed  to 


tliat  Addison  was  deterred  from  this  step  by 
his  modesty ;  Steele  attributes  the  change  of 
intention  to  the  favour  of  Charles  Montague, 


illustrate  his  beloved  })oets.  He  delights  to 
take  Horace  as  a  ^de  from  Rome  to  Naples, 
and  Virgilfora  guide  upon  the  return  journey. 


afterwards  Earl  of  Halifax.    Halifax,  Pope  s    At   ever}-  turn  his  memon'  suggests  fresh 


Bufo,  had  himself  ^ined  his  first  successes 
as  a  poet ;  he  aspired  to  be  a  patron  of 
letters;  and  in  those  days  political  patron- 
age was  beginning  to  descend  upon  the 
literary  class.  Halifax  was  already  the  pa- 
tron of  Congreve,  the  rising  poet  to  whom 
Dryden  was  just  bequeathing  iiis  reputation 
and  his  literary  sceptre.  Congreve,  according 
to  Steele  (who  appeals  to  Congreve  himself  in 
cf>nfirmation),  introduced  Aadison  to  M(mt- 
ague,  now  chancellor  of  the  excliequer.  A 
poem  *  to  the  King,*  in  1695,  introduced  bv  a 
dedication  to  Lord  Somers,  testified  to  Addi- 
son's political  orthodoxy  and  literary  facility. 
It  was  followed  (1697)  by  a  Latin  poem  on 
the  Peace  of  Ryswick,  with  a  dedication 
to  Montague.  Montague  obtained,  through 
Somers,  a  pension  of  800/.  a  year  for  the  young  i 


quotations  from  the  whole  range  of  Latin 
poetry.    The  works  of  ancient  art  preseri'ed 
at  Rome  delight  him  sjieciully  by  clearing  up 
])assages    in  Juvenal,   Ovid,   Manilius,  and 
Seneca.      He  turns  from  the  christian  an- 
tiquities with  the  brief  remark  tliat  they  are 
so  *  embroiled  with  fable  and  legend  that 
there  is  little  satLsfaotion  in  searcliing  into 
tliem.'   But  Addison  was  no  mere  dilettanti*. 
His  classical  acquirements  were  but  the  ai)- 
propriate  accomplishment  ofamindthoroughlv 
imbued  with  the  culture  of  his  age,  in  which 
the  classical  spirit  was  regarded  as  the  anti- 
thesis of  Gothic  obscurity.    Though  a  sincere\ 
and  even  devout  christian,  he  looked  uponi 
catholic  observances  with   a  contempt  akin  | 
to  that  of  the  deistical  Shaftesbury.     He  / 
turns  from  poetry  to  point  a  moral  against 


poet ;  and  declared  at  the  same  time,  in  a  I  po]>ery  and  arbitrary  power.  The  peasants 
letter  to  the  head  of  Magdalen,  that,  thoughNf  on  the  *  savage  mountain  *  of  San  Marino  are 
represented  as  unfriendly  to  the  church,  ne  1  happy  because  free ;  wliilst  tyranny  has  con- 
'vrould  never  do  it  any  other  injury  than  byj  verted  the  rich  Campagna  of  Rome  into  a 
keeping  Addison  out  of  it.  The  pension  win  wilderness.  These  sentiments  are  expressed 
intended,  it  seems,  to  enable  Addison  to  qua-  with  great  vigour  in  the  best  written  of  his 
lify  himself  for  diplomatic  employments  by  |  poems,  the  *  Letter  from  Italy,'  written  as 
foreign  travel.  He  left  England  in  the  au-  i  he  was  crossing  the  Alps,  and  addressed  to 
tumn  of  1699,  and,  after  a  short  stay  in  Paris,  '  Halifax,  who  had  been  driven  from  office 
laettled  for  nearly  a  year  at  Blois  to  acquire  j  soon  after  Addison's  departure  from  England, 
the  language.  An  abb^  of  Blois  told  Spence  He  still  had  powerfid  friends.  Manchester,  j 
(^AnecMes,  p.  184)  that  Addison  lived  there  ■  now  secretary'  of  state,  had  been  known  to  '• 
in  great  seclnsion,  studying  and  seeing  no  :  him  in  Paris ;  and  Addison  waited  for  some 
one  except  the  masters — of  French,  pre- ,  months  at  Geneva,  expecting  to  receive  an 
saimably — who  used  to  sup  with  him.  In  i  appouitment  to  act  as  British  aj^ent  in  the 
1700  he  returned  to  Paris,  qualified  to  talk  camp  of  Eugene.  Instead  of  this,  he  soon 
'French  and  to  converse  with  the  famous  heani  of  the  death  of  William  111  and  the 
authors  Malebranche  and  Boileau.  Boileau,  expulsion  from  power  of  his  political  friends, 
as  Tickell  tells  us,  discovered  for  the  first  time  He  had  received  only  one  year's  payment  of 
that  Englishmen  were  not  incompetent  for    his  pension,  and  had  nothing  but  his  fellow- 


Addison  124  Addison 

ship  to  depend  upon.  He  continued  his  !  phin  cared  more  for  horse-racing  than  poet  n*, 
travels,  however,  reaching  Vienna  in  the  sum-  and  was  much  less  likely  to  reward  the  author 
mer  of  1702,  where  he  stayed  whilst  writing  of  a  set  of  verses  than  to  gratify  an  im- 
t)ie  graceful  dialogues  upon  medals,  composed  portant  ix)litician  hy  advancing  an  adherent, 
chiefly  of  illustrations  from  Latin  poetry,  |  In  any  case,  the  poem  and  the  smiile  achieved 
which  he  was  too  diffident  to  publish  in  his  a  great  success.  The  poem,  like  all  Addison's 
lifetime.  He  left  Vienna  in  the  winter,  performances  of  the  kind,  shows  facility  and 
visited  Hamburg,  and  in  the  summer  reached  poetic  sensibility,  stopping  short  of  poetic 
Holland  and  heard  of  his  father^s  death,  genius.  It  is  better  than  a  similar  poem  of 
He  returned  to  England  about  September  Halifax's  on  the  battle  of  the  Boyne,  but 
1703.  ;  does  not  stand  out  at  any  great  elevation 

Addison's  finances  are  a  mystery.  Swift  above  the  work  of  the  time;  and  Macaulay^ 
in  the  *  Libel  on  IJelany  *  says  that  he  was  remark  that  it  is  not  absurdly  mythological 
left  in  distress  abroad  and  beoune  *  travelling  !  is  praise  which  might  equally  be  applied  to 
tutor  to  a  squire.'  Swift  is  pointing  a  sar-  ,  Halifax  and  others.  Macaulay  notes  that  the 
casm,  and  liis  statement  is  not  corroborated,  simile  of  the  angel  owed  its  great  effect  to  its 
The  bookseller  Tonson,  who  met  Addison  in  allusion  to  the  famous  storm  of  1703 ;  and 
Holland,  was  authorised  by  the  *  proud '  Duke  Johnson  Quotes  the  remark  of  Dr.  Madden 
of  Somerset  to  propose  that  he  should  become  that  if  he  nad  proposed  the  same  topic  to  ten 
tutor  to  the  duke's  son.  The  negotiation  schoolbovs,  he  should  not  have  been  surprised 
failed,  apparently  because  Addison  offended  ;  if  ei^ht  liad  brought  him  the  angel.  Warton 
the  duke  oy  intimating  that  the  payment  of  ,  unkindly  calls  the  poem  a  *  Gazette  in  rhyme ' 
expenses  and  a  hundred  guineas  a  year  was  j  i^Esaay  on  Pope,  i.  29).  We  may  be  content 
insufficient.  At  any  rate,  Addison  returned  I  to  say  that  it  was  on  the  higfher  level  of 
to  England  and  remained  for  over  a  year  \  official  poetry,  and  helped  Addison's  rise  in 
without  employment.  He  retained  his  old  H literature  and  politics.  His  political  prefer- 
friendships,  however,  with  the  party  leaders  ;  I  ments  prove  the  liigh  esteem  of  his  powerful 
and  had  made  friends  with  distinguished  j  friends.  In  1700  he  received  the  under-secre- 
Englislimen  abroad,  especially  with  Edward  |  taryship  in  the  office  of  Sir  Charles  Hedges. 
Wortlev  Montagu,  afterwams  husband  of  I  He  retained  it  when  Hedges,  a  tory,  made 
Lady  Mary,  and  with  Stepney ,  English  envoy  \way  (Dec.  1706)  for  Sunderland,  one  of  the 
at  Vienna  and  one  of  Halifax's  friends.  Addi-  great  whig  junto.  In  1707,  Addison  accom- 
•  son  became  a  member  of  the  famous  Kitcat  |  panied  Halifax  on  a  complimentary  mission 
/Club,  to  which  all  the  great  whigs  belonged,  :  to  invest  the  Elector  of  Hanover  with  the 
/  and  NVTote  one  of  the  toasts  inscribed  upon  ;  order  of  the  Garter.  In  1709  he  became 
(  tlieir  glasses,  in  honour  of  the  Duchess  of  |  secretary  to  Wharton,  the  new  lord-lieuten- 
Manchester.  When  the  government  began  i  ant  of  Ireland.  An  office,  the  keepership 
to  incline  towuixis  tlie  whigs,  it  was  natural  ■  of  the  records,  was  found  for  him,  and  the 
that  Addison  should  come  in  for  a  reward,  i  salar}-  raised  to  400?.  a  year  (see  the  fourth 
Godolphin,  as  Budgell  tells  us  {Memoirs  of  Drapiers  Letter).  The  official  duties,  what- 
t/ie  BoyleSf  1732,  p.  161),  wished  for  a  poet  j  ever  they  may  have  been,  did  not  distract 
to  celebrate  the  battle  of  Blenheim  (13  Aug.  his  attention  from  literature.  His  *  liemarks 
1704).  He  had  a  conversation  with  Halifax,  |  on  several  Parts  of  Italy,*  published  in  1705, 
reported  with  suspicious  fulness  by  Budgell.  '  became  so  popular  that  it  rose  to  four  and  five 
Halifax  said  that  he  could  mention  a  com-  times  the  original  price  before  a  second  edition 
pt»tent  writer,  if  it  were  understood  that  he  |  was  brought  out  in  1718.  He  wrote  the 
should  be  well  rewarded.  Godolphin  there-  opera  *  Rosamond  '  in  conformity  with  a  prin- 
upon  sent  Boyle,  then  chancellor  of  the  ex-  ^  ciple  afterwards  expounded  in  the  eighteentli 
chequer,  who  found  Addison  in  an  indifferent  i  *  Spectator.*  It  seemed  monstrous  to  the 
lodging,  and  g^ve  him  by  way  of  retaining  i  common  sense  of  the  time  that  music  should 
fee  a  commissionership  of  appeals,  vacated  by  I  induce  people  to  listen  to  unintelligible  Italian 
I  the  death  of  Locke.  Tlie  success  of  his  poejn,  '  nonsense.  Addison  therefore  composed  an 
the  *  Campaign,'  was  rewarded  by  a  further  I  English  poem,  showing  some  lyrical  facility 
promotion  to  an  under-8ecretar\-8hip  of  i  and  characteristic  humour.  It  faded,  however, 
state.  Godolphin,  according  to  Tickell,  saw  on  the  stage,  though  it  afterwards  succeeded 
the  poem  when  finished  *  as  far  as  the  ap-  |  when  set  to  new  music  by  Ame.  He  helped 
plauaed  simile  of  the  angel,*  and  gave  the  com-  ,  St^e  about  the  same  time  in  the  *  Tender 
missionership  in  consequence.     The  anecdote  .  Husband,'  an  obligation  which   Steele  ac- 


lias  been  coloured  by  the  desire  to  represent 
Addison  as  a  poor  author  raised  from  a  garret 
to  fortune  by  discerning  patronage,     (iodol- 


knowledged  with  his  usual  warmth.  He 
dedicated  the  play  to  Addison  in  affectionate 
terms;    he  declared  afterwards   (Spectator, 


Addison  125  Addison 


Xo.  566)  that  many  of  the  'most  api)hLuded  Addison  was  the  Ixst  c<)m|mny  in  the  world  ; 
strokes  in  it '  were  Addison^s;  and  said  that  Dr.  Youn^  speaks  of  liin  *  noble  stream  of 
the  best  comment  upon  his  productions  would  thought  and  language '  when  once  he  had 
lie  an  account  of  the  time  when  Addison  was  overcome  liis  diffidence  ;  and  even  Pope 
at  home  or  abroad.  admitted  the  unequalled  charm  of  his  con- 

Addiaon's  social  qualities  helped  his  risejJ  versation  (Spbwcb,  Anecdotes,  pp.  232,  336, 
Hl»  high  character,  modesty,  and  sweetnes^  360).  The  most  characteristic  touch  is  pre- 
of  temper  won  for  hun  the  esteem  of  his  8er\'ed  in  Swift's  '  character  of  Mrs.  .Tolinson,' 
patrons  and  of  many  literary-  friends,  of  where  he  notices  her  admiration  of  Addison's 
whom  he  was  the  equal  or  the  patron.  He  practice  of  agreeing  with  people  who  were 
early  formed  a  close  friendship  with  S^\'ifty  *  very  warm  in  a  wrong  oi)inion.*  The  un- 
to  whom  he  presented  (1706)  a  copy  of  his  favourable  view  of  the  practice  is  given  in 
Italian  travels  (now  in  the  Forster  Library)    Pojie's  lines  : 

ini<cribed  *  to  the  most  agreeable  companion,  •,    t^^„     -.u  <•«:«*  «    •  *     •*!     •  -i  i 

the  truest  friend,  and  the  greatest  genius  of     ^TJ^^ll^'l^l^J^^^^^  ""^'^  ^"^  ^^^' 

hL.ag^.'     Steele   was  his   most   ardent   ad^,    ^^^^  ^^^^^^^^  «°eeniig  teach  tho  rest  to  sneer. 

mirer.  Less  famous  men,  especially  Tickell,  i  Addison's  sensitive  modesty  disqualified  him 
Ambrose  Philips,  Eustace  Buagell  (a  cousin),  for  the  rough  give-an«i-take  of  mixed  society, 
Davenant,  Oolonel  Brett,  and  Carey,  formed  but  gave  incomprable  charm  to  his  talk  with 
a  little  circle  united  by  a  common  vene-  a  single  congenial  friend,  or  to  the  ironical 
ration  for  their  chief.  '  Addison,  according  acquiescence  under  which  he  took  refuge  in 
to    Pope's    account,  generally  spent   much  .  ^^jP^  gatherings. 

nf  his  time  with  these  friends  at  coffee-"  Tlje  charm  may  be  inferred  from  the 
houses  ;  and  Pope  found  their  prolonged  .  writings  in  which  he  revealed  his  true  power, 
sittings  too  much  for  his  health  (Spbncb,  pp.  •  Addison  had  taken  his  share  of  politicid  war-  /.  .  , 
199,  286).  The  statement,  if  accurate,  refers  '  fare.  In  November  1707  he  had  published  ' 
chiefly  to  the  period  of  the  *  Spectator ; '  and  an  anonymous  pamphlet  on  the  *  Present 
these  social  meetings  are  placed  at  Button's,  State  of  the  War,'  exhorting  his  country- 
which  succeeded  Will's  as  the  resort  of  the  '  men  to  seize  the  opportunity  of  finally  se- 
wits ;  Button  being  an  old  servant  of  Addi-  parating  France  from  Spain,  and  insisting 
son's  or  Lady  Warwick's  who  set  up  his  upon  the  poverty  and  misery  of  the  French 
coffee-house  under  Addison's  patronage  about  people  to  encourage  the  hope  of  finally  over- 
1711.  It  is  generally  said  that  Addison  whelming  them.  He  came  into  parliament 
gave  in  too  much  to  the  ordinarv  drinking  |  in  Nov.  1708  for  Lostwithiel ;  and  that 
habits  of  the  time;  and  indications  in  his  election  being  set  aside  20  Dec.  1709, 
letters  and  elsewhere  confirm  this  solitary  he  was  elected  for  Malmesbury  by  the  in- 
imputation  upon  his  moral  propriety.  Tlie  fluence  of  Wharton  (Spencb,  p.  360)  or  his 
annotator  to  tne  *  Tatler '  (vol.  iv.  p.  300,  ed.  colleague  Sir  J.  llushout,  to  whose  brother 
1797)  gives  a  report  that  Addison  shortened    he  had  been  tutor  at  0.\ford  (Aixm).     He 


by  giving  him  excuses  for  such  indulgence,  mind  to  be  chosen  king,  he  would  hardlv 
Steele  seems  to  suggest  the  truth  in  the  be  refused  '  {^Journal  to  Stella,  8  Oct.  1710)': 
*  Tatler '  (No.  262).  Speaking  obviously  of  but  his  modesty  prevented  him  from  ever 
Addison,  he  says  that  '  vou  can  seldom  get  speaking.  In  the  autumn  of  1710,  when  the 
him  to  the  tavern;  but  w&en  once  he  is  arrived  j  whig  mmistiy  was  falling,  he  defended  them 
to  his  pint  and  begins  to  look  about  and  like  in  the  *  Whig  Examiner,'  of  which  five 
his  company,  you  admire  a  thousand  things  :  papers  only  appeared  (14,  21,  28  Sept., 
in  him  which  before  lay  buried.'  Addison)^'  6,  12  Oct..  1710).  They  contain  a  spirited 
in  fact,  though  not  intemperate  according  to 
the  standard  of  his  time,  sometimes  resorted 
to   stimulants  ti»    overcome    bashfulness  o^ 

depression  of  spirits.  The  charm  of  his  con-  |  Addison,  however,  was  to  withdraw  for  a 
vemation  when  once  the  ice  was  broken  is  time  from  active  political  exertion  and  to 
attested  by  observers  less  partial  than  Steele,  j  achieve  his  greatest  success.  The  fall  of 
Swift,  who  never  mentions  him  without  i  the  whigs  involved  his  loss  of  office.  He 
praiMs  declares  that,  often  as  they  spent  their  /  tells  Wortley  Montagu  (21  Jidy  1711) 
evenings  together,  they  never  wisned  for  a({  that  he  has  lost  within  twelve  months 
third  person  (Dsiahy,  Obtervationt,  p.  32).  ,  a  place  of  2,000/.  a  year,  an  estate  in  the 
Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montagu  declared  that    Inoies  of  14,000/.,  and  his  mistress  (AiKnr, 


,  and,  for  Addison,  u  bitter  attack  upon  the 

'  *  Examiner,'  then  the  organ  of  Harley  and 

St.  John,  but  not  yet  committed  to  Swift. 


Addison                 126  Addison 

ii.  44).  Nothing  is  known  of  the  last  mis-  four  to  Addison  and  Steele  in  conjunction. 
fortune.  It  is  singular,  however,  that  in  the  The  paper  hegan  hy  including  articles  of  news, 
same  year  (1711)  he  bought  the  estate  of  mixed  with  dramatic  criticism  and  short 
l^ilton  in  Warwickshire  for  10,000/.  (Ire-  ,  essays  and  novels  in  the  older  sense  of  the 
LAin),  BeautieB  of  the  Avon^  p.  70).  In  1735  woid.  With  Addison's  co-operation  the  eBsay 
it  was  valued  at  about  600/.  a  year  (Egerton  became  more  important,  and  the  article  of 
MS,  1073,  f.  107).  It  has  been  generally  said  news  declined.  Steele*s  acknowledgment  in 
that  he  was  enabled  to  make  this  purchase  by  the  last  number  seems  to  imply  that  the  re- 
inheriting  the  fortime  of  his  brother  GuLston,  ligious  reflections  in  Addison  s  more  serious 
who,  through  Addison's  influence  {Went-  papers  and  allegorical  visions  were  popular 
worth  Papers,  75,  6),  had  been  appointed  to  at  the  time.  Some  of  the  purely  humorouK 
succeed  '  Diamond  '  Pitt  as  governor  of  Fort  papers,  such  as  the  *  Political  Qmdnuncs  *  in 
St.  George.  A  correspondence  preserved  in  No.  155,  the  *  Virtuoso's  Will,'  No.  216,  and 
the  British  Museum  {Egerton  MS.  1972)  the  *  Frozen  Words,*  No.  254,  show  the  un- 
shows  this  to  be  a  mistake.  Gulston,  who  died  rivalled  vein  of  playful  humour  soon  to  be 
10  Oct.  1709,  made  Addison  an  executor  more  brilliantly  manifested, 
und  residuary  legatee.  The  difficulty,  how-  T)ie  last  'Tatler'  appeared  2  Jan.  1711. 
ever,  of  realising  an  estate  left  in  great  con-  The  first  *  Spectator  *  appeared  on  the  follow- 
fitsion  and  in  so  distant  a  country,  was  verv'  ing  March  1,  and  it  was  published  daily  till 
great.  The  trustees  were  neglectful,  and  No.  555,  6  Dec.  1712.  The  *  Spectator' 
Addison  declares  that  one  of  them  deserved  carefully  abstained  from  politics  in  a  time  of 
the  pillory,  and  that  he  longs  to  tell  him  so  violent  party  spirit.  It  consisted  entirely  of 
*•  by  word  of  mouth.'  It  was  not  till  1716  essays  on  the  model  gradually  reached  in  the 
that  a  final  liquidation  was  reached ;  and  the  *  Tatler,*  and  it  made  an  unprecedented 
sum  due  to  Addison,  after  deducting  bad  success.  The  sale  was  lowered  to  a  half  by 
debts  and  legacies,  was  less  than  a  tenth  part  a  stamp  duty  imposed  1  Aug.  1712,  an^ 
of  the  whole  estate,  originally  valued  at  Steele  says  in  the  last  number  that  the  duty 
35,000  pagodas,  or  14,000/. :  the  sum,  doubt-  paid  weekly  was  over  20/.  This  would  give 
less,  to  which  Addison  s  letter  refers.  Addi-  a  daily  sale  of  only  1,600.  Addison  says  in 
son,  however,  was  not  poor.  He  had,  besides  No.  10  that  the  sale  already  amounted  to 
his  lodging,  a  '  retirement  near  Chelsea.'  3,000 ;  and  in  the '  Biographia  Britannica '  it  is 
wh^re  Swift  dined  with  liim  (Journal  to  said  that  of  some  numbers  20,000  were  sold  in 
Stella,  18  Sept.  1710),  which  had  once  be-  a  day.  Steele  teUs  us  that  the  first  collected 
longed  to  Nell  Gwyn,  and  whence  he  could  edition  was  of  9,000  copies.  From  an  agree- 
stroll  through  fields  to  Holland  House,  then  ment  preserved  in  the  British  Museum  (Add, 
occupied  by  Lady  Warwick.  He  abandoned  MS.  21110),  it  seems  that  Addison  and 
the  large  ]3rofits  of  'Cato  '  in  1713,  and  had  Steele  sold  their  half-share  of  the '  Spectator/ 
resigned  his  fellowship  in  1711.  when  first  collected  In  volumes,  to  a  stationer 
Steele,  more  impecunious,  started  the  *  Tat-  'named  Buckley  for  575/.  Whatever  the  pre- 
ler '  on  12  April  1709.  Addison,  wlio  was  ab-  cise  numbers,  the  *  Spectator '  made  a  mark 
soi'bed  in  his  oificial  duties,  and  had  just  started  i  in  English  literature,  and  fixed  a  form  which 
for  Dublin,  whicli  he  reached  on  21  April  :  was  adopted  with  servile  fidelity  by  many 
(letter  to  Swift,  22  April  1709),  was  not  con-  ,  succeeding  periodicals  till  the  end  of  the 
cemed  in  tlie  venture.    He  recognised  Steele's  centuiy. 

hand  by  a  remark,  borrowed  from  liimself,  in  Addison  wrote  274  *  Spectators,'  distin- 
the  number  of  23  ApriL  He  contributed  a  ^uished  by  a  signature  of  one  of  the  letters 
paper  or  two  soon  afterguards ;  but  it  was  not  m  OLIO.  General  opinion  has  attributed  to 
till  the  81st  number  (15  Oct.)  that  his  papers  \  liim  the  greatest  share  of  the  triumph.  John- 
became  frequent  and  important.  He  wrote  son  observed  (Boswell,  10  April  1776)  that 
frequently  during  the  following  winter,  which  of  the  half  not  written  by  Aodison,  not  half 
lie  spent  in  London,  and  again  in  the  latter  ;  was  go(xi.  Macaulay  says  that  Addison*s 
part  of  1710,  after  an  interruption  caused  by  worst  essay  is  as  good  as  the  best  of  any  of 
a  residence  at  Dublin  during  the  spring  ancl  his  coadjutors.  The  judgment  has  been  called 
summer.  Tlie  efiect  of  Addison's  papers  was  in  question  by  Mr.  Forster  (see  JSeaay  o» 
vt;rv  great.  '  I  fared,'  said  Steele  in  the  Steele) ,  and  difiers  from  that  of  Hazlitt 
preface  to  the  final  volume,  *  like  a  distressed  (Rouiui  Table,  No.  6,  and  Lect.  V.  on  Comic 
prince  wlio  calls  in  a  powerful  neighbour  to  Wiiter$),  who  thought  Steele  more  svmpa- 
Iiis  aid.  I  was  undone  by  my  auxiliary ;  when  thetic  than  the  urbane  and  decorous  Addiaon. 
I  liad  once  called  him  in,  I  could  not  sul^sist  As  a  plain  matter  of  fact,  however,  there  can 
without  dependence  on  him.'  Forty-one  be  no  doubt  that  Addison's  essays  were  those 
papers  are  attributed  to  Addison,  and  tlurty-  wliich  achieved  the  widest  popularity,  wbidi 


Addison  127  Addison 


are  still  remembovd  wiMB  ike  iM  *  Sp«r:*-  TAJrh-  :  ■  rjre   -r-iriziiTed.  be:  : '  ii^v  *•:  t^k^ 

tor*  is  mentioiiML  and  ""iiicii  w«»»  iLr-  adzci-  SAnr*    :  :!-  li*:i.rtC  vr.:ir»I  4;;:ij.c-ri  ;c  :i>r 

Tat  ion   of  all  the  csiiKfr  <<£  ih^  tarttrtEti  :ia&r-  z^*-^.  :>.-  V  ^  iad  wi:*:  Ta*T  Vi-  «-^lM 

century.     Jefan^oa  trttiT  expnaMS !» :^cn>:ci  :irr     -rihd.x   T^Tini^    .■«    Mih.-ff-/*  c>^Wv 

♦*xprccocd    with    vari^'Od     m^^diSfaiS.cis    bv  Tw:.  pipe:^    t:  CnrTT  C>.*»»  ;»n  :^1  asii  :\% 

Karnes, Blair. Hurd. Beattie. and  jtber ; odr^  M *t  1  r II ,  srv r. j-Ticv^aK--  as  *ii .-w-j-j:  tk /of  4k«- 

of  the  period,  when  be  |BVCK>aiKcs  Addia:<D  5  cadedly  a  ^nuisr  p>.:3oa3   A-rjicK*.::v,  asii 

to  be  'the  model  of  tbr  suddie  «rrlr.*  &x>d  d  en*  >  .njrfiiiiii:  ^-^  oa*I  jrea^ral  a::vr.*:;.'«  :,■» 

ends  his   Life  by  d«dazinr  That   •  whc^rTrr  i  then  dt^ii<<\i   brair-v^h   ^.^f  l::er»:u?»'^     Six 

wishes  to  attain  an  &icii^  rtrk--  fairniar  bat  |«ipe»  iip:'n  '  Wi: '  in  I  he  MLtce  ax.^iTh, 


.   .  and  a 

not  coarse,  and  eleq^ant  but  n-x  •-istcstan-r^u^  lore  aaih::i.vj<  seTi#  ;f  eleven  pai^rs  v«i  :h<* 
must  fnve  his  daTs  and  nights  to  the  T-.tlnmfrs  *  Plras^u^^  of  :Lt-  Ircafinsiitin '  in  June  and 
of  Addison.*  llie  strle  c4  Addi»:4i,  says  July  1712.  arv  ihe  f  vjndai;/»n  v^f  AidiAMtV 
Landor  (letter  to  Mrs. ^eHer. communicated  clairc  :  ■  be  an  sesThrtir  phil^'«^'»p^,^r.  Tht* 
by  Mr.  Gamett ),  •  is  admired :  it  is  very  lax  phii-  is  -j^y.  indt^^i.  i*  >i:jvrti*n*l ;  V;i:  The  ox- 
and  incorrect.  But  in  his  manner  th«!Te  is  cellrnc^  <•{  the  style  itnd  the  i^^nuine  tasTe 
the  ahynees  of  the  Loves :  there  is  the  inaor-  iravr-  :hem  a  hLrh,  thoiurh  iemivrsir>\  nnMita- 
ful  ahvnesB  of  a  beaatif 111  girl  not  quite  crown  T:'>n.  In  1S64  Mr.  IVketi^  OampMi  pnnu^l 
up.  I'eople  feel  the  cool  current  of  delight,  i  privately  >,  at  OlsL-sir^w.  •  S^mie  j^>rtions  o:" 
and  never  look  for  it*  source.'  Addisnn's  Kssavs  cvintributed  to  the  "Spe**utor**  bv 
greatest  achievement  is  univt*TsalIy  admitted  Mr.  'jo««eph  Addison :  Now  first  print«>l 
to  be  the  character  «(f  Sir  Koeer  de  Ojver-  from  his  MS.  nott»-K>^k,'  The  not^^Kv^k 
ley.  Sir  Roger  is  the  incarnation  .'f  Ad-  was  bought  at  a  sale  by  Mr.  Campbell  in 
dison's  kindly  tenderness,  showing  throu^rli  iS58.  Hie  internal  evidence  ami  the  hand- 
a  veil  of  delicate  persiflage.  Sir  Kocvr  ^-as  writing  prove  that  it  contains  thret*  tvswys— 
briefly  sketched  by  Steele  in  the  second  •  Sptc-  •  Of  the  Imagination/  •  Of  Jealousy,*  and''  Of 
tator.'  He  is  portrayed  most  fully  in  a  series  Fame' — carefully  written  out  in  his  own 
of  fifteen  *  Spectators  *  by  Addiscm.  in  July  hand,  and  subsequently  worked  up  into 
1711,  which  describe  a  visit  to  his  countn*-  'Spectators 'on  thesame'topi«,vii,Nos,  170, 
house.  Six  essays  by  Steele  are  intereperseiL  171  ion  Jealousy >.  23^  iW,  :?87  ^^Li^vo  of 
but  only  two  of  them,  in  which  Addison  per-  Fame),  411-14,'  41d-lS,  4lH),  4lU  ^^on  the 
mitted  Steele  to  tell  Sir  Rogers  love  story.  Pleasures  of  Imagination^.  The  whole  is  a 
are  of  any  significance.  Budgell  described* a  very  interesting  illustration  of  Addison's 
himtinj^-party  in  one  number.  Sir  Itoger  mode  of  composition.  Of  the  giaver  im]>i>rs 
then  disappears  till  he  comes  to  Ix>ndon  to  the  most  remarkable  are  a  stTies  which  ap- 
see  Prince  Eugene  in  January  1712.  Addison  peared  from  Sat  urdays  bej?i nning  Oct . iH),  1 7 1 1 . 
takes  him  to  the  Abbey  in  another  paper,  j  Some }>eopleguess<Hi  that  they  might  have  Ixvn 
18  March ;  to  Philips's  ^  Distressed  Mother '  originally  intended  for  senuons,  and  thev  may 
in  a  third,  25  Mareh ;  and  to  Vauxhall  in  a  illustrate  the  remark  attrihuttyl  to  ManclevilJi^ 
fourth,  20  May.  After  this,  Steele  intro-  (Hawkins,  Hittory  of  J/turtV,  v.  815,  316), 
duced  him  (to  Addison's  vexation,  it  is  said)  that  Addison  was  a  'parson  in  a  tyowig,'  or 
to  a  woman  of  the  town  (20  June).  On  Tonsons  saying  that  he  *ever  thought  him  a 
23  Oct.  Addison  describes  his  death.  *  I  priest  in  his  heart  *  (Spkxcs,  p.  2tX)).  Wo 
killedhim,'hetoldBudgeIl,' that  nobody  else  may  add  that  the  'divine  jKHnus'  published 
might muider him *(BnDGBLL'6.S#;e,i. 27).  The  in  some  of  them  during  the  autumn  of  1712 
other  papers  contributed  by  Addison  may  be  .  (two  of  which  have  been  erroneously  attri- 
dassified  as  humorous,  critical,  and  serious.  To  ,  buted  to  Marvell)  are  not  only  exivllont  il- 
the  humorous  belotig  a  great  variety  of  papers  '  lustrations  of  the  gentle  piety  which  gives 
touching  upon  the  various  social  follies  of  the  .  a  charm  to  much  of  .\ddison*s  nrose,  but. 
day,  often  with  exquisite  felicity  of  gentle  |  represent  also  his  highest  piH'tieal  achieve- 
rimcule ;  and  of  these  some  of  the  most  popular  j  ments. 

a^ypear  to  have  been  those  in  which  Addison,        Tlio  'Spectator*  dropped    in   Dor.    1712, 
with  an  air  of  condescension  hardly  so  plea-  I  Addison,  now  at  the  height  of  his  reputation, 


Bant  aa  Steele's  generous  ^llantry,  touched 
the  various  foibles  and  fashionable  absurdities 


made  a  new  exi)eriment.  Toiison  (SpKNCli, 
p.  40)  and  Gibber  profess  to  have  Hvvn  the 
of  women.  The  most  important  criticism  is  a  hrst  four  acts  of  '  Gato '  upon  Addison's  re- 
series  of  seventeen  papers  on  '  Paradise  Lost '  i  turn  from  his  travels  in  1703.  Th(«  ])lay  may 
whidi  appeared  on  Saturdays  from  5  Jan.  to  '  have  been  suggested,  as  Macaulay  oliserves, 
3  May  1/12.  Though  the  critical  doctrines  are  by  the  performance  which  he  saw  at  Veiii(*e. 
obsolete  and  the  jiKlgments  oft;en  worse  than  I  Addison  was  now  entreattd  to  bring  it  u]H)n 
obsolete,  these  papers  may  be  said,  not  cer; '  the  stage,  and,  after  asking  Ilughtu*  to  writo 


Addison 


128 


Addison 


a  fifth  act,  decided  to  writ«  it  himself,  and 
finished  it,  according  to  Steele  {Pref€use  to 
*  Drummer  * ) ,  in  a  week.  Steele  further  under- 
took to  pack  a  house,  a  device  which  Addison's 
immense  popularity  may  have  rendered  super- 
duous.  The  play  was  accordingly  acted  at  Drury 
Lane  (Genest,  iL  512)  on  14  April  1713. 
Its  dramatic  weakness  has  never  been  denied. 
The  love  scenes  are  incon^uous.  It  consists  in 
great  part  of  declamation,  which  Addison*8 
taste  restrained  within  limits,  and  polished  into 
many  still  familiar  quotations,  but  wliich  re- 
mains commonplace.  The  success,  however, 
at  the  time  was  unprecedented.  Wliigs  and 
tories  not  only  united  in  admiring  Addison, 
but  were  equally  anxious  to  claim  a  right  to  his 
fine  phrases  about  liberty.  Addison  himself 
disclaimed  party  intention.  Pope,  the  friend 
of  the  tory  circle,  wrote  an  eloquent  pro- 
logue. Swift  himself  attended  a  rehearsal 
after  a  long  period  of  estrangement  from  the 
author.  Boungbroke,  as  Pope  told  Oaryll 
(30  April  1713),  sent  for  Booth,  the  actor 
of  Oato,  and  ])resent«d  him  with  fifty  gui- 
neas for  *  defending  the  cause  of  liberty  so 
well  against  a  perpetual  dictator,*  innuendo 
Marlborougli ;  and  the  whigs,  says  Pope, 
intend  a  similar  present  and  are  trying  to 
invent  as  good  a  sentence.  He  afterwards 
(Ep.  to  Auffugtus,  V.  215)  sneered  at  Addi- 
son for  appearingf  to  claim  some  political  merit 
in  a  copy  of  verses  sent  with  '  Cato  *  (Nov. 
1714)  to  the  princess  royal.  No  tories, 
however,  could  scruple  at  the  political  maxims 
of  *  Oato,'  and  men  of  all  parties  applauded 
it  to  the  echo.  It  ran  for  twenty  nights,  the 
last  performance  being  on  0  May.  A  fourth 
edition  appeared  on  4  May,  and  eight  were 
published  m  the  year.  The  three  managers 
gained  each  1,350/.  by  the  season ;  to  wliich 
subsequent  iwrformances  at  Oxford  enabled 
them  to  add  150/.  more,  a  sum  then  unpre- 
cedented (OiBBER*s  Apology,  377,  387).  It 
was  translated  into  French,  Italian,  and 
German ;  the  Jesuits  translated  it  into  Latin, 
that  it  might  be  played  by  the  scholars  at 
St.  Omer ;  and  Voltaire  praised  it  as  the  first 
reasonable  English  tragedy,  and  S]>eak8  of  the 
sustained  ele^nce  and  nobility  of  its  language, 
tliough  blaming  its  dramatic  weakness,  and 
olwerving  that  the  barbarism  and  irregularity 
sanctioned  by  Shakespeare  have  leift  some 
traces  even  in  Addison  {Letters  to  Boling- 
hroke  and  Falkener  prefixed  to  Bniius  and 
Zaire  "^  Life  of  Louis  XIV;  and  \Sf,h  Let- 
ter on  the  English),  'Cato*  marks  in  fact 
the  nearest  approach  in  the  English  theatre 
to  an  unreserved  acceptance  of  the  French 
canons,  of  which  Philips  s  *  Distressed  Mother  * 
— an  adaptation  of  Kacine's  *  Andromaque  * 
— had  given  an  example  in  the  previous  year 


(1712).  The  influence,  however,  of  Shake- 
speare, though  edipeed,  was  not  extinguished. 
Kowe  was  writing  tragedies  in  imitation  01 
his  style ;  and  Addison  himself  (thougli  De 
Quincey  strangely  asserts  the  contrary  in  his 
'  Life  of  Shakespeare  *)  frequently  speaks  of 
him  with  high  praise  (see  Tatietf  41 ;  SpeC'  * 
tator,  25,  39,  40,  61,  160,  419,  592). 

John  Dennis  made  a  splenetic,  though  not 
pointless,  attack  upon  the  awkward  dramatic 
construction  of '  Cato,*  due  chiefly  to  Addison's 
attempt  to  preserve  the  unities,  from  which 
full  quotations  are  given  in  Johnson's  Life 
of  Addison.  Pope  defended  Addison  (or  re- 
venged grievances  of  his  own)  by  a  savage 
'  Narrative  of  the  Frenzy  of  John  Dennis.' 
Addison  thereupon  conveyed  to  Dennis  a 
disavowal  of  any  complicity  in  this  attack, 
and  a  disapproval  of  its  manner.  Such  a 
disavowal,  though  no  more  than  due  to 
Dennis  and  to  Addison  s  own  character^ 
chagrined  Pope.  Pope  was  already  involved 
in  a  bitter  quarrel  with  Ambrose  Philips,  and 
became  irritated  against  the  whole  clique  who 
gathered  round  Addison  at  Button's.  When 
he  published  the  first  four  books  of  his 
Homer  in  1715,  a  version  of  the  first '  Iliad  * 
by  Tickell  appeared  simultaneously.  Tickell 
indeed  expressly  disavowed  any  intention  of 
rivaliy,  declaring  that  he  had  abandoned  a 
task  now  fallen  into  abler  hands,  and  that 
he  published  his  fragment  only  to  bespeak 
public  favour  for  an  intended  translation  of 
the  *  Odyssey.*  Pope,  in  a  conversation  re- 
ported by  himself,  admitted  to  Addison  that 
tie  had  no  monopoly  in  Homer,  and  accepted 
Addison's  proposal  to  read  Pope's  version  of 
the  second  book  as  he  had  reaa  Tickell's  ver- 
sion of  the  first.  Pope  came,  however,  to 
believe  in,  or  assert,  tne  existence  of  a  con- 
spiracy against  his  fame.  Addison  Lad 
prompted  Tickell  to  write,  or  corrected 
Tickell's  verses,  or  written  them  himself  iii 
Tickell's  name.  Another  proof  of  this  plot, 
as  he  told  Spence,  was  given  to  him  by 
Warwick,  soon  to  be  Addison's  stepson. 
Addison  had  encouraged  Gildon  to  attack 
Pope  in  a  pamphlet  on  Wycherley,  and  had 
afterwards  paid  the  assailant  ten  guineas. 
Hereujwn  Pope  wrot«  to  Addison  expressing 
his  scorn  for  underhand  dealings,  and  en- 
closing, as  a  proof  of  his  own  openness,  a 
sketch   of   the  famous  lines    finally    incor- 

S orated  in  the  *  Epistle  to  Arbuthnot.'  Ad- 
ison,  he  said,  ever  afterwards  '  used  liim 
very  civilly.'  A  complimentary-  reference  to 
Pope's  Homer  in  the  *  Freeholder '  is  the  only 
clear  indication  we  have  of  Addison's  later 
feeling. 

Tlie  accusation  has  been  fully  discussed, 
and  is  the  subject  of  a  note  by  Blackstone  in 


Addison  !•?  Addison 


the    'Bi-nnzcifc    Brrizz:i^    ^'-jt'^t    ^t  tr.y  .'riTj."  fin."*-  ^'u.:  t-zn-r  i'c:.:c*i  -:*»:  :•;  i.>* 

has  berti  pK*ecT'iC_  lai  rcT-*  ":_*  ir:*-  rscip  Ti-  Ira:!  ;:'  vi';:^*;*-.  A:.-.:  i::>.i  :>.:  :-*.;.:sl?ci 

of  the  wrui&l&:i:c     All  "iIj."  _"ai  pijtstriT'  :e  ■(?  "i:   'ri^^  >:>:;:*:>£  Aii-jsiv:-    :.-  •.x-i::acs^ 

?^d  is  liu:  A5ii<»:c  iji  zi  -  zc^ttV^- IVkril  He   w-i*   it;*  .luTt-i    a\':»:-jl-\    :;    :>,^   w,*rc* 

*:jn»  ne  hid  &  -pszicz  r^l:  -    r^itiiji- izii  li-*.:>cLt:::,   :-    :.->    :li    jcvt^-jl-^tCvv.      i>s 

wh^r  c^:■^lii  in  s;  r**r  str.-  ^Ij  I=.;ir»r  P:c«?-  Su:>it-r*jLrjr*>:".rs ::::;/*.: :-  r-  :>.>  .  Sjv  Ar'^er 

The  WATwiek  «c.:st  i»  k  u:    f'^-istLr  ^^iL-i  :«:  =:c::^'  -Tr/ire,  A:i-s..v.  w^ls  sy^xr.:^! 

Pi>pe  (if  iad-*«i  irf-iii  =:::  izTfc:  ::    *l:c]fi  :c:t*    ;:   :-t   Iri*  c^nvjiii^  r.:TH     :'"  :r»i^. 

have  rvj«ted  wi:a  ki;7S-     P.T«r'*  ~*^'~  i-esrv  D'-rlij  Thr  sir::-:  :t- .>i  >,t  :.Ai  v-.:K-.s\Txi  ds^ 

in  the  wh-  -le  afair  was  ar^^reztlr  t  >  ii-!^  t:tt  •  Freiei : l^ir r '    ?.:> \  -f.v  ?   •■»>  :><  "r  n:  iS  IVv. 

a  repon  that  the  j«tirtr  i:  Aiiii*  c  hii  ■>=«:  ITlo.  :■:•  i^  jMr.r  iri«*-.  a  :>v,:i.'al '  >:xv:a:or  * 

initten  af:e?  it*  Tir:i='? 'iTa:!.     "Hie^r  i*  i:^-  in  ie:rfi>>e  ;:    ."rthxi.x  trhvc  v.r..  lyl;>*  ir.> 

•itpendcnt  rTiirOLV,  iai-e^.  t  ■  iiiyr-vr  this,  j^rlllfd  bv  thr  rt  belli,  r.  ir.  S^v:\v.^i.  kr-xi  r..'w 

rhoufh  there  is  alst:  a  very  •tr::;^  p^es-'isip-  reciarkahie  chivdr  :;t  :ir    :v.::;;S  r<  vi?»\»^«x! 

ti>n  that   it  was  n-evtr  shiim  :  •  Ai-iis»:n.  to  the  ltt  f' x-h '.::;:«?— a r.  *.hv.;:^VZe  |vt*" 

Pope's  evideni>-  in  his  :-wa  ca?e  L*  that  :-f  a  tr:i:t  haJVsT  Ivtirtv::  Sir  K;o*t  s'.s'Covrwy 


man  who  li-^i  bj  jc^rT^nor:  it  U  irr^jMicsl-  and  S<iu:>:-  \Vc:t:?rr.. 
aMe  with  'iatrfSw  aol  it  i*  :hr  niTv  fsisrooi;-^  On  o  Au^:.  \7lt.\  Adii^Si-'n  wjt*  r:i*rrit\l 
l^^'aiue  w«r  now  ki»w  that  alr2>*t  t":i-r"wl;;r  t  >  the  C -r.:***  ;:'  Warwv's.  Ho  wr.snra  ^>M 
c>irT>Bsp>ndria>r  with  Ad'lia.:-::  was d-eii^rratelr  fan::!y  frier. i;  hi*  rt.siviosw  s:  0 ;>;:<*'*  had 
manmacturvd  br  P.^pe  fr:.m  thrr  Lerrer*  in  made  his:  a  r.fi,:hhr.ir  .:'  H/.1a::.1  Hx^ia*; 
Older  to  jive  oljur  to  hi*  aoc-vjnt  cf  their  and  he  had  uken  an  ;t;t«  ?s^t  ::\  tl:o  t\i;K'a:ixMi 
rations.  The  TAtirv  itself  ni.;*t  stazki  upjn  of  her  :i*.n.  a  hid  v-f  ?e\tr.:«v:i,  th«';;j:h  iht* 
its  own  >j*s^.  It  show*  P.j^**  feelinc  t«v\  statement  thathe  h.id  .-iv':v..tl;y*4yvr.  V.:s  :u:or 
wards  Addison,  and  has  that  am  r-unt  ..ft  rjth.  I  is  inacourste.  I  ho  ^vr.rtshi'j*  h.ivl  !,ij;:i\l  tVr 
whatever  it  may  be.  whit-h  i*  implird  in  its'  ^^^^me  time,  as  ,ipp«»«rs  frv>:«  a  i>^py  .»f  \ors»>s 
internal  probability  an*i  c«?berentv.  We  may  addressed  by  l^^we  to  iho  or.:n!o>s  on  A^idi- 
See  that  a  keen  but  h>s«ile  observer  c.'^uld  son*s  departure  for  I  MandinT?;oi»T\»>i,*v.svi«r. 
plausibly  attribute  to  Aildis.>n  the  faults  oha-  The  marria4^»  is  *:x»nerally  said  to  b.A\e  ^nvn 
ract eristic  of  the  head  of  a  tr«terle — love  of  unc«>mfi»riable.  Johns^M\  says  :h.s:  i:  rost*m- 
flatteiT  and  jealousy  of  out-i'lets — and  may  bled  the  marriages  in  whioli  a  suhnn  ci^«>ei  his 
infer  that  he  saw  one,  thoivirh  a  very  un-  dauifhter  a  man  to  K*  liorsl.i\o:  and  thor\» 
favourable,  aspect  of  the  tnith.  '  is  a  reiK>rt  that  Adilis^m  usM  to  o.vaiv  fr^nn 

After  'Cato/  Addison  returned  to  essay    hisuiKvmforiablesploniiourat  HoUjiud  Ut^iM* 
writing.     He  contnbute»i  tiftvime  papers  to    to  a  coffet^hous<»  at  Kousinct.m.    Little  \sihio 
the  'Guardian  "  (which  Steele  now  edited  in    can  bo  attaohtxl  to  snoh  ovssip.     'Hio  m.^ttoh 
place  of  the  'Spectator')  between  28  May    prt^bably  farilitatovi  AJdisiMrs  otVu*i:il  olo\a- 
and  22  Sent.  1713,  and  twenty-four  papers    tion.  Sunderland  triuniphtxl  o\  or  Tow ushond 
to  a  revived  *  Spectator.'  pri>bably  conducted    in  the  sprin^r  ^^l'  1717.  and  bnnijrhi  in  A^IiIimmi 
by  Bud^ll,  between  Id  June  and  29  Sept.    as  his  fellow  stvri^tary  of  state.      AvKlis^Mi's 
1714.    In  the  earlier  part  of  the  same  year  he    political  success  niu>t   Ih»  iNMiMder«Hi  chiolly 
jrave  two  papers  to  Steele's  *  Lover.'    It  is    as  a  pnxif  of  his  extn»nu*  |H»rst»nal  jHtnularity. 
enough  to  say  that  these  generally  display  the    He  had  neither  the  ixnvor  dori\  txl  t'rtMu  ^rrt^at 
old   qualities,  but   with   fewer  conspicuous    SiX*ial  position,  nor  that  of  n  >iirv>nuisdol»»i tor. 
successes.    His  purely  literary  activity  ends    It  has  been  al1dt^i  ^Spknok.  p.  177>>  t!mt  ho 
with  the  production  of  the  *  Drummer,'  a    was  too  fastidious  in  his  stylo  to  In*  ca)ttiblo 
prose  comedy  founded  on  the  storv  of  the    of  "ivTiting  n  ixnnnion  th\*|»j»to!i.     Maoaulay 
dnunmer   of   Tedworth,  told   in   (jlanvill's    argues  that  this  could  only  aj>i»ly  to  an  i^»^ 
*  Saddudsmus  Triumphatus.*    Addison  gave    norance  of  oftiouil  fonns.     No  pn»of,  inib*«Hi, 
it  to  Steele  with  an  especial  injunction  of  '  is  required  that  ho  could  write  easily,  though 
wjcrecjr.     It  was  represented  without  success  ,  he  could  iK^lUh  can»fully.     Sttvlo  s»iys  that 
in  1715,  and  then  published  by  Steele,  who  |  when  Addison  had  st'ttUnl  his  ])Ian,  lu>  iMuld 
thought   that   beauties   too   delicate   for  a  :  walk  about  and  dictate — ami  Sttvlo  had  ott on 
theatre  might  please  in  the  closet.     Tickell ;  been  his  amanuensis — as  tMisily  and  (Mmvtly 
slurred  its  authenticity  by  excluding  ft  from  ;  as  his  words  could  In*  written  ilown.     Po|h» 
his  edition  of  Addison*s  works ;  tBteele  vehe-    says  that  the  *  Spectators'  wort*  oft  on  written 
mently  protested  in  a  dedicatory,  letter  to    quickly  and  sent  to  press  at  onco,  ami  that  he 
Gongreve  preBxed  to  a  new  edition ;  nor  has    wrote  best  when  ho  had  not  ttni  much  time 

VOL.  I.  K 


\ 
^ 


Addison 


130 


Addison 


to  correct.  Warton  had  heard  that  Addison 
would  stop  the  press,  when  almost  the  whole 
impression  of  a  '  Spectator '  had  been  worked 
off;  to  insert  a  new  preposition  or  conjunction 
{Essay  on  Pone,  1.  145).  We  can  hardly 
say  with  confiaence  how  far  his  nicety  may 
have  sometimes  interfered  with  his  ofEdal 
despatch  writing. 

Addison^s  health  was  meanwhile  breaking. 
He  retired  in  March  1718,  with  a  pension  of 
1,60(M.  a  year,  and  undertook  some  literary 
work  never  completed.     A  traj^edy  on  the 


their  common  friend.  Steele  says  to  bis 
wife  in  1717  that  he  asks  nothing  from  <Mr. 
Secretary  Addison.' 

Steele  published  a  paper  called  the 
'  Plebeian '  (14  March  1719),  att4icking  the 
proposed  measure  for  limiting  the  number  of 
peers.  Addison  replied  temperately  in  the 
*01d  Whig'  (10  March),  ^4th  a  constitu- 
tional argument  for  a  measure  calculated,  as 
he  thought,  to  preserve  the  right  balance  of 
power,  Steele  replied  in  two  more  'Ple- 
beians' (29  and  30  March),  and   in  one  of 


death  of  Socrates  is  mentioned ;  and  he  left  J  them  made  an  irrelevant  and  coarse  allu- 
behind  a  fragmentary  and  very  superficial  [Seion,  harshly  described  by  Macaulav  as  an 
work  on  the  evidences  of  the  christian  re-  -  <  odious  imputation '  upon  the  morals  of 
ligion.  He  also  meditat«l  a  paraphrase  of  the  his  opponents.  Addison  made  a  severe  and 
Psabns.  His  last  published  work  was  destined  contemptuous  replv  in  a  second  '  Old  Whig  * 
to  be  of  a  different  character,  and  brought  (2  AprS),  ending,  however,  with  an  expres- 
him  into  conflict  with  his  old  friend  Stede.  I  gion  of  his  belief  that  the  *  Plebeian'  would 
Steele's  boundless  admiration  for  Addison  f  write  well  in  a  good  cause.  Macaulay  first 
has  been  noticed.  When  supplanted  by  his^  pointed  out  that  Addison  did  not,  as  Johnson 
ally,  he  rdoiced,  as  he  says,  to  be  excelled,  gavs,  call  Steele 'little  Dicky.'  Steele  had  the 
and  proudly  declared  that,  whatever  Mr.  \^t  ^oni  in  a  '  Plebeian '  (6  April)  written 
Steele  owed  to  Mr.  Addison,  the  world  owed  ^th  some  bitterness  about  Addison's  whig* 
Addison  to  Steele.  The  harmony,  however,  1  j^igm^  jj^t  ending  with  a  quotation  from  *  Oato' 
was  disturbed.  We  learn  from  Steele's  ^  expressive  of  sound  nature.  Some  regret 
correspondence  that  he  borrowed  money  oc-  for  the  breach  of  then-  old  alliance  appears  in 
casionally  from  his  richer  friend.  Johnson  •  the  concluding  sentences,  but  there  b  no  trace 
tells  a  story,  upon  apparently  good  autho-    Qf  |^  reconciliation. 

rity,  that  Addison  once  put  an  execution  into  ;  Addison  was  fast  breaking.  On  his  deaths 
Steele's  house  for  100/.,  and  that  Steele  was  I  ^ed  he  sent  for  Gay,  and  begged  forgive- 
deeply  hurt.  The  most  authentic  form  of :  ^ess  for  some  injurv,  presumamy  an  inter- 
the  anecdote  comes  from  the  actor,  B.  Victor  !  ference  with  Gay's  preferment,  oi  which  he 
(Original  Letters,  &c.,  vol.  i.  np.  328-9),  who  accused  liimself.  He  sent  also,  as  Young  tells 
knew  Steele  and  gave  the  facts  m  a  letter  1  ^g  («  Conjectures  on  Original  ComposUion; 
to  Gamck.  The  statement  is  that  Steele  |  Works,  p.  136),  for  his  stepson  Warwick, 
borrowed  1,000/.  from  Addison  m  order  to  !  and  said  to  him :  '  See  in  what  peace  a 
build  a  house  at  Hampton  Court ;  that  Addi-  ,  christian  can  die.'  The  incident  is  supposed 
son  advanced  the  moiiev  through  hisla^'>'ers  to  be  uUuded  to  in  Tickell's  fine  address  to 
with  instructions  to  enforce  the  debt  when  War\^'ick  ^vith  Addison's  words.  He 
due ;  and  that  upon  Steele's  failure  to  pav  at  ,,       ,       ^    ..  wt..     t-.i. 

the  year's  end,  the  house  and  fumitur^^ere  i  ^^    taught  us  how  to  live,  and  (oh!  too  hijh 
sold  and  the  balance  pid  to  Steele,  with  a  i  ^^^  P"'^  °^  knowledge)  taught  us  how  to  die. 
letter  briefly  telling  him  that  the  st«p  had  I      He  left  to  Tickell  the  care  of  his  works, 
been  taken  to  aroust^  liim  from  his  '  lethiargy.'  i  which  he  bequeathed  to  Oraggs  in  a  touching 
Steele,  it   is  added,  took   the  reproof  with    letter;  and  died  of  asthma  and  dropsy,  17  June 
*  phih)Sophical  comjKwure,'    and  was  after-    1719.    Lady  Warwick  died  7  July  1731. 
wards  on  good  terms  with  Addison.    Upon        He  left  a  daughter,  bom  30  Jan.  1719,  ap- 
this  showing,  it  was  not  a  case  of  a  friend    pnrently  of  rather  defective  jntellect  (OeniU- 
.  suddenly  converted  by  anger  into  a  severe 
'creditor,  but  a  delibt»rate  plan  from  the  first 
=  to   give  a  serious    lesson.     However  well 
meant  or  well  taken,  such  reproofs  are  severe 
tests  of  friendship.     Steele,  whase  imprudent 
zeal  made  him  the  scapegoat  of  his  party, 
was  probably  hurt  when  he  received  no  office, 
and  only  a  sliare  in  the  patent  of  the  play- 
house, upon  the  triumph  of  the  whigs.     He 
was  hurt,  too,  at  being  superseded  by  Tickell 
in  Addison's  favour,  and  at  the  ap])ointment 
of  the  younger  man  as  under-secret ary  to 


niatis  Magazine,  March  1797  and  May  1798; 
Lady  Louisa  Stewart's  introduction  to  the 
Works  of  I^ady  M.  W.  Montagu,  p.  16 ;  and 
letters  in  Egerton  MS.  1974),  who  Hved  many 
years  at  Hilton,  dying  unmarried  in  1797. 
His  librarv  was  sold  in  May  1799,  bringing 
456/.  2s,  9d, 

There  is  a  portrait  of  Addison  in  the  Na- 
tional Portrait  Gallery,  two  at  Magdalen, 
and  one  (presented  by  nis  daughter  in  1760) 
at  the  Bodleian.  A  so-called  portrait  in 
Holland  House  seems  to  be  really  the  portrait 


Addison  131  Addison 


i;     of  ]u8  friend  Sir  A.  Fountaine  (Notes  and  '  Guardian/  1713.     10.  '  Tlie  late  Trial  nnd 
,•     Qttaiesy  4th  «er.  3di.  367,  6th  ser.  v.  488,  vi.  Conviction  of  Coiuit  Tariff,^  1713.     11.  Pa- 
il     94;  Joieph  Addison  and  Sir  A,  Fountaine^  pers  in  eighth  volume  of  '  Si)ectator,*  1714. 
.'      fieHomance  of  a  Portrait,  LondoD,  1868).  12.    *  The    Drummer  '   (anon^-mous),    1716 
Addi8on*8  Latin  poems  appeared  in  the  (acted   1716).     13.  'Tlie  Freeholder/  1716. 
'Examen  Poeticum  Duplex,'  tK)iidon,  1698,  14.  *The  Old  Whi^,*  1719.    This  (with  the 
and  the  'Musarum  Anglicanarum  Analecta,*  'Plebeian*)  is  included  only  in  Greene*8  and 
vol.  ii.,  Oxford,  1699.    The  latter  collection  Bolin's  edition  of  liis  works.    Tlie  *  Dialo^rues 
includes  two  poems,  on  the  Peace  and  to  on  Medals' and  the*  Evidences  of  the  Ohrist- 
Dr.  Hannes,  not  in  the  former.    A  poem  on  ian  Relifrion '  were  publishtHi  posthumously 
SkatinfT  attributed  to  P.-Frowde  in  the  last  in  TickelFs  edition  of  his  works. 
was  published  as  Addison  8  by  Curll  in  1720.  Of  collected    editions  we    mav   mention 
The  third  part  of  the  '  Miscellany  Poems  *  TickelFs,  in  4  vols.,  1721;    the  ^kskerville 
(1693)  includes  the  poem  *To  Mr.  Dr^-den;'  edition,  in  4  vols.  4t(>,  Birmin^^ham,  1701 ; 
the  fourth  part  (1694),  the  translation  of  the  another  collected  edition,  in  4  vols.,  London, 
fourth  G^rgic,  an  '  Account  of  the  Greatest  1766,  often  reprint  I'd  in  12mo;    an  edition 
English  Poets,'  the  *  Song  for  St.  Cecilia's  (with  grammatical  notes)  by  Bishop  Ilurd, 
Day,'  a  translation  of  0\*id*8  •  Salmacis ; '  the  in  0  vo&.  8vo,  in  181 1 ;  a  fuller  edition,  edited 
fifth  part   (1704)   contains  the  letter  from  by  G.  W.   Greene,  N»»w  York,   1866;   tho 
Italy  (already  published),   the   Milton  imi-  most  complete  and  convenient  edition  is  that 
tat^Kl  in  a  translation  from  the  third  ^neid,  contained  in  Bohn*s  '  British  Classics,*  6  vols, 
and  various  translations  from  Ovid.  Macaulay  1866. 
,,  menUons  (see  note  to  article  *  Macaulay '  in  [xickeirs  Preface  to  Addison's  Works ;  Steek.'s 
/-LOWOTBSS  Manuaf)  that  <  Spectator     Nos.  PrefncetotheDrunniuT.inanKpistleDwlicatory 
603  and  623  should  be  given  to  Addison.  to  Mr.  Congreve,  ocrtLsiontHl  l.v  Mr.  Tickell's  Pre- 
A  translation  of  an  oration  '  in  defence  of  face;  Spence'.s  Aumlotes  (1820) ;  Egerton  MSS. 
the  new  philosophy,' made  in  the  schooLs  at  1971-4:  life  in  Biograidiia  Britannicu;  lifi>  in 
Oxford  (7  July  1603),  attributed  to  Addison,  Johnson's  Lives  of  thu  Poets;  Addisonijma,alonst* 
M  appended  to  a  translation  by  W.  Gardiiier  collection  of  anec«lotc-s  hy  Sir  R.  Philliiis  (1803), 
of  I<^ontenelle*8  *  Plurality  of  Worlds '  (Lon-  which  contains  fac-siinilcs  <»f  httiTs  to  Wort loy 
don,  1728).    k  'Discourse- on  Ancient  and  Montagu,tbonfirstpubli.sliea;  life l.;^- Lucy Aikin 
Modem  Learning,'  published  by  Osborne  in  (18*3);  aijd  tin-  review  of  this,  winch  i«  one  of 

1730,froma  ^'       '     '     ^"  ~ """"'' 

and  afterwards 


aa a  genmne,  ^^  ^      ■ 

printed  in  Addison  s  works  J  A  '  Dissertotio  .  j^gg.  ^,y^.^^  j^  ynlueless ;  Swifi'8  Work** ;  Pope's 

ae  insigrmonbus  Romai^  y^fis  mih-  bom^ondence  in  Elwin's  e<lition  ;  CarruthorMs 

lished  m  1692,  1698, 1718,  1726,  and  1760,  lj^  of  Pope.]  L.  «. 

and  was  regarded  as  valuable  by  Dr.  Parr 

(JV7rf««€mrfQM«rt«*,  3rd  series,  ix.  312).    An        ADDISON,  I^VNCELOT,  D.l).  (1632- 


'  Political  State '  in  1716.    It  was  aften^-ards    of  Crosbv  I^venswort h,  A\'est niorelan J.    1L» 


1.  *  A  Poem  to  His  Majesty/  presented  by  :  education  at  the  grannnar  school  of  Appleby 
the  Lord  Keeper  (Somers)  1696.  2.  *  Letter  he  was  sent  to  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  Ix-- 
from  Italy  to  the  Right  Hon.  Charles  Lord  tween  which  and  the  counties  of  Cumber- 
Haii&x,  in  the  year  1701.'  Printed  1703.  land  and  Westmoreland  tlir-re  liad  long  been 
3.  'Remarks  on  several  Parts  of  Italy,'  a  close  connection.  According  to  the  college 
1706.  Second  edition,  1718.  4.  '  Fair  RoiJa-  bool«s  he  was  admitted  on  24  Jan.  1650-1  as 
mond/  an  opera  in  three  acts,  and  in  verse 
< anonymous),    1707.      6.   Papers    in  'The 

Tatler/  1709-10.  6.  '  The  Whig  Examiner,'  '  Joseph  Williamson,  a  Cuml)erland  man,  who 
1710.  7.  Papers  in  'Spectator,'  1711-12.  |  rose  to  be  a  principal  secretary- of  state  under 
(The  papers  on  Milton,  on  the  Imagination,  the  Restoration,  who  b«?friended  liim  in  after 
and  on  Coverley  have  been  published  sepa-  life,  and  from  whom,  it  has  been  surmised, 
ntely.)     8.    '  Cato,'  1713.      9.    Papers  in  I  Joseph  Addison  received  his  cliristian  name. 


a'batteler.*    Among  his  college  contenipo- 
I  raries  (AVoOD,  Fasti,  ed.  Bliss,  ii.  175)  was 


Addison 


132 


Addison 


He  proceeded  B.A.  25  Jan.  1654-5,  and  M.A. 
4  July  1657.  In  1657  he  was  one  of  the 
Teme  filii,  and  the  speech  which  he  delivered 
in  that  capacity  was  deemed  by  those  in  au- 
thority so  offensive  an  attack  on  the  puritan- 
ism  then  dominant  in  and  out  of  the  univer- 
sity, that  he  was  forced  to  retract  it  in  con- 
vocation on  his  knees.  In  disgust  doubtless 
at  this  treatment,  he  withdrew  from  Oxford 
to  the  neighbourhood  of  Petworth  in  Sussex, 
and  having  meanwhile,  apparently,  taken  or- 
ders, he  ministered  zealously  to  the  royalist 
and  episcopalian  squires  of  tlie  district.  At 
the  Restoration  he  received  the  appointment 
of  English  chaplain  at  Dunkirk.  In  1662 
Dunkirk  was  purchased  back  by  France,  and 
its  English  governor,  Andrew  Lord  Ru- 
therfora,  created  earl  of  Teviot,  transferred 
Iiis  services  to  Tangier,  just  acquired  by 
Charles  II.  Addison  accompanied  Lord 
Teviot  as  the  chaplain  of  the  new  depen- 
dency. His  probably  contemporaneous  record 
of  his  earlier  impressions  of  Tangier  was  not 
published  until  1681,  when  Tangier  was  re- 
occupying  public  attention  in  England.  It 
then  appeared  as  '  The  Moors  Bamed,  being 
a  discourse  concerning  Tangier,  especially 
when  it  was  under  the  Earl  of  Teviot,'  and 
gives  a  lively  account  of  garrison  life  at  Tan- 
gier and  of  the  military  and  administrative 
achievements  of  Lord  Teviot,  who  was  killed 
in  a  skirmish  with  the  Moors  when  he  had 
been  governor  little  more  than  a  year.  A 
second  edition,  with  the  author's  name,  was 
issued  in  1 685  as  *  A  Discourse  of  Tangier 
under  the  Government  of  the  Earl  of  Teviot.' 
In  1670  Addison  visited  England,  and  mar- 
ried Jane,  sister  of  the  Right  Rev.  William 
Gulston,  S.T.P.,  who  was  made  bishop  of  Bri- 
stol in  1 679.  According  to  Anthony  a  Wood, 
Addison  was,  against  his  own  wi8h,superseded 
in  liis  chaplaincy  at  Tangier ;  but  his  services 
there  seem  to  have  been  so  far  recognised  that, 
in  the  title-page  of  a  work  which  he  pub- 
lished in  1671,  he  is  designated  *  Chaplain  to 
his  ^lajesty  in  Ordinary.'  This  was  *  West 
Barbary,  or  a  Short  Narrative  of  the  Revolu- 
tions of  the  Kingdoms  of  Fez  and  Morocco, 
with  an  account  of  their  present  customs, 
sacred,  civil,  and  domestic'  It  was  *  printed 
at  the  theatre  in  Oxford,'  and  dedicated  to 
Williamson,  who  was  one  of  the  curators  of 
the  Sheldonian  press.  Macaulay  calls  it 
*  an  interesting  volume.'  In  1671,  also,  Ad- 
dison received  from  a  friendly  squire  the 
living  of  Milston,  near  Amesbury,  Wiltshire, 
worth  120/.  a  year,  to  which  was  afterwards 
added  a  prebendal  stall  in  Salisbury  Cathe-  I 
dral.  In  1675  he  published  'The  Present  I 
State  of  the  Jews  (more  particularly  relating  I 
to  those  of  Barbary),  wnerein  is  contained  '< 


an  exact  account  of  their  customs,  secular 
and  reli^ous.  To  which  is  annexed  a  sum- 
mary discourse  of  the  Misna,  Talmud,  and 
G^mara.'  This  work,  dedicated  to  'Sir' 
Joseph  Williamson,  contains  much  carious 
information,  and  justice  is  done  in  it  to  the 
private  virtues  of  the  Jews  of  Barbaiy.  A 
second  edition  appeared  in  1676 ;  a  third  in 
1682.  In  1675  Addison  took  at  Oxford  his 
B.D.  and  D.D.  dep^es.    In  1678  '  The  First 

I  State  of  Muhametism,  or  an  Account  of  the 
Author  and  Doctrine  of  that  Imposture,'  ap- 

'  peared  anonymously ;  but  Addison's  author- 
ship of  it  was  avowed  in  the  second  edition, 
nublished  in  1679  as  the  '  Life  and  Death  of 
Muhamed.'  In  1683  he  was  appointed  dean 
of  Lichfield,  and  in  1684  coUatea  to  the  arch- 
deaconry of  Coventry,  which  he  held  with 
his  deanery  in  commendam.  As  a  member 
of  the  lower  house  of  convocation,  which 
met  at  Westminster  on  4  Dec.  1689,  Dean 
Addison  was  one  of  the  opponents  of  the 
policy  of  comprehension  nvoured  by  the 

I  upper  house,  and  on  account  of  this  and  other 
displays  of  his  high-church  zeal,  he  lost,  it 
has  been  said,  his  chance  of  becoming  one  of 
King  William's  bishops.  He  died  on  §0  April, 
1703,  and  was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of 
Lichfield  Cathedral,  inside  which,  in  1719,  a 
mural  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory. 
The  inscription  on  it  (written,  it  has  been 
surmised,  by  Tickell)  records  that  his  son, 
Joseph,  just  before  his  own  death,  was  super- 
intending its  erection. 

Besides  the  works  mentioned.  Dean  Addi- 
son wrote  several  theological  and  devotional, 
of  which  the  titles  are  given  in  the  *  Biogra- 
phia  Britannica.'  Of  more  general  interest 
18  his  *  Modest  Plea  for  the  Clergy,'  a  spirited 
defence  of  his  order.  The  first  edition  of  it 
appeared  anonymously  in  1677 ;  but  though 
its  authorship  was  afterwards  formallv 
avowed,  Dr.  Hickes,  when  reprinting  it  witt 
other  treatises  in  1 709,  declared  that  after 
making  due  inquiry  he  had  been  unable  to 
discover  its  autnor^s  name,  or  even  whether 
he  was  a  clergyman. 

Dean  Addison  left  besides  Joseph,  his  eldest 
son,  three  children  by  his  first  wife — she  died, 
it  is  supposed,  about  1686  {Notes  and  QuerieSy^ 
5th  series,  vi.  350) — *  each  of  whom,'  Steele 
says  (second  preface  to  the  Drumtner,  Episto- 
lary Correspondence,  1809,  pp.  611-2),  '  for 
excellent  talents  and  singular  perfection  was 
as  much  above  the  ordinary  world  as  their 
brother  Joseph  was  above  them.'  Gulston 
(1673-1709),  the  dean's  second  son,  after 
having  been  long  in  the  service  of  the  East 
India  Company  at  Fort  St.  George,  was  ap- 
pointed its  governor  in  succession  to  Thomas 
riit  (Chatham's  grandfather),  and  died  a  few 


Addison 


133 


Addison 


weeks  after  this  promotion.  Lancelot  (1680- 
1711),  the  third  son,  was  first  of  Queen  s  Col- 
leffe,  Oxford,  and  then  a  demj  of  Magdalen,  of 
which  he  hecame  a  fellow  m  1706.  At  the 
university  he  won  a  reputation  for  his  clas- 
sical learning.  Ahout  the  time  of  his  brother 
Gulston's  death  he  visited  Fort  St.  George, 
and  died  there  in  1711  (Ikfertim  MS.  1972, 
fol.  50).  Their  sister  Dorothy  (1674-1750) 
married  the  Rev.  James  Sartre,  originally  a 
French  pastor  at  3Iontpelier,  aften^i'ards  a 
prebendary  of  Westminster.  Swift  (Journal 
to  Sulla,  io  Oct.  1710^,  after  dining  with  her 
in  the  company  of  Aadison  and  Steele,  says 
of  her:  *  Addison's  sister  is  a  sort  of  a  wit, 
veiy  like  him.  I  am  not  fond  of  her.*  After 
her  first  husband's  death  in  1713  she  married  ' 
a  Mr.  Combe,  and  survived  till  1750.  Dean 
Addison's  second  wife,  originally  Dorothy 
Danvers,  of  a  Leicestershire  famil>',  was  a 
widow  when  he  married  her.  She  died,  ; 
without  issue,  in  1719.  ' 

[Dean  Addison's  Works;  Memoir  in  Biogra-  . 
phui   Britannica   (KippiH s),  i.  43-44 ;   Wooils 
Athens  Oxonienses,  ea.  BHhs,  iv.  517-19;  infor- 
mation communicated  by  the  Provost  o£  Queen's 
College,  Oxford.]  F.  E. 

ADDISON,  LAURA  {d,  1852),  actress,  ^ 
made  her  first  appearance  upon  the  stage  in  ^ 
November  1843,  at  the  Worcester  Theatre,  as  \ 
Xiady  Townley  in  the  *  Provoked  Husband.' 
Her  family  had  opposed  her  desire  to  become 
An  actress ;  she  had  no  introduction,  teacher, 
or  patron,  but  was  altogether  self-instructed. 
She  was  very  favourably   received  by  the 
public.   She  fulfilled  an  engagement  at  Glas-  j 
gow,  and,  pla^nng  Desdemona  to  the  Othello 
of  Macready,  secured  the  good  opinion  and  ' 
the  firiendship  of  that  tragedian.    At  liis  in- 
stance, after  she  had  played  with  success  at  j 
Dublin  and  Edinburgh,  she  was  engaged  by  ; 
Mr.  Phelps,  and  made  her  first  appearance  . 
«t  Sadler  s  Wells,  then  under  his  manage- 
ment, in  August  1846,  as  Lady  Mabel  in  the 
^Patrician's Daughter'  of  W^estland  Marston. 
She  remained  at  Sadler's  Wells  three  seasons, 
representing  Juliet,  Portia,  Isabella  in  '  Mea- 
sure for  Measure,'  Imogen,  Miranda,  and  Lady 
Macbeth ;  she  appeared  as  Panthea  upon  the 
revival  of  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  comedy 
of  '  A  Sang  and  no  King ; '  and  she  was  the 
first  representative  of  Margaret  liandolph 
And  Lilian  Saville  in  the  poetic  tragedies  of 
'  Feudal  Times '  and  '  John  Saville  of  Ilay- 
sted,'  by  the  Rev.  James  White.    In  1849 
she  was  playing  at  the  Uaymarket  with  Mr. 
and  Mn.  Charks  Kean,  and  in  1850  she  ac- 
cepted an  engagement  at  Drury  I^ane  under 
Mr.  Anderson's  management,  representing  the 
characters  of  Mrs.  Haller  in  the  '  Stranger,' 


Mrs.  Beverley  in  the  *  Gamester,'  Bianca  in 
*  Fazio,'  and  Leonora  in  an  English  version 
of  SchiUer's  '  Fiesco,'  &c.  &c.  In  1851  she 
left  England  for  America,  and  died  the  fol- 
lowing year  on  a  voyage  from  Albany  to  Xew 
York. 

[Talliss  Drawing  Room  Tuble  Book,  1861.] 

D.  C. 

ADDISON,  THOMAS  (1793-1860),  an 
eminent  physician,  was  bom  at  Long  Benton, 
near  Newcastle,  in  April  1793.  ifis  father, 
Joseph  Addison,  belonged  to  a  family  of  yeo- 
men which  had  long  been  settled  at  Laner- 
cost  in  Cumberland,  and  was  in  business  as 
a  grocer.  Thomas,  the  younger  son,  was 
educated  at  Newcastle  grammar  school,  and 
afterwards  at  the  university  of  Edinburgh, 
where  he  graduated  M.D.  in  1815,  writing 
an  inaugural  dissertation,  *De  Svphilide.' 
He  afterwards  came  to  London,  where  he 
was  appointed  house  surgeon  to  the  Lock 
Hospital,  and  studied  discuses  of  the  skin 
under  the  celebrated  Batemnn.  Although  a 
doctor  of  medicine,  Addison  entered  us  a 
student  at  Guv's  Hospital,  was  appointed 
assistant  phvsician  to  the  hospital  in  1824, 
and  lectured  on  materia  medicu  in  1827.  In 
the  latter  position  he  attracted  a  large  class 
of  students,  and  was  in  18;i7  promoted  to 
the  office  of  physician  to  the  hospital  and 
joint-lecturer  on  medicine  with  Dr.  Bright. 
In  his  hospital  practice  he  soon  became  dis- 
tinguisheci  for  iiis  remarkable  zeal  in  the 
investigation  of  disease  both  by  observation 
of  cases  during  life  and  by  post-mortem 
examinations.  He  thus  acquired  a  brilliant 
reputation  as  a  clinical  teacher,  and  con- 
tributed perhaps  more  than  any  of  his  col- 
leagues to  the  fame  which  Guy's  Hospital 
attained  as  a  school  of  medicine  during  his 
connection  with  it.  Addison  laboured  as  a 
teacher  and  investigator  till  the  state  of  his 
health  com])elled  him  to  resign  his  hos])ital 
appointments,  and  he  died  not  long  after  his 
retirement  at  Brigliton  on  29  June  1860. 
He  was  buried  in  Lanercost  Abbey,  Cum- 
berland. 

Addison's  contributions  to  the  science  of 
medicine  were  numerous  and  imi)ortant.  His 
researches  on  pneumonia  (published  1837 
and  1843)  brought  to  light  truths  novel  at 
the  time,  which  are  now  generally  accepted 
as  indisputable.  Tlie  memoir  on  pulmonary 
phthisis  was  not  less  original,  though  its 
conclusions  are  more  open  to  question.  They 
have  nevertheless  had  great  influence  on  the 
progress  of  knowledge  m  this  subject.  After 
publisliing  some  important  papers  on  diseases 
of  the  skin,  Addison  produced  in  1855  the 
work  by  wliich  he  is,  and  will  always  be, 


Addison 


134 


Adela 


best  known,  though  less  valued  by  his  own 
pupils  and  immeaiate  successors  than  his 
earlier  works.  In  this,  the '  Essay  on  Disease 
of  the  Supra-renal  Capsules/  he  announced 
a  discovery  of  remarkable  originality,  viz., 
that  these  organs,  not  pre\'iously  known  to 
be  the  seat  of  any  definite  disease,  were  in 
certain  cases  affected  in  such  a  way  as  to 
produce  a  fatal  malady,  with  well-marked 
symptoms,  including  a  remarkable  discolora- 
tion of  the  skin,  and  now  known  as  '  Addi- 
son's disease.'  The  novelty  of  Addison's 
views,  as  well  as  the  rarity  of  the  pheno- 
mena by  which  they  could  be  connrmed, 
caused  them  to  be  received  with  much  in- 
credulity, and  two  memoirs  relating  similar 
cases,  not  written  but  supported  by  Addison, 
were  declined  by  a  Ijondon  medical  society 
to  which  thev  were  presented  for  publication. 
But  the  reality  of  the  facts  and  the  correct- 
ness of  Addison's  explanation  are  now  gene- 
rally admitted,  both  in  this  country  and 
abroad.  Although  the  disease,  from  its 
rarity,  has  fortunately  no  great  practical  im- 
portance, its  discovery  remains  one  of  the 
most  brilliant  achievements  of  medicine  in 
the  nineteenth  century.  To  the  therapeu- 
tical side  of  medicine  Addison  devoted  less 
attention,  and  in  this  he  was  less  successful 
than  in  research.  Partly  from  this  cause, 
and  partly,  perhaps,  from  defects  of  manner 
whicn  are  attributed  to  him,  he  never  ob- 
tained a  large  practice  or  accumulated  gpreat 
wealth  ;  but,  indeed,  to  both  these  objects  of 
the  ambition  of  many  men,  Addison  seems 
to  have  been  comparatively  indifterent.  His 
soul  was  in  his  hospital  work ;  the  correct 
diagnosis  of  disease,  the  efficient  instruction 
of  his  pupils,  and  the  prosperity  of  the  Guy's 
medical  school  were  the  objects  for  which  he 
lived. 

Addison's  independent  publications  were : 
1.  *  An  Essav  upon  the  Operation  of  Poison- 
ous Agents'  (jointly  with  John  Morgan), 
8vo,  London,  1829.  2.  *  Observations  on  the 
Disorders  of  Females  connected  -with  Uterine 
Irritation,'  8vo,  London,  1830.  8.  *  Elements 
of  Practice  of  Medicine '  (jointly  with  Richard 
Bright,  M.D.,  but  chiefly  by  Addison),  vol.  i. 
only  published,  8vo,  London,  1839.  4.  *  On 
Disease  of  the  Supra-renal  Capsules,'4to,  Lon- 
don, 1855. 

His  other  memoirs  were  chiefly  published 
in  the  Guy's  Hospital  reports  for  various 
years,  and  republished  as  *A  Collection  of 
the  Published  Writings,'  &c.  Edited  by  Dr. 
Wilks  and  Dr.  Daldy.  New  Sydenham  So- 
ciety, London,  1868. 

ptfunk'8  Roll  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physi- 
cians, 2nd  edition,  iii.  205,  London,  1878 ;  Bio- 
graphy prefixed  to  Syd.  Soc.  collection  above 


cited ;  G-reenhoVs  Lectures  on  Addison^s  Disease, 
London,  1875;  Lonsdale's  Worthies  of  Cum- 
berland, London,  1873.]  J.  F.  P. 

ADD  Y.  WILLIAM  {fi.  1686),  a  writing- 
master  in  London,  was  tne  author  of  a  system 
of  shorthand  published  in  1686.  The  method, 
a  modification  of  that  of  Jeremiah  Rich,  was 
so  much  practised  that  the  Bible,  the  New 
Testament,  and  the  Singing  Psalms  were 

Eublished,  according  to  its  system,  two  years 
kter.  The  1695  edition  of  his  work  was  en- 
titled '  Stenographia,  or  the  Art  of  Short- 
Writing  compleated  in  a  far  more  compen- 
dious methode  than  any  yet  extant,'  12mo.  It 
was  engraved  throughout.  The  Bible  had  a 
portrait  of  Addy,  engraved  by  Sturt  from  a 
painting  by  Barker ;  and  the  same  engraver 
executed  the  rest  of  the  work.  In  subsequent 
editions  of  the  Bible  the  preUminajy  leaves 
were  changed,  and  the  book  dedicated  to 
King  William.  All  the  title-pages  are  dated 
1687. 

[James  H.  Lewis's  Hist,  of  Shorthand,  p.  94.] 

J.  £.  B. 
ADEL-  [See  Ethel-] 

ADELA  (1062  P-1137),  mother  of  Ste- 
phen, king  of  England,  and  the  fourth,  and 
probably  the  youngest,  daughter  of  William 
the  Conqueror  and  Matilda  of  Flanders,  was 
bom  about  1062.  Her  beauty  and  valour  in 
her  early  years  are  described  by  many  con- 
temporary Norman  chroniclers.  WTiile  she 
was  still  a  child  she  was  affianced  to  Simon 
Crispin,  earl  of  Amiens,  the  son  and  heir  of 
Ralph,  earl  of  Valois  and  Mantes,  who  re- 
ceived his  military  training  at  the  court  of 
William  the  Conqueror.  But  soon  after  his 
father  8  death  in  1074  Simon  fell  into  a  settled 
melancholy ;  and  on  being  summoned  in  1077 
to  marry  Adela,  he  refused,  and  withdrew  to 
a  monastery.  But  already  in  1076  Adela  had 
been  demanded  in  marriage  by  Stephen,  earl 
of  Meaux  and  Brie,  son  and  heir  of  Theo- 
bald, earl  of  Blois  and  Chartres,  a  powerful 
neighbour  of  William  the  Conqueror  in  Nor- 
mandy ;  and  although  Stephen^s  suit  had  at 
first  been  unfavourably  received,  it  was  re- 
peated in  1080,  and  readily  accepted  hy 
William  and  his  nobles.  Adela  was  married 
in  the  same  year  at  Breteuil,  and  the  cere- 
mony was  repeated  with  much  splendour  ai 
Chartres,  the  chief  town  in  her  father-in- 
law's  dominion.  Baldric  of  Anjou,  abbot  of 
Bourgeuil,  and  other  courtly  poets,  speak  of 
her  at  the  time  as  being  her  father's  equal  in 
bravery,  a  Latin  and  Greek  scholar,  and  a 
senerous  patron  of  poetry,  at  which  she  was 
herself  an  adept  {Ilistotre  Littirmre  de  to 
France^  vii.  162,  ix.  It31). 

In  1090,  on  the  death  of  Theobald,  her 


Adela 


135 


Adela 


husband's  fsthery  Stephen  succeeded  to  his 
rule,  and  Adela  played  an  active  part  in 
public  life.     In  most  of  the  charters  issued 
by  Stephen  her  name  was  mentioned,  and  an 
inscription,  until  recently  legible,  on  a  gate 
at  Blois  testifies  to  a  grant  of  privileges  to 
the  town  from  '  Stephen  the  Earl  and  Adela 
the  Countess '  conjomtl^r.    Disputes  between 
monasteries,  and  ecclesiastical  affairs  gene- 
rally, she  seems  to  have  controlled  b^  her 
own  authority,  with  the  aid  of  her  intimate 
friend    Ivo,  bishop  of  Chartres.      It  was 
throoffh  her  energy  and  beneficence  that  the 
cathedral  of  Chfutres  was  rebuilt  in  stone, 
and  freed  from  all  taxation  on  condition  that 
uuuversary  services  should  be  performed  for 
ever  in  honour  of  her  husband  and  herself. 
With  Hildebert,  bishop  of  Mans,  she  main- 
tuned  throuj^hout    her    married  life  very 
friendly  relations,  and  many  of  his  letters  to 
heron  ecclesiastical  subjects  are  still  extant. 
In  1006  her  husband,  at  her  desire,  left  Blois 
to  join  the  first  crusade,  and  she  was  nomi- 
nated regent  in  his  absence.  At  the  moment 
the  was  much  occupied  with  domestic  duties. 
A  krae  family  was  growing  up  about  her, 
tnd  although  she  sent  her  two  eldest  sons, 
William  and  Theobald,  to  a  monastic  school 
It  Orleans,  the  rest  she  zealously  educated 
henel£     But  she  contrived  to  perform  her 
public  business  with  due  thoroughness.     '  In 
joo,'  wrote  Bishop  Hildebert  to  her,  *  is  all 
that  is  needed  to  smide  the  helm  of  the  state.' 
She  aided  Louis  Vl  of  France  with  a  hundred 
soldiers,  equipped  under  her  supervision,  to 
lepresfl  a  rebellion  about  1096.    In  1097  she 
entertained  Anselm,  while  passing  from  Eng- 
land to  Bome  during  his  quarrel  with  her 
brother  William  11,  and  became  his  pupil  in 
order  to  benefit  her  children  by  the  instruc- 
tion she  obtained  of  him.     In  1098  Adela 
was  taken  seriously  ill,  and  she  piously  at- 
tributed her  recovery  to  the  intercession  of 
St.  Agiles,  before  whose  shrine,  in  a  chapel  of 
Resbac  in  La  Brie,  she  had  her  couch  placed 
at  a  very  critical  moment  of  her  sicKness. 
About  1099  her  husband  returned  home; 
he  bad  behaved  with  doubtful  courage  in  an 
attempt  to  raise  the  siege  of  Antioch,  and 
Adela  resented  his  disgrace.    In  1101  she 
induced  him  to  join  William,  earl  of  Poitou, 
in  a  second  expedition  to  the  Holy  Land, 
where  he  was  slain  fighting  at  the  siege  of 
Ramula. 

After  her  husband's  death,  Adela  con- 
tinued in  the  regency  in  behalf  of  her  sons, 
idl  of  whom  were  still  in  their  minority ;  she 
frequently,  however,  associated  their  names, 
ana  especially  that  of  Theobald,  the  second 
son  and  deemed  l^  her  the  most  able  of  her 
children,  with  her  own  in  official  documents. 


Between  1103  and  1105  Ansebn  was  often 
her  guest.  He  stayed  witli  her  from  the 
spring  to  the  autumn  of  1103,  and  when  he, 
with  Eadmer,  came  from  Rome  to  Blois  some 
months  later,  he  stated  to  Adela  his  grounds 
of  dispute  about  investitures  with  her  brother, 
Henry  I.  She  attempted  to  arbitrate  between 
them  ;  she  summoned  Henry  and  Anselm  to 
meet  her  at  the  castle  of  L*^Vigle  in  Nor- 
mandy, and  there  a  temporary  reconciliation 
was  arranged.  On  24  May  1105,  Anselm,  in 
a  letter  to  the  pope,  praises  highly  Adela*s 
skill  in  the  mediation.  About  the  same 
time  the  countess  granted  an  asylum  at  her 
court  to  Agnes  of  Poitou,  the  ill-used  wife 
of  the  Norman  baron,  llobert  of  Belesme. 
In  1107  Adela  was  engaged  in  a  quarrel  with 
Ivo  of  Chartres,  as  to  the  qualincations  for 
admission  to  the  chief  monastery  of  his  dio- 
cese, and  Pope  Pascal,  who  had  Wen  visiting 
the  king  of  1^  ranee,  came  to  Adela  at  Chartres 
to  settle  the  dispute.  Anselm  had  already 
addressed  him  in  the  countess  s  behalf,  but 
Pascal  decided  the  question  in  favour  of  Ivo. 
Nevertheless  Adela  gave  him  a  sumptuous 
reception,  and  he  celebrated  Easter  m  her 
dominions.  In  1 108  Adela  received  Boemund 
of  Antioch,  an  enthusiastic  crusader,  and  at 
her  earnest  request  he  celebrated  his  mar- 
riage with  Constance,  daughter  of  Philip  I 
of  S'rance,  at  Chartres.  Later  in  1108  Hugh 
of  Puiset,  a  powerful  neighbour,  attacked 
Adela,  and  she,  with  her  son  Theobald,  went 
to  Paris  to  demand  aid  of  Philip  I.  The  re- 
quest was  granted,  and  Hugh  was  defeated 
by  the  joint  forces  of  France  and  Blois.  In 
1109  Adela  resigned  the  government  to  Theo- 
bald. She  passed  over  her  eldest  son  William 
as  mentally  and  physically  Theobald^s  infe- 
rior. In  accordance  with  a  previous  sugges- 
tion of  Anselm,  she  spent  the  last  years  of 
her  life  in  a  convent.  She  took  the  veil  at 
the  Cluniac  priory  of  Marcigny  on  the  Loire, 
in  the  diocese  of  Autun.  But  tlie  countess  for 
some  years  aftenvards  still  exerted  herself  in 
public  afiairs.  She  induced  Count  Theobald 
to  ally  himself  with  his  uncle  Henry  I  against 
France  in  1117-8.  She  continued  to  bestow 
munificent  g^ifts  on  monasteries  and  churches, 
especially  on  that  of  Ste.  Foy  at  Colomiers, 
her  favourite  retreat ;  and  she  settled  many 
clerical  disputes.  She  urged  Hugh  of  Fleuiy 
to  write  his  valuable  chronicle  of  French 
history,  which  was  dedicated  to  her  niece, 
the  Empress  Matilda,  after  her  death.  She 
corresponded  with  Hildebert  of  Mans,  and 
visitea  Thurstan,  archbishop  of  York,  when 
he  passed  through  France  to  appeal  to 
Rome  in  his  quarrel  with  the  arcnbishop 
of  Canterbury;  in  1135  she  received  from 
Peter,  abbot  of  Clugny,  a  full  accoimt  of  the 


Adelaide 


136 


Adelaide 


death  of  her  brother,  Henry  I.  She  died  in 
1137  at  the  age  of  about  seventy-fiye,  and 
was  buried  at  Caen  beside  her  mother  and 
her  sister  Cecilia  in  the  abbey  of  the  Holy 
Trinity.  Her  prave  bore  the  inscription 
*  Adela,  filia  re^s/ 

Of  Adela's  chddren,William,  the  eldest  son, 
played  a  very  unimportant  part  in  history. 
Theobald,  her  successor,  proyed  a  capable 
ruler;  he  named  his  only  daughter  Adela, 
and  she  became  the  wife  of  Louis  VII  of 
France,  and  mother  of  Philip  Augustus. 
The  coimtess  in  1114  sent  Stephen,  her  third 
son,  to  the  court  of  Henry  I,  and  she  liyed 
long  enough  to  see  him  crowned  king  of 
England.  Her  sons,  Henry  and  Philip,  she 
deyoted  to  the  church,  and  the  former  became 
an  eminent  bishop  of  Winchester,  while  the 
latter  held  the  see  of  Chalons.  Another  son, 
Humbert,  died  young,  and  of  a  seyenth, 
Eudo,  mentioned  in  one  of  Adela's  charters, 
nothing  is  known  beyond  the  name.  C)f 
Adela's  daughters,  Matilda  married  Ralph, 
earl  of  Chester,  and,  with  her  husband  and 
her  cousin  Prince  William,  was  drowned  in 
the  White  ship  in  1120.  Adela  married 
Milo  de  Brai,  lord  of  Montlheri  and  viscount 
of  Troyes,  a  marriage  that  Ivo  of  Chartres 
subsequently  annulled  on  the  ground  of  con- 
sanguinity. Some  authorities  mention  two 
other  daughters,  Alice,  who  became  the  wife 
of  Reynald  HI,  earl  of  Joigni,  and  Eleanora, 
the  wife  of  Raoul,  earl  of  \  ermandois  {VArt 
de  verifier,  xi.  362-3). 

[Ordericiifl  Vitalis,  Historia  Ecclesiastica,  is 
the  chief  contemporary  authority.  The  l>e8t  ac- 
count of  Adela's  life  will  be  found  in  Mrs. 
Green's  Lives  of  the  Princesses  of  England,  i. 
34-72,  where  very  full  references  to  all  the 
original  authorities  are  given ;  see  also  Free- 
man's Norman  Conquest,  iii.  and  iv.,  and  his 
WiUiam  Rufus.]  S.  L.  L. 

ADELAIDE,  Queen  Dowager  (1792- 
1849).  Amellv  Adelaide  Louisa  Theresa 
Caroline,  eldest  child  of  George,  duke 
of  Saxe-Coburg  Meiningen,  and  of  Louisa, 
daughter  of  Christian  Albert,  prince  of 
IIohenlohe-Langenburg,  was  bom  13  Aug. 
1792.  Brought  up  by  a  widowed  mother 
(her  father  died  1803),  her  reputation  for 
amiability  determined  Queen  Charlotte  to 
select  her  as  a  wife  for  William  Henry,  duke 
of  Clarence,  whose  marriage,  with  that  of 
his  three  brothers,  took  place  when  the  death 
of  the  Princess  Charlotte  made  it  desirable 
to  provide  heirs  for  the  crown.  A  tempo- 
rary difficulty,  caused  by  the  refusal  of  par- 
liament to  raise  the  duke's  allowance  of 
18,000/.  a  year  by  more  than  6,000/.  instead 
of  the  10,000/.  demanded,  was  got  over,  and 


the  princess  and  her  mother  arrived  in  Lon- 
don for  the  marriage,  4  July  1818.  It  took 
place  at  Kew,  simultaneously  with  that  of 
the  Duke  of  Kent,  on  18  July,  and  proved  a 
happy  one,  despite  the  disparity  in  jrears  (the 
bnde  was  in  her  twenty-sixth,  the  bridegroom 
in  his  fifty-third  year)  and  the  absence  of  any 
preliminary  courtship. 

The  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Clarence  passed 
the  first  year  of  their  marriage  in  Hanover, 
where,  in  1819,  a  daughter  was  bom  to  them, 
to  live  only  a  few  hours.  Their  second  child, 
the  Princess  Elizabeth  Georgina  Adelaide, 
bom  10  Dec.  1820,  died  in  the  following 
year.  Their  principal  English  residence 
was  Bushey  Park,  wnere  they  lived  in  com- 
parative retirement  until  the  accession  of 
William  to  the  throne  on  the  death  of 
George  IV,  26  June  1830.  By  a  bill  passed 
in  the  following  November,  the  queen  was 
nominated  as  regent,  in  case  a  child  of  hers 
should  survive  the  king,  and  provision  was 
made  for  her  widowhood  by  a  settlement  of 
100,000/.  a  year,  with  Marlborough  House 
and  Bushey  Park,  of  which  she  was  imme- 
diately constituted  perpetual  ranger.  The 
royal  coronation  took  place  on  8  Sept.  1831. 

Her  supposed  inter&rence  in  pohtics  ren- 
dered the  queen  very  unpopular  during  and 
after  the  reform  agitation,  and  her  carriage 
was  once  assailed  in  the  streets  by  an  angry 
mob,  who  were  only  beaten  off  by  the  canes 
of  her  footmen.  On  the  fall  of  the  whig 
(Lord  Melbourne's)  ministry  in  1832,  the 
words  of  the  *  Times,*  *  The  queen  has  done 
it  all,'  were  placarded  over  London.  The 
dismissal  of  her  chamberlain,  I^ord  Howe, 
for  a  vote  adverse  to  the  ministry,  caused 
her  much  annoyance,  and  she  refused  to  ac- 
;  cept  any  one  in  his  place,  which  he  continued 
to  fill  unofficially. 

In  the  spring  of  1837,  Queen  Adelaide  was 
summoned  to  Germany  to  her  mother's  death- 
bed, and  had  not  long  returned,  when  the 
!  commencement  of  the  king's  last  illness  en- 
tailed a  long  and  arduous  attendance.  He 
died  in  her  arms  on  20  June,  and  was 
buried  at  Windsor  on  8  July,  the  queen, 
contrary  to  precedent,  assisting  at  the  funeral 
service.  Her  health  was  shattered  by  the  fa- 
tigues she  had  undergone,  and  her  subsequent 
life  was  that  of  an  invalid  seeking  relief  by 
change  of  climate.  She  spent  a  winter  in 
Malta  (1838-39),  where  the  church  of  Va- 
letta,  erected  by  her  at  a  cost  of  10,000/.,  re- 
mains a  permanent  memorial  of  her  stay, 
visited  Madeira  in  1847,  and  died  from  tl^e 
rupture  of  a  blood-vessel  in  the  chest  at 
Bentlev  Prior\-,  near  Stanmore,  2  Dec.  1849. 
Her  written  requests  that  she  should  be 
buried  simply,  and  her  remains  borne  to  the 


Adelard 


137 


Adeliza 


^rave  by  sailors,  were  complied  with  at  her 
interment  at  Windsor  on  13  Dec. 

She  had  long  lived  down  her  impopularity, 
and  won  universal  esteem  by  her  blameless 
life  and  royal  munificence  in  charity.  She 
subscribed  about  20,000/.  yearly  to  public 
institutions,  and  her  private  donations  were 
equally  liberal.  Her  domestic  life  was  over- 
shadowed by  the  loss  of  her  children,  a  blow 
no  less  to  ambition  than  to  afiection. 

[Doran's  Hemoir  of  Queen  Adelaide,  London, 
1861;  Maley*8  Histori(»l  Recollections  of  the 
Beign  of  William  IV.,  London,  1860;  Moles- 
iroTth's  History  of  England  from  1830  to  1874, 
London,  1874;  Greville  Memoirs,  ed.  by  H. 
Reere,  4th  ed.,  London,  1875.]  £.  M.  C. 

ADELABDofB^th  (12th  cent.),  a  writer 
on  philosophy,  of  English  birth,  flourished 
about  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century. 
His  Enfflish  name  was  ^thelhard.  His 
native  place  is  said  to  have  been  Bath  ;  but 
of  the  lacts  of  his  life  little  is  known  beyond 
the  few  references  to  travels  contained  in  his 
own  writings,  and  an  entry  in  the  Pipe  Roll, 
31  Henry  1(1180),  granting  him  a  small  sum 
of  money  from  the  revenues  of  Wiltshire 
(/Vpe  Boll,  ed.  HuirrEB,  p.  22).  He  is  said 
to  have  studied  at  Tours  and  Laon,  and  to 
have  lectured  in  the  latter  school.  He  then 
travelled  much  more  widely  than  was  at  the 
time  common,  and  appears  to  have  passed 
throuffh  Spain,  the  north  of  Africa,  Greece, 
and  Asia  Minor.  He  was  one  of  those 
Englishmen  who  lived  for  a  time  in  the 
Gorman  kingdom  of  Sicily,  and  he  is  known 
to  have  visited  Syracuse  and  Salerno.  Later 
writers  have  ascribed  to  him  profound  know- 
ledge of  the  Greek  and  Antb  science  and 
philosophy,  but  in  regard  to  this  nothing  can 
oe  laid  down  with  certainty.  That  Adelard 
knew  Greek  is  almost  certain ;  but  it  has  not 
yet  been  determined  whether  the  translation 
of  Euclid's '  Elements '  (undoubtedly  executed 
by  him,  though  often  ascribed  to  Campanus 
01  Novara,  with  whose  comments  it  was 
published  in  1482  at  Venice)  was  made  from 
an  Arab  version  or  from  the  original.  From 
the  character  of  the  translation,  the  former 
supposition  seems  the  more  satisfactory.  On 
his  return  from  travel,  Adelard  threw  into 
systematic  shape  such  of  the  Arab  teachings 
as  he  had  acquired,  and  the  work — printed 
aome  time  after  1472,  though  without  date, 
under  the  title  '  Perdifficlles  Quaestiones 
Naturales' — seems  to  have  enjoyed  some 
popularity.  Other  treatises,  on  the  astro- 
labe, on  the  abacus,  and  a  translation  of 
the  Kharismian  Tables,  exist  in  manuscript 
{see  JoUBDAiN,  Heckerches  sur  les  Traduc- 
turns  tPAristote,  2nd  ed.,  1843,  pp.  97-8). 


manuscript  (see  JorKDAiN,  as  above,  pp.  260- 
273).  It  is  in  the  usual  allegorical  form, 
and  unfolds  the  arg^iments  by  which  the 
divinities,  Philocosmia  (Worldliness)  and 
Philosophia,  accompanied  respectively  by  the 
five  foolish  satisfactions  of  lortune,  power, 
dipiity,  fame,  and  pleasure,  and  by  the  seven 
wise  virgins,  the  Liberal  Art«,  endeavour  to 
win  the  soul  of  man.  Apart  from  quaintness 
of  form,  the  work  is  remarkable  as  stating 
one  of  the  many  solutions  offered  by  medisevid 
thinkers  to  the  pressing  difficulty  of  recon- 
ciling the  real  existence  of  the  individual 
with  the  equallv  real  existence  of  the  species 
or  genus.  Adelard,  defining  the  individual 
as  the  only  existent,  at  the  same  time  finds 
in  the  said  individual,  when  regarded  in 
various  fashions,  the  species  and  the  genus. 
Species  and  ^enus  are,  therefore,  indifferent 
to  the  peculiarities  of  the  individual,  iden- 
tical amid  diversity ;  and  the  view  appears  to 
its  author  to  furnish  a  means  of  reconciling 
Platonic  idealism  with  Aristotelian  empiri- 
cism. 

[On  Adelard  see,  in  addition  to  Pits,  whose 
literary  notices  are  rarely  of  much  value,  Jour- 
dain,  as  above,  pi>.  97-9,  258-77.  452-4 ; 
Haur^u,  Phil.  Soolastique,  2nd  ed.  1872,  i. 
346-61.]  B.  A 

ADELIZA  (d.  1066?)  was  the  dauffhter 
of  William  I.  The  continuator  of  William 
of  Jumi^s  (lib.  viii.  cap.  84)  states  that 
*Adelidis,'  a  daughter  of  William  I,  was 
betrothed  to  (King)  Harold,  and  remained 
single  after  his  death.  Orderic  (5f  3  c. )  states 
that  she  took  the  veil,  but  makes  her  sister 
Agatha  the  betrothed  of  Harold.  William 
of  Malmesbury  mentions  that  one  of  William's 
daughters  was  betrothed  to  Harold,  but  makes 
him  speak  of  her  to  William  as  dead  in  1066 
(Gest.  Keg.  lib.  iii.  e.  288).  Mr.  Planch6  as- 
serts (but  gives  no  authority)  that  she  was 
bom  in  1055,  was  betrothed  to  Harold  in 
1062,  and  was  dead  by  1066. 

[Freeman's  Norman  Conquest,  iii.  112,  660 
(Ist  ed.),  112,  667-70  (2nd  ed.) ;  Planchi's  Con- 
queror and  his  Companions  (1874),  i.  82.1 

J.  H.  B. 

ADELIZA  OF  Lou  VAIN  {d,  1151  ?),  second 
queen  of  Henry  I,  was  daughter  of  Godfrey 
(*  Barbatus  *)  of  Louvain,  duke  of  Brabant 
or  Lower  Lotharingia,  descended  in  the  male 
line  from  Charles  the  Great.  The  date  of  her 
birth  is  not  known,  but  she  is  described  as 
'puella'  in  1120.  It  was  partly  the  report, 
of  her  singular  beauty  (on  which  all  the 
chroniclers  are  agreed),  and  partly  '  ob  spem 


Adeliza 


138 


Adkins 


§  rolls  adipiscendee '  (Gebtase,  i.  92,  Rolls 
€r.),  that  Henry,  then  in  his  fiftieth  year  (and 
a  widower  since  MaylllS),  sought  her  hand 
in  the  ahove  year.  The  contract  of  marriage 
was  signed  16  April  1120;  but,  owing  to 
the  delay  in  the  bride's  arrival,  the  marriage 
itself  did  not  take  place  till  24  Jan.  1120-1, 
the  royal  pair  being  crowned  by  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  six  days  later.  It  was 
on  this  occasion  that  Henry  of  Huntin^on 
(p.  248,  Rolls  Ser.)  composed,  in  praise  of  her 
beauty,  the  elegiacs  beginning : 

Anglorom  regina,  tuos,  Adeliza,  decores 
ipsa  referre  parans  musa  stupore  riget. 

Of  a  gentle  and  retiring  disposition  she  took 
no  part  in  politics,  but  devoted  herself  to 
soothing  and  pacifying  the  disappointed  and 
sullen  King.      She  also  interested    herself 
greatly  in  the  literary  movement  of  the  day, 
taking  under  her  special  patronage  Geofiroi 
Gaimar,  Philip  du  Than,  the  author  of  the 
*  Voyage  de  bt.   Brandan,'  and  David  the 
Trouveur.    On  the  death  of  Henry  (1  Dec. 
1135)  she  disappears  from  view;  out  it  is 
probable  that  she  retired  to  the  castle  of 
Arundel  which,  with  its  honour,  had  been 
left  to  her  in  dower  for  life.    We  find  her 
residing  there  in  1139,  when  the  empress 
landed  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  was  re- 
ceived into  the  castle  '  ab  Adeliza  quondam 
regis  Henrici  regina  tunc  autem  amica  (sic) 
vel  uxore  W.  Comitis  de  Arundell'  (Gervase, 
ed.  Stubbs,  i.  110).   The  date  of  her  marriage 
to  William  de  Albini  [see  Albini,  William 
DE,  d.  1176]  is  unknown;  but  as  she  left 
by  him  seven  children,  it  cannot  have  been 
long  after  Henry's  death.     Her  only  recorded 
acts  after  1139  are   her  foundation  of  the 
small  priories  of  Pyneham  and  of  the  Cause- 
way (De  Calceto),  and  her  benefactions  to  that 
of  Boxgrove,  all  in  Sussex,  with  her  gifts  to 
Henry's  abbey  of  Reading  and  to  the  cathe- 
dral church  of  Chichester.    To  the  latter  she 
presented  the  prebend  of  West  Dean  in  the 
year  1150,  after  which  date  there  are  no  fur- 
ther traces  of  her.     It  is  stated  by  Sandford 
that  *  she  was  certainly  buried  at  Reading ; ' 
but  she  has  since  been  proved  to  have  left  ner 
husband  and  retired  to  the  abbey  of  Aifli- 
gam  near  Alost,  in  Flanders,  which  had  been 
founded   by  her   father  and  uncle,  and  to 
which  her  brother  Henry  had  withdrawn  in 
1149.     Here  she  died  on  23  March  (the  year 
not  being  recorded),  and  was  buried :  *  Affli- 
genam  delata  vivendi  finem   facit  ix.  kal. 
Aprilis   et   sepulta  est  e  regione  horologii 
nostri '  (Sakderus,  Chorographia  Sacra  Bra- 
bantiee).   While  lady  of  Arundel  she  had  sub- 
enfeoffed  her  brother  Joceline  (*  the  Castel- 
lan*) in  the  lordship  of  Petworth  on  the 


occasion  of  his  marriage  with  the  heiress  of 
the  Percies,  by  whom  he  was  ancestor  of  the 
earls  of  Northumberland. 

[Strickland's  Lives  of  the  Queens  of  England 
(1840),  vol.  i. ;  Lawrence's  Biemoirs  of  the  Queens 
of  England  (1838),  voL  i. ;  Henry  Howard's 
Howam  Memori^  (1834),  x. ;  Bntkens'  Tro- 
phies du  Brabant,  vol.  1. ;  Sanderus'  Chor^na- 
phia  Sacra  Brabantie.]  J.  H.  B. 

ADKINS,  ROBERT  (1626-1685)— mis- 
spelled 'Atkins'  in  the  'Nonconformists' 
Memorial ' — was  one  of  the  most  notable  of 
the  two  thousand  ejected  ministers  of  1662. 
He  was  bor^  at  Chard,  Somersetshire,  in 
1626.  His  father  intended  to  put  him  into 
business,  but,  discovering  that  his  heart  was 
set  upon  being  a  preacher  of  the  gospel,  he 
sent  him  to  Oxford.  He  was  entered  of 
Wadham  Oollege,  of  which  he  became  ulti- 
mately a  fellow.  He  had  for  tutor  the 
afterwards  famous  Bishop  Wilkina.  When 
Adkins  'first  appeared  in  the  pulpit  at  St. 
Mary's  [OxfordJ,  being  but  yoimg  and  look- 
ing yoimger  than  he  was,  firom  the  smallness 
of  his  stature,  the  hearers  despised  him,  ex- 
pecting nothing  worth  hearing  from  "  such 
a  boy,  as  they  called  him.  But  his  dis- 
course soon  turned  their  contempt  into  ad- 
miration '  (Noncanf,  Mem,  ii.  32).  Cromwell 
appointed  him  one  of  his  chaplains.  But, 
like  Richard  Baxter,  he  found  the  place  un- 
suitable 'by  reason  of  the  insolency  of  the 
sectaries.' 

He  is  found  settled  at  Theydon  '  as  the 
successor  of  John  Feriby  and  the  predecessor 
of  Francis  Chandler.'  His  ministry  here  ex- 
tended from  1652-3  to  1657.  Calamy  states 
that  '  he  foimd  the  place  overrun  with  sects, 
but  his  solid  doctrine,  joyned  with  a  free  and 
obliging  conver8ation,so  convinced  and  gained 
them  that  after  a  while  he  had  not  one  dis- 
senter left  in  the  parish.'  His  health  having 
given  way,  he  removed  to  Exeter,  at  the 
instance  of  Thomas  Ford,  then  minister  of 
the  cathedral  of  Exeter.  Here  he  first 
preached  in  the  parish  church  of  St.  Sidwell, 
while  the  choir  of  the  cathedral  was  being 
prepared  for  him.  When  the  alterations 
were  completed,  the  choir,  commonly  known 
as  East  Peter's  Church,  was  capable  of  ac- 
commodating a  vast  con^egation.  Adkins 
soon  had  it  crowded.  He  was  held  the 
best  preacher  in  the  west  of  England.  He 
was  ejected  from  St.  Peter's  under  the  act 
of  1660,  but  was  immediately  chosen  to  St. 
John's  in  the  same  city,  which  was  then 
vacant.  From  his  plain  speaking  against 
vice  he  was  *  troubled '  by  *  a  gentleman  of 
great  quality.'  But  Bishop  (iauden  stood 
his  friend.   "When  the  Act  of  Uniformity 


Adolph  139  Adolphus 

came,  he  was  a  second  time  ejected,  i.e.  from  ADOLPHUS  FREDERICK,  Duke  of 
St.  John's.  In  his  farewell  sennon,  preached  I  Cambridob  (1774-1850),  the  tenth  child 
17  Auc'.  1662,  he  spoke  thus  memorably :  '  and  seventh  son  of  King  George  III  and 
*  Let  him  ncTer  be  accounted  a  sound  Queen  Charlotte,  was  bom  at  the  Queen's 
christian  that  doth  not  fear  Ood  and  honour  Palace,  St.  James's  Park  (now  Buckingham 
the  king.  I  beg  that  you  would  not  suffer  ,  Palace)  in  the  evening  of  24  Feb.  1774.  On 
our  nonconformity,  for  which  we  patiently  2  June  1786  he  was  made  a  knight  of  the 
bear  the  loss  of  our  places,  to  be  an  act  of  Garter,  with  tHeee  of  his  elder  brothers;  and 
unpeaceableness  and  disloyalty.  We  will  do  on  that  occasion  a  new  statute  was  read  en- 
anything  for  his  majesty  but  sin.  We  will  1  larging  the  number  of  the  order,  and  ordain- 
hazard  anything  for  him  but  our  souls.  We  ing  that  it  should  *  in  future  consist  of  the 
hope  we  could  die  for  him,  only  we  dare  not  sovereign  and  twenty-five  knights,  exclusive 
be  damned  for  him.  We  make  no  question,  of  the  sons  of  his  majesty  or  his  successors.' 
however  we  may  be  accounted  of  here,  we  '  Having  received  his  earlier  education  at  Kew 
shall  be  found  loyal  and  obedient  subjects  under  Dr.  Hughes  and  Mr.  Cookson,  he  was 
at  our  appearance  before  God's  tribunal.'  sent,  with  his  brothers  Ernest  and  Augustus 
Like  Baxter,  he  could  have  gained  a  mitre  — afterwards  severally  Dukes  of  Cumberland 
for  conformity  by  the  influence  of  his  friend  '  and  Sussex — to  Gottingen,  at  the  university 
the  Earl  of  Radnor ;  but  *  he  was  faithful  to  1  of  which  they  were  entered  on  6  July  1786. 
his  conscience  to  the  last.'    He  remained  in    The  three  members  of  the  '  little  colony '  sent 


connived  at  him.'  Dr.  Lamplugh,  bishop  of ,  Bishop  Hurd  under  date  30  July, '  Adolphus 
IbLeter,  quashed  all '  procedure '  gainst  him,  '  for  the  present  seems  the  favourite  of  all, 
and  *  spoKe  very  honourably  of  Mr,  Adkins  <  which,  from  his  lively  manners,  is  natural ; 
for  his  learning  and  moderation.'  Notwith-  but  the  good  sense  of  Augustus  will  in  the 
standing  he  was  called  on  to  endure  a  good  :  end  prove  conspicuous '  (Jesse's  Memoirs  of 
deal  of  sufferincr.  He  died  28  March  1685,  the  Life  and  Beign  of  George  III,  ii.  631). 
aged  69.  His  fimeral  sermon  was  preached  '•  In  1793  Prince  Adolphus  Frederick,  who 
by  George  Trosse.  There  were  published  of ;  had  visited  the  court  of  Prussia  to  perfect 
his  *The  Sin  and  Danger  of  Popeir,  in  six  '  his  knowledge  of  military  tactics,  was  ap- 
sermons '  (Exon.  1712,  8vo)  ana  his  *  Fare-  '  pointed  colonel  in  the  Hanoverian  army, 
weU  Sermon  at  St.  John's '  (Exon.  1715,  and,  after  serving  for  a  short  time  as  a  volun- 
Svo).  I  teer  with  the  British  forces  before  Dunkirk, 

[Calamy's  Account  (1713),  ii.  214  ;  Calamy's  1  arrived  in  England  in  September  of  the  same 
Continuation  (1727),  p.  238;  Calamy  and  Palmer's  year,  towards  the  close  of  which  he  was  ap- 
NoDConf.  Mem.  ii.  32-35,  ed.  1802 ;  David's  An-  1  pointed  colonel  of  the  Hanoverian  guards, 
nals  of  Evangelical  Nonconf.  in  Esaex,  1863,  pp.  |  He  served  in  the  campaipi  of  1794-6  as 
524-26.]  A.  B.  G.      j  colonel  and  major-general  m  General  Wal- 

ADOLPH,  ADOLF,  or  ADOLPHE,  !  moden's  corps,  and  on  24  Aug.  1798  was 
JOSEPH  ANTONY  (1729-1762),  painter,  I  promoted  to  be  lieutenant-general  in  the 
bom  at  Nikolsburg  in  Moravia,  was  the  son  '  Hanoverian  serv^ice,  from  which  he  was  trans- 
of  Joseph  Frank  Adolph,  painter  to  Prince  C.  ferred,  18  June  1803,  with  the  same  rank,  to 
Max  von  Dietrichstein.  He  came  to  England    the  British  army.     On  17  November  follow- 


in  1745 ;  he  painted  an  equestrian  portrait 
of  G«orge  III  when  Prince  of  Wales,  which 
was  engraved  by  Baron.  The  engraving  was 
published  in  17o6.  During  his  stay  in  Eng- 
land, which  lasted  for  some  years,  Adolph  is 


ing  he  was  appointe<l  to  be  colonel-in-chief 
of  the  king's  German  legion,  a  force  in  British 
pay,  and  destined  for  the  relief  of  Hanover, 
then  menaced,  together  with  the  rest  of  east- 
em  and  northern  Europe,  b}"-  the  French  ar- 


said  to  have  been  engaged  chiefly  as  a  portrait  :  ^i^s.  Disappointed,  however,  at  the  indif- 
painter ;  but  on  his  retum  to  Austria  he  was  !  ference  of  the  Hanoverians  to  the  honour  and 
employed  in  the  decoration  of  interiors,  |  advantage  of  their  connection  with  England, 
adorning  walls  with  frescoes,  and  painting  '  the  prince  presently  returned  to  this  country, 


the  ceilings  of  large  saloons.  Three  altar- 
pieces  by  him  are  in  the  collegiate  church  of 
Nikolsburg.  He  died  at  Vienna,  17  Jan. 
1762. 

[Nagler^s  Knnstler-Lexikon  (edit^  by  Meyer, 
1872) ;  Heineken's  Diet,  des  Artistes  dont  nous 
avoDs  des  Estampes.]  C.  M. 


leaving  the  British  forces  under  the  command 
of  Count  "Walmoden,  who  soon  afterwards 
surrendered. 

Peerages  fell  comparatively  late  to  the 
younger  sons  of  George  III,  and  were  con- 
ferred simultaneously  on  the  Princes  Augus- 
tus— ^whose  principal  creation  was  that  of 


Adolphus 


140 


Adolphus 


Duke  of  Sussex — and  Adolphus  on  24  Nov. 
1801,  when  the  latter  was  created  Baron  of 
Culloden,  Earl  of  Tipperary,  and  Duke  of 
Cambridge.  On  3  February  following,  1802, 
the  Duke  of  Cambridge  was  sworn  a  member 
of  the  privy  council,  and  took  his  place  at  the 
board  on  tne  left  hand  of  the  king. 

In  1804  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  was  nomi- 
nated to  the  military  command  of  the  home 
district,  and  on  6  Sept.  1805  received  the 
colonelcy  of  the  Coldstream  guards,  to  which 
was  added,  22  Jan.  1827,  the  colonelcy-in- 
chief  of  the  60th,  or  the  King's  Royal  rifle 
corps.  Several  years  previously,  on  26  Nov. 
1813,  he  had  been  promoted,  with  his  brother, 
the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  to  be  field-marshal 
in  the  British  army. 

The  Duke  of  Cambridge  a^ain  took  the 
command  in  the  electorate  of  Hanover  on  the 
recovery  of  its  independence  after  its  some- 
time annexation  to  the  kingdom  of  West- 
phalia ;  and  after  the  treaty  of  Vienna,  Oc- 
tober 1814,  had  elevated  the  electorate  into 
a  kingdom,  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  was,  in 
November  1816,  appointed  to  the  viceroy alty. 
He  continued  to  discharge  the  important 
functions  of  the  ofiice  until  the  year  1837, 
when  the  death  of  King  William  IV  opened 
the  throne  of  Hanover  to  the  Duke  of  Cum- 
berland. The  administration  of  Hanoverian 
affairs  by  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  was  charac- 
terised by  wisdom,  mildness,  and  discretion, 
and  by  the  introduction  of  timely  and  con- 
ciliatory reforms.  He  successively  weathered 
the  storms,  whether  popular  or  academical, 
of  the  revolutionary  period  of  1831,  and  his 
j)rudent  management  of  affairs  is  said  to  have 
gone  *  a  great  way  to  preserve  the  Hano- 
verian crown  for  his  family.' 

In  July  1811  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  had 
been  elected  chancellor  of  the  university  of  St. 
Andrews  in  succession  to  Viscount  Melville ; 
but  held  office  only  till  April  1814,  when  he 
was  succeeded  by  Lord  Melville,  the  son  of 
his  predecessor,  who  accepted  the  distinction 
*  vice  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  resident  in 
Germany'  {Gent  Mag,  April  1814).  After 
his  return  to  tliis  country  the  Duke  of  Cam- 
bridge acquired  great  popularity ;  and  he  was 
recognisea  as  *  emphatically  the  connecting 
link  between  the  throne  and  the  people' 
( United  Service  Qazette,  13  July  1850).  He 
was  an  indefatigable  supporter  of  public  cha- 
rities. In  committee  meetings  he  was  accus- 
tomed to  act  as  a  peacemaker  and  healer  of 
divisions,  or  else  as  a  thorough  and  fearless 
investigator,  who  was  determined  to  *  put  the 
burden  and  disgrace  of  the  dispute  on  the 
right  shoulders'  {Times,  9  July  1860).  He 
was  president  of  at  least  six  hospitals,  and 
the  patron  or  vice-patron  of  more  than  a  score 


of  other  beneficent  corporations.  '  He  was 
also  a  supporter  of  almost  every  literary  and 
scientific  institution  of  importance  in  the  em- 
pire' (  United  Service  Gazette,  13  July  1850) : 
and  in  the  various  manifestations  of  his  de- 
votion to  the  fine  arts,  especially  painting 
and  music,  achieved  in  his  day  a  &ir  reputa- 
tion in  the  latter  among  amateur  performers. 

In  politics  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  was  on 
the  conservative  side,  having  in  early  life  with- 
stood, not  without  being  sensibly  affected  by 
their  influence,  the  attractive  overtures  of  the 
leaders  of  the  whigs,  Fox,  Sheridan,  the  Prince 
of  Wales,  the  Duke  of  Sussex,  and  the  Duchess 
of  Devonshire.  The  duke's  partisanship  was 
modified,  however,  by  a  constant  desire  to  sup- 
port, whenever  he  could  do  so  conscientiously, 
the  measures  of  any  government  which  for 
the  time  represented  the  choice  of  the  sove- 
reign. He  was  not  an  orator,  either  in  the 
House  of  Lords  or  in  any  other  place ;  but 
his  earnestness  and  sincerity  won  from  his 
audiences  the  tribute  of  attention  and  respect. 
He  died  at  Cambridge  House,  Piccadilly,  on 
the  evening  of  Monday,  8  July  1850,  and 
was  buried  at  Kew,  amidst  the  scenes  of  his 
childhood,  and  near  his  favourite  suburban 
retreat. 

The  Duke  of  Cambridge  married  at  Cassel 
on  7  May,  and  on  1  June  1818  in  London, 
the  Princess  Augusta  Wilhelmina  Louisa, 
third  daughter  of  Frederick,  landgrave  of 
Hesse-Cassel,  by  whom  he  left  a  son  and  two 
daughters — the  present  Duke  of  Cambridge, 
the  Princess  Augusta  Caroline,  married  to 
Frederick  William,  reigning  grand  duke  of 
Mecklenburg  Strelitz,  and  the  Princess  Mary 
Adelaide,  the  wife  of  the  Prince  and  Duke  of 
Teck. 

The  Duke  of  Cambridge  was  a  prince  of 
Brunswick-Luneberg ;  G.C.B.  2  Jan.  1815; 
G.C.M.G.,  1842;  G.C.IL  (grand  cross  of  the 
royal  Hanoverian  Guelphic  order) ;  knight  of 
the  Prussian  orders  of  the  black  and  the  re<l 
eagle  ;  a  commissioner  of  the  lloyal  Militarj- 
College  and  the  Roval  Military  Asylum ; 
ranger  of  Richmond  Park  29  Aug.  1835; 
ranger  of  St.  James's  Park  and  Hyde  Park 
31  May  1843;  warden  and  keeper  of  the  New 
Forest  22  Feb.  1845 ;  and  honorary  LL.D.  of 
Cambridge,  4  July  1842. 

[Jesse'8  Memoirs  of  the  Life  and  Reign  of 
George  III;  Gent.  Mag.  Aug.  1850,  N.S.  xxiv. 
204;  Annual  Register;  Times,  9  July  1860; 
United  Service  Gazette,  13  July  1850.] 

A.  H.  G. 

ADOLPHUS,  JOHN  (1768-1845),  bar- 
rister-at-law,  historical  and  miscellaneous 
writer,  bom  7  Aug.  1768,  was  of  German 
extraction.  His  grandfather  had  been  do- 
mestic physician  to  Frederick  the  Great,  and 


Adolphus  141  Adolphus 

wrote  a  French  romance,  '  Histoire  des  Dia-  .  prime  minister,  who  gave  him  (H£in>EB80N*s 
blea  Modemes/  which  is  in  Watt*s  '  Biblio-  Recollections^  p.  98)  '  a  handsome  salary '  for 
theca  Britannica '  wrongly  ascribed  to  the    political  services  which  included  energetic 

Cindson.     His  father  lived  for  a  time  in    electioneering  and  occasional  pamphleteer- 
ndon  on  the  liberality  of  a  wealthy  uncle,    ing.   In  1803  Adolphus  published  a '  History 
who  provided  the  son  with  education,  and  '  of  France 'from  1790  to  the  abortive  peace  of 
sent  nim  at  the  age  of  fifteen  to  be  placed    Amiens,  and  a  pamphlet, '  Reflections  on  the 
in  the.  office  of  his  agent  for  some  estates  \  Causes  of  the  present  Hupture  with  France,' 
in  St.  Kltts.    Adolphus's  chief  occupation  '  in  vindication  of  the  policy  of  the  English 
was  attendance  at  the  sittings  of  tne  one  !  government.     On  the  authority  of  his  son  is 
law  court  of  the  island,  and  m  little  more  '  to  be  assigned  to  him  '  A  Letter  to  Robert ' 
than  a  year  he  returned  to  London.     His  |  [Plumerl  *  Ward,  Esq.,  M.P.,'  occasioned  by 
great-uncle  was  dead,  having  left  him  a  sum    nis  pamphlet  entitled  *  A  View  of  the  relative 
which  would  not  support  him  while  study-  :  Situations  of  Mr.  Pitt  and  Mr.  Addington,' 
ing  for  the  law,  but  enabled  him  to  be  ar-  '  issued  in  1804,  a  defence  of  Addington  when 
tided  to  an  attorney.      He  was  admitted    Pitt  had  gone  into  opposition.    Adolphus 
an  attorney  in  1790,  but  after  a  few  years    had  meanwhile  entered  himself  at  the  Inuer 
abandoned  his  profession  for  literature.     In  '  Temple,  and  in  1807  he  was  called  to  the 
1793  he  married  Miss  Leycester,  a  lady  '  of  '  bar.    He  joined  the  home  circuit,  and  de- 
good  fiimily  and  little  fortune.'  He  acquired    voted    himself   specially    to    the    criminal 
the  friendsliip  of  Archdeacon  Coxe  by  help-    branch  of  the  law.    At  the  Old  Bailey  he 
inff  him   in  the   '  Memoirs   of  Sir  ^Robert  !  worked  his  way  to  the  leadership,  which  he 
AValpole.'  In  1799  appeared  his  first  acknow-    retained  for  many  years.    The  first  of  his 
ledged  work, '  Biographical  Memoirs  of  the    more    notable    forensic    successes  was  his 
French  Revolution,' strongly  anti-Jacobin  in  ,  very  able  defence   in  1820  of  Thistlewood 
tone,  and  in  this,  as  in  other  points,  differing    and  the    other    Cato    Street    conspirators. 


erroneously  ascribeci  to  Adolphus.  He  wrote  he  published,  in  four  volumes,  *  The  Political 
the  memoirs  in  the 'British  Cabinet '(1799),  a  State  of  the  British  Empire,  containing  a 
aeries  ofportraitsofmore  or  less  distinguished  general  view  of  the  domestic  and  foreign 
Englishmen  and  Englishwomen,  from  Mar-  '  possessions  of  the  crown,  the  laws,  com- 
garet  of  Richmond  to  the  second  Lord  Hard-  merce,  revenue,  offices,  and  other  esta- 
wicke.  In  1802  appeared  his  chief  work,  the  '  bliahments,  civil  and  military;'  in  1824, 
*  History  of  England  from  the  Accession  of !  *  Observations  on  the  Vagrant  Act  and  some 


tne  results  of  considerable  industry;  and  I  of  the  time;  and  in  1839  *  Memoirs  of  John 
though  avowedly  written  in  what  would  now  '  Banister,'  the  comedian,  with  whom  he 
be  called  a  conser\'ative  spirit,  Adolphus  was    had  been  personally  intimate.     Ilis  history 


praised  in  No.  2  of  the  '  Edinburgh  Review ' 


had  gone  through   four  editions  when,   in 


Lord  Melcombe  (Bubb  Dodington)  had  been 
placed  at  Adolphus's  disposal  in  the  pre- 
paration of  his  history,  and  they  enabled 
tiim  to  throw  light  on  the  conduct  of  Lord 
Bute,  and  on  the  political  transactions  of  the 
earlier  years  of  the  reign  of  George  III,  who, 
in  conversation,  expressed  his  surprise  at  the 
accuracy  with  which  some  of  the  first  mea- 
sures taiken  after  his  accession  had  been  de- 
Bcribed  (Geobge  Robe's  Diaries  and  Corre- 
spondenee  (1860),  ii.  189). 

The  success  of  the  history  and  the  friendly 
offices  of  Archdeacon  Coxe  brought  Adolphus 
into  close  connection  with  Adaington,  then 


*for  perfect  impartiality  in  narrating  events  his  seventieth  vear,  Adolphus  began  the  task 
and  in  collecting  information.'  Among  its  of  continuing  it  to  the  cleath  of  George  III. 
merits  was  the  excellence  of  its  summaries  Vol.  I.  was  re-issued  in  1840,  *printedforthe 
«f  jKarliamentarydebates.     The  papers  of  j  author,'  and  with  a  long  list  of  subscribers 

_-___.  .    _  .  from  the  queen  and  members  of  the  royal 

family  downwards.  Vol.  VII.,  closing  with 
the  fall  of  the  Addington  administration,  ap- 
peared in  1845,  and  Adolphus  was  working  at 
the  eighth  volume  when,  within  a  few  weeks 
of  entering  his  seventy-eighth  year,  he  died 
on  16  July  1845.  Besides  the  works  already 
mentioned  he  wrote  several  chapters  of 
Rivington's  'Annual  Register'  ana  papers 
for  the  *  British  Critic'  His  latest  contri- 
butions to  periodical  literature  were  bio- 
graphical sketches  of  Barons  Garrow  and 
Gumey  for  the  *  Law  Magazine.'  The  anony- 
mous '  Memoirs  of  Queen  Caroline '  (London, 


Adolphus 


142 


Adrain 


2  vols.,  1824)  have  been  ascribed  to  him 
{Notes  and  Queries,  5th  series,  iv.  283-4). 

[Recollections  of  the  Public  Career  and  Private 
Life  of  J.  A.,  with  extracts  from  his  diaries,  by 
his  daughter,  Emily  Henderson  (1871) ;  The 
late  John  Adolphus,  a  letter  from  his  son,  John 
Leycester  Adolphus,  to  the  editor  of  Eraser's 
Jiagazine  (July  1862)  (beine  a  commentary  on 
the  Sketch  of  Adolphus  in  the  number  for  May 
1862,  by  An  Old  Apprentice  of  the  Law ;  Editors 
and  Newspaper  and  Periodical  Writers  of  the 
Last  Generation) ;  Memoir  in  Gentleman's  Ma- 
gazine for  Sept.  1845 ;  Law  Magazine  (1846), 
xzxiy.  54,  &c.,  Mr.  Adolphus  and  his  Contempo- 
raries at  the  Old  Bailey.]  F.  £. 

ADOLPHUS,  JOHN  LEYCESTER 
(1795-1862),  barrister-at-law  and  author, 
was  the  son  of  John  Adolphus  [q.  v.].  He 
received  his  first  education  at  Merchant  Tay- 
lors', and,  as  head  monitor,  was  elected,  in 
1811,  a  scholar  of  St.  John's  College,  Oxford. 
In  1814  he  rained  the  Newdeg^te  English 
verse  prize,  01  which  the  sulject  was '  Niobe,' 
in  1816  took  a  second  class  m  classics,  and  in 
1818  was  awarded  the  chancellor's  prize  for 
an  English  essay.  In  1821  appearea  anony- 
mously the  work  which  afterwards  made  his 
reputation, '  Letters  to  Hichard  Heber,  Esq., 
containing  critical  remarks  on  the  series  of 
novels  beginning  with  "  Waverley,"  and  an 
attempt  to  ascertain  their  author.*  The 
volume  displayed  great  acumen  and  remark- 
able delicacy.  The  demonstration  that  Sir 
Walter  Scott  was  the  author  of  the  Waverley 
Novels  rested  chiefly  on  the  coincidences  of 
style,  treatment,  and  sentiment  in  Scott's 
acKUOwledged  poetry  and  prose,  and  in  his 
then  unacknowledged  fictions;  but  collate- 
ral evidences  of  various  kinds,  accumulated 
with  industry  and  detailed  with  much  in- 
ffenuity,  were  amplv  adduced.  Scott  was 
highly  pleased  with  the  work.  Writing 
to  his  friend  Hichard  Heber,  then  member 
for  the  university  of  Oxford,  to  whom  Adol- 

})hu8  had  addressed  his  *  Letters,'  he  expressed 
lis  belief  that  they  were  the  handiwork  of 
his  correspondent's  brother,  Reginald,  after- 
wards bishop  of  Calcutta,  and^  he  spoke  most 
favourably  of  the  volume  in  the  Introduction 
to  the  '  Fortunes  of  Nigel.'  On  learning  who 
was  the  author,  Scott  gave  him  an  invitation 
to  Abbotsford,  and  Adolphus  paid  him  seve- 
ral visits  there  between  1823  and  1831,  of 
which  he  contributed  interesting  accounts  to 
Lockhart's  *  Life  of  Scott.' 

In  1822  Adolphus  was  called  to  the  bar 
of  the  Inner  Temple.  He  joined  the  Northern 
circuit,  and  received  the  local  rank  of  attor- 
ney-general of  the  then  county  palatine  of 
Durham.  In  conjunction  successively  with 
R.  V.  Bamewall  and  T.  F.  Ellis,  he  produced 


reports  of  the  cases  tried  in  the  King's  and 
Queen's  Bench  from  1834  to  1852,  when  he 
was  made  by  Lord  St.  Leonards  judge  of 
the  Marylebone  Coimty  Court.  He  was  a 
bencher  of  the  Inner  Temple,  and  soon  before 
his  death,  which  occurred  on  24  Dec.  18^, 
he  had  been  appointed  steward  or  legal  ad- 
viser of  his  old  Oxford  coUe^,  St.  John's. 
Adolphus  was  for  years  an  active  member  of 
the  General  Literature  Committee  of  the 
Christian  Knowledge  Society.  He  was  the 
author  of  '  Letters  from  Spain  in  1856  and 
1857,'  published  in  1858,  and  of  many  me- 
trical^ctu:  ^esprit  One  of  these, '  The  Cir- 
cuiteers,  an  Eclogue,'  parodying  the  forensic 
style  of  two  eccentric  barristers  on  the 
northern  circuit,  Macaulay  is  said  to  have 
pronounced  to  be  ^the  best  imitation  he 
ever  read '  (Notes  and  Queries,  8rd  series,  v.  6). 
Adolphus  was  engaged  in  completing  his 
father's  '  History  of  England  under  George 
UI '  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

[The  late  Mr.  John  Adolphus,  by  D.  C.  L., 
Times  30  Dec.  1862;  Memoir  in  Gentleman's 
Magazine  for  February  1863 ;  Mrs.  Henderson's 
BecoUections  of  John  Adolphus.]  F.  E. 


^ADRAIN,  ROBERT  (1775-1843),  mur 


but  contrived,  thoufi^h  badly  wounded,  to 
escape  to  America,  where  he  became  a  school 
teacher,  first  at  Princeton,  New  Jersey,  and 
afterwards  at  York  and  at  Reading,  Pennsyl- 
vania. In  1810  he  was  appointed  professor 
of  mathematics  and  natural  philosophy  in 
Rutgers  College,  New  BrunswicK,  New  Jersey, 
passed  thence,  at  the  end  of  three  years,  to  Co- 
lumbia College,New  York,  and  was  transferred 
in  1827  to  the  university  of  Pennsylvania, 
where  he  attained  the  dignity  of  vice-provost. 
He  appears  to  have  returned  to  New  York  in 
1834,  and  he  certainly  occupied  his  former 
post  in  Columbia  College  when  he  edited 
Ryan's  '  Algebra,'  in  1 839.  He  died  at  New 
Brunswick,  10  Aug.  1843.  His  mathemati- 
cal powers,  and  a  creditable  acquaintance 
with  the  work  of  French  geometers,  were 
displayed  in  two  papers  communicated  to  the 
American  Philosophical  Society  in  1817 
(Transactions y  1818,  vol.  i.  new  series),  en- 
titled respectively,  *  Investigation  of  the  Fi- 
gure of  tne  Earth,  and  of  the  Gravity  in 
difterent  Latitudes,'  nud  '  Research  concern- 
ing the  mean  Diameter  of  the  Earth.'  He 
started  two  journals  for  the  discussion  of 
mathematical  subjects,  the  *  Analyst,'  pub- 
lished at  Philadelpliia,  1808,  &c.,  and  the 
*  Mathematical  Diary,'  of  which  eight  num- 
bers appeared  at  New  York,  1825-7.    He 


Adrian 


U3 


Adrian 


a1«o  edited  Hutton's  '  Mathematics/  and  be- 
longed to  seyeral  learned  societies,  both  in 
Europe  and  America. 

[Dictionary  of  American  Biography,  hj  Fran- 
cis S.  Drake,  Boston,  1872.]  A.  M.  C. 

ADRIAN  IV  (J.   1159),  pope,  is   re- 
markable as  being  the  only  Englishman  who 
«yer  sat  in  the  cmiir  of  St.  Peter.    His  early 
history  is  obscure.    His  name  is  said  to  have 
been  Nicholas  Breakspear.    His  father  was 
t  poor  man,  who  became  a  monk  in  the  mo- 
nastery of  St.  Albans,  and  left  his  son  with- 
out a  protector.    The  lad  made  his  way  to 
France,  maintaining  himself  by  alms.  'He 
studied  at  Aries,  and  was  at  length  received 
into  the  house  of  the  canons  n^zular  of  St. 
Rufiis  near  Valence.    At  first  he  was  in  a 
menial  position,  but  his  intelligence  and  apti- 
tude won  him  admission  into  the  order.   He 
gndually  rose  in  esteem  till  he  was  elected 
wior  and  afterwards  abbot  of  St.  Ruf us.   But 
tu8  discipline  was  too  strict  for  the  canons, 
tnd  they  began    to    murmur  against  the 
ibreigner  whom  the^  had  raised  to  be  their 
natter.    They  earned  their  complaints  to 
Pope  Eugenius  HI.    Once  he  made  peace; 
the  second  time  he  saw  that  Abbot  Nicholas 
dnerved  a  higher  position.    He  made  him 
eirdinal  of  Albano  in  1146,  and  soon  after- 
wards sent  him  on  an  emlMtssy  to  the  Scan- 
dinavian kingdoms.    There  the  Cardinal  of 
Albano  did  much  to  strengthen  the  connex- 
ion of  the  northern  church  with  Rome.    He 
founded  at  Drontheim  a  new  archiepiscopal 
we  for  Norway,  and  showed  much  skill  in 
conciliating  the  clergy.    When  he  returned 
to  Rome,  in  1154,  he  was  hailed  as  the  Apos- 
tle of  the  North,  and,  on  the  death  of  Pope 
'Watasius  IV,  was  elected  to  be  his  suc- 
^tmr.     He  was  enthroned  on  Christmas 
Bit,  1154,  under  the  name  of  Adrian  IV. 

Adrian  IV  is  described  as  a  man  of  mild 
>ad  kindly  bearing,  esteemed  for  his  high 
duuacter  and  leaniinjo^,  famous  as  a  preacher, 
«ad  renowned  for  his  fine  voice  ( Vita^  in 
Mr&iiTOBi,  iii.  pt.  i.  441).  He  accepted  the 
pontificate  with  a  reluctance  which  was  par- 
wniable  in  the  difficulties  which  beset  the 
ofiee  and  threatened  its  authority.  Rome, 
^uider  the  influence  of  Arnold  of  Brescia, 
^la animated  with  a  strong  republican  spirit. 
WiDiam,  the  Norman  king  of^Sicily,  refused 
jo  recognise  the  papal  suzeraint^r  over  his 
kingdom.  The  Gneeks  were  striving  to  re- 
*wert  their  power  in  Italy,  and  threatened 
^ke  spiritual  authority  of  the  pope.  Adrian 
IV  was  not  a  man  to  abate  anytning  of  the 
claims  of  his  office.  He  was  a  staunch  dis- 
ciple of  the  ideas  of  Hildebrand,  and  felt 
'Umaelf  bound  to  assert  them.  At  first  he 
"Was  helpless  against  his  enemies  in  Italy. 


The  only  quarter  w^here  he  could  look  for 
aid  was  the  newly  elected  emperor,  Frederick 
Barbarossa,  who  had  already  set  forth  the 
imperial  claims  over  North  Italy,  and  an- 
nounced his  intention  of  coming  to  Rome  to 
be  crowned. 

Adrian  IVs  pontificate  be^an  with  a  dis- 
turbance. The  Roman  repubbcans  fell  upon  a 
cardinal  in  the  8trt»et  and  grievously  wounded 
him.  The  pope  showed  his  resoluteness  by 
a  measure  which  none  of  his  predecessors  had 
ventured  to  use.  He  laid  Rome  under  an 
interdict.  Tlie  citizens  soon  began  to  suffer 
from  the  cessation  of  pilgrims  during  Lent. 
As  Easter  drew  near,  thev  could  endure  no 
longer,  and  made  submission  to  the  pope. 
Arnold  of  Brescia  was  driven  from  Rome, 
and  the  pope  consented  to  leave  the  Leonine 
city  and  celebrate  Easter  Day  at  the  Lateran. 
But  this  triumph  was  counterbalanced  by  the 
hostilities  of  the  Sicilian  king,  whose  armv 
in  May  wasted  the  Campagna.  Adrian  iV 
excommunicated  William :  but  this  was  poor 
comfort.  He  looked  with  mingled  hope  and 
anxiety  to  the  approach  of  Barbarossa,  whom 
he  besought  to  capture  the  exiled  heretic, 
Arnold  of  lirescia.  Arnold  was  made  pri- 
soner, and  Frederick  advanced  to  Nepi,  whi- 
ther the  pope  went  to  meet  him  on  7  June 
lloo.  When  Adrian  IV  came  into  Frede- 
rick's presence,  Frederick  did  not  come  for- 
ward and  take  the  bridle  of  the  pope's  horse, 
or  assist  him  to  dismount.  On  this  Adrian 
refused  him  the  kiss  of  peace.  For  some 
days  there  was  a  warm  dispute  whether  or 
no  custom  recjiiired  from  the  king  this  ob- 
servance. Adrian  IVs  pertinacity  won  the 
day,  and  Frederick,  who  had  the  loftiest 
views  of  the  imperial  prerogative,  received 
the  pope  anew,  and  led  his  horse  in  the  sight 
of  the  whole  German  armv.  Then  pope  and 
king  proceeded  in  friendsliip  to  Rome.  The 
Roman  envoys  to  the  king,  demanding  that 
he  should  respect  the  rights  of  the  city, 
were  contemptuously  dismissed.  Rome  con- 
seijuentlv  adopted  an  attitude  of  sullen  hoa- 
tihty.  ]?redenck  encamped  on  Monte  Mario, 
and  liis  coronat'ou  was  performed  in  St. 
Peters,  unknown  totlip  Roman  people,  early 
in  the  morning  of  18  June.  AVlien  the  Ro- 
mans heard  of  tliis,  they  rushed  in  anger  to 
storm  the  l^eonine  citv.     Frederick  with  his 

• 

troops  returned  to  help  the  pope,  and  there 
was  a  bloody  conflict  before  the  Romans 
could  be  driven  to  rocross  the  Tiber.  Adrian 
IV  used  the  opportunity  of  the  emperor's 
wrath  to  urge  tiie  execution  of  Arnold  of 
Brescia,  who  was  tried  before  the  papal 
officials  and  put  to  death. 

Frederick  was  crowned  emperor :  but  he 
was  forced  to  leave  Rome,  as  he  could  get  no 


Adrian 


144 


Adrian 


provisions  for  his  troops.  Adrian  IV  accom- 
panied him,  as  Rome  was  not  safe  for  a  pope. 
They  went  to  Tivoli  and  the  Alban  Hills. 
Adrian  IV  urged  Frederick  to  march  against 
the  excommunicated  King  of  Sicily.  But 
Frederick's  troops  were  suffering  from  the 
heat  of  an  Italian  summer.  He  resolved  to 
retire  northwards,  and  left  the  pope  bitterly 
disappointed.  Adrian  IV  had  crowned 
Frederick,  but  had  got  nothing  in  return. 
Neither  Rome  nor  Sicily  was  reduced  to 
obedience  to  the  papacy.  Adrian  IV  could 
not  return  to  Rome,  and  stayed  at  Tivoli. 
There  he  received  overtures  from  the  barons 
of  Apulia,  who  were  preparing  to  revolt 
against  the  Sicilian  king.  The  Byzantine 
emperor,  Manuel  I,  sent  an  offer  to  the  pope 
that  he  would  make  war  against  William  of 
Sicily,  if  the  pope  would  grant  him  three  of 
the  maritime  cities  of  Apulia.  Adrian  IV 
went  to  Benevento  to  meet  the  Apulian  ba- 
rons. William,  afraid  of  the  coming  storm, 
made  overtures  for  peace,  which  Adrian  IV 
would  have  accepted:  but  the  majority  of 
the  cardinals  opposed  a  step  which  would  be 
regarded  as  hostile  to  the  interests  of  the 
emperor.  William's  offers  were  accordingly 
rejected,  whereupon  he  prepared  for  war.  lie 
succeeded  in  defeating  the  Oreeks  and  the 
Apulians,  and  his  success  enabled  the  pope 
to  carry  out  his  policy  of  alliance  with  Sicily. 
In  June  1156,  Adrian  IV  at  Benevento  re- 
ceived King  William,  and  conferred  on  him 
the  investiture  of  Sicily  and  Apulia.  William 
took  the  oath  of  fealty  to  the  pope,  and  agreed 
to  pay  a  yearly  tribute,  and  to  defend  the 
pope  against  all  his  foes.  Strengthened  by 
this  alliance,  Adrian  IV  aimed  at  returning 
to  Rome.  He  moved  northwards,  through 
Nami  to  Orvieto,  where  he  took  up  his  abode. 
He  was  the  first  pope  who  had  visited  Orvieto, 
and  while  he  was  there  he  did  much  to  im- 
prove the  buildings  of  the  city.  Thence  he 
passed  on  to  Viterbo,  where  he  negotiated 
with  the  Romans,  who  judged  it  prudent  to 
make  peace  with  the  pope  and  welcome  him 
back  to  Rome,  whither  he  returned  at  the 
end  of  the  year. 

Meanwhile  the  good  understanding  be- 
tween Adrian  IV  and  the  emperor  had 
passed  away.  Frederick  regarded  the  pope's 
alliance  with  Sicilv  and  with  the  Romans  as 
a  breach  of  his  engagements  towards  the  em- 
pire. Adrian  IV  looked  with  suspicion  on 
Frederick's  increasing  power,  and  dreaded  his 
infiuence  in  Italy.  The  pope  had  a  specific 
ground  of  complaint.  In  1156  Archbishop 
Eskil,  of  Lund  in  Sweden,  who  had  aided 
Adrian  when  a  cardinal  in  his  disposal  of  the 
northern  church,  was  taken  prisoner  in  Ger- 
many on  his  return  from  a  pilgrimage  to 


Rome.  He  was  imprisoned  for  a  ransom,  and, 
in  spite  of  the  pope's  remonstrances,  Frede- 
rick refused  to  interfere  to  procure  his  release. 
Adrian  IV  determined  to  ascertain  clearlv 
the  emperor's  intentions.    He  sent  his  chief 
adviser.  Cardinal  Roland  of  Siena,  to  the  diet 
of  Besan^on,  which  Frederick  held  in  Octo- 
ber, 1 157.  Roland  was  a  man  imbued  with  the 
loftiest  ecclesiastical  pretensions.    H^  gave 
Frederick  the  greeting  of  the  pope  and  car- 
dinals :  *  The  pope  greets  you  as  a  father,  the 
cardinals  as  brothers.'  It  was  unheard  before 
that  cardinals  should  rank  themselves  as  the 
equal  of  the  emperor.    Then  Roland  handed 
frederick  a  letter  of  the  pope,  which  was 
read  in  the  assembly.  It  complained  of  Eskil's 
treatment,  and  went  on  to  say  that  the  pope 
had  conferred  on  the  emperor  many  benefits: 
'^ualiter  imperialis  inside  coronas  liben- 
tissime  conferens,  benignissimo  gremio  suo 
tuoB  sublimitatis  apicem  studuerit  confovere. 
...  Si  majora  henefida  excellentia  tua  de 
manu  nostra  suscepisset  .  .  .  non  immerito 
gauderemus'  (Radeticus,  in  Muratori,  vi. 
747).    The  language  was  studiously  equivo- 
cal.  The  expressions  to  confer  benefices  were 
the  current  phrases  of  feudal  law.  They  were 
interpreted  oy  the  German  nobles  to  mean 
that  the  pope  claimed  to  be  the  feudal  lord 
of  the  empire  and  confer  it  like  a  fief.   There 
were  angry  cries  from  the  assembly.     Car- 
dinal Roland  boldly  exclaimed, '  From  whom 
then  does  the  emperor  hold  the  empire  if 
not  from  the  pope  ? '    The  Pfalzgraf  Otto  of 
Wittelsbach  laid  his  hand  on  his  sword,  and 
would  have  cut  Roland  down  if  he  had  not 
been  prevented.     The  emperor  with   diffi- 
culty restored  order.    The  legate's  papers 
were  seized,  and  it  was  found  that  they  con- 
tained letters  of  complaint  against  the  em- 
peror addressed  to  the  German  churches. 
The  legates  were  bidden  to  make  their  way 
back  to  Rome  at  once,  and  leave  Germany 
undisturbed. 

Frederick  I  replied  to  the  pope's  challenge 
by  a  letter  which  was  circulated  through  his 
dominions.  He  asserted  that  the  empire  was 
held  from  God  alone,  and  that  whoever  main- 
tained that  it  was  held  from  the  pope  con- 
tradicted the  institution  of  God  and  the 
teaching  of  St.  Pet^r ;  he  would  face  death 
rather  than  permit  the  honour  of  the  empire 
to  be  diminished.  Soon  afterwards  he  issued 
an  edict  limiting  appeals  to  the  pope  and 
forbidding  journeys  to  Rome  witnout  the 
permission  of  the  ecclesiastical  authorities 
(Radbvicus,  748).  Adrian  IV  was  indignant 
at  the  treatment  of  his  legates,  and  issued  a 
letter  of  complaint,  addressed  to  the  German 
bishops,  in  wnich  he  bade  them  admonish  the 
emperor  to  return  to  the  right  path  from 


Adrian  i4S  Adrian 

which  he  had  strayed.  But  the  Oerman  '  ditions  to  he  imposed  on  imperial  envoys  sent 
bishops  sided  with  the  emperor,  and  gave  to  Rome.  These  FredericK  I  rejected,  and 
the  pope  an  answer  which  showed  the  ^owth  I  many  fruitless  embassies  passed  between 
of  a  strong  national  spirit.  They  said  that  them.  In  May  Adrian  IV  withdrew  from 
they  could  not  countenance  the  words  of  the  ,  Rome  to  Anagni,  where  he  was  nearer  Sicily, 
pope,  which  seemed  by  their  ambiguity  to  j  Frederick  I  received  envoys  from  the  citizens 
assert  unheard-of  claims.  They  besought  of  Rome,  and  agreed  to  receive  their  sub- 
the  pope  to  explain  his  words,  so  as  to  give  mission  and  confirm  the  rights  of  their  senate, 
peace  to  the  empire  and  to  the  church.  j  The  imperial  ambassadors  appeared  in  Rome; 

Meanwhile  Frederick  I  was  preparing  for  the  envoys  of  Milan  and  bicily  were  busy 
an  expedition  into  North  Italy.  Adrian  IV  ,  at  Anagni.  Adrian  IV  was  preparing  to 
judged  it  prudent  not  to  declare  himself  the  put  himself  at  the  head  of  the  enemies  of 
enemy  of  one  who  was  so  powerful.  On  Frederick  I,  and  issue  an  excommunication 
1  Feb.  1158,  he  sent  from  Rome  legates  who  against  him,  when  he  died  of  an  attack  of 
met  the  emperor  at  Augsburg.  They  greeted  quinsy  at  Anagni  on  1  Sept.  1159. 
him  with  reverence  and  modesty,  and  handed  Adrian  IV's  pontificate  was  a  period  of 
him  a  letter  from  the  pope,  in  which  Adrian  constant  struggles,  mainly  of  his  own  seeking. 
rV  explained  that  he  haa  used  the  term  bene-  His  object  was  to  maintain  the  claims  of  the 
fieium  in  its  scriptural,  not  in  its  feudal  signi-  Roman  Church  as  they  had  been  defined  by 
fication  ('  Ex  beneficio  Dei,  non  tanguam  ex  Gregory  VII.  In  this  he  showed  skill,  reso- 
feudo,  sed  velut  ex  benedictione.* — Kadevi-  luteness,  and  decision ;  but  he  had  for  his 
era,  760).  Frederick  I  was  satisfied  with  this  antagonist  the  mightiest  of  the  emperors, 
explanation,  and  friendly  relations  between  Ue  bequeathed  to  his  successor  a  hazardous 
him  and  the  pope  were  restored.  But  Frede-  conflict,  in  which  the  papacy  succeeded  in 
rick's  success  a^inst  Milan,  and  his  lofty    holding  its  own. 

assertion  of  the  imperial  claims  in  the  diet  In  English  afiairs,  Adrian  IV  is  celebrated 
of  Roncaglia  (November  1158),  filled  the  for  his  grant  of  Ireland  to  Henry  II.  The 
pope  with  alarm.  He  began  to  draw  nearer  |  English  king  sent,  to  congratulate  Adrian  IV 
to  William  of  Sicily,  and  to  uphold  the  Italian  on  nis  succession,  an  embassv  of  which  John 
against  the  imperial  party.  He  showed  his  of  Salisbury- was  a  member.  I'he  envoys  were 
iU-will  towards  the  emperor  by  refusing  to  charged  to  lay  before  the  pope  the  king^s 
confirm  the  election  to  the  archbishopric  of  i  desire  to  civilise  the  Irish  people  and  bring 
Ravenna  of  a  person  who  was  in  the  favour  them  fully  into  the  pale  of  the  Roman  Church. 
of  Frederick  I.  Soon  afterwards  he  sent  a  i  Adrian  I V  granted  Ireland  to  the  king,  on  the 
letter  to  Frederick,  forbidding  him  to  inter-  ;  ground  that  all  islands  converted  to  Chris- 
iere  in  a  dispute  between  Brescia  and  Bergamo  tianity  belonged  to  the  Holy  See  (Rymer, 
concerning  the  possessions  of  their  churches.  Fwdera,  i.  19).  John  of  Salisbury  says  that 
This  letter  was  brought  by  a  poor  messenger  this  claim  rested  on  the  donation  of  Con- 
who  thrust  it  into  the  emperor^s  hands  and  stantine  {Metalog,  lib.  iv.  c.  42).  John  of 
at  once  disappeared.  Frederick  I  retorted  Salisbury  records  that  Adrian  IV  was  deeply 
by  ordering  the  imperial  chancery  to  change    impressed  by  the  responsibilities  of  his  office ; 


its  style  ot  addressing  the  pope,  and  revert 
to  more  ancient  usage.    The  emperor's  name 


he  said,  in  conversation,  tlmt  the  pope's  tiara 
was  splendid  because   it   burned  with  fire 


was  to  be  set  before  that  of  the  pope,  and  ;  (Polycraf.  lib.  viii.  c.  23).     The  bulls  and 


the  pope  was  to  be  addressed  in  the  second 


letters  of  Adrian  IV  are  to  be  found  in  Ba- 


pope,  wrote  a  treatise,  *  l)e  Conceptione  Bea- 
tissimse  Virginis,'  a  book,  *  De  Legatione  sua,' 


to  revolt.  An  open  breach  with  the  emperor 

seemed  imminent. 

But  the  counsels  of  Bishop  Eberhard  of  and  a  catecliism  for  the  people  of  Non^'ay 

Bamberg  turned  the  pope  once  more  to  peace,  and  Sweden. 

In  April  1159  he  sent  an  embassy  to  Frede-  n^r     .    -  /n         t.  i-           c?    •  *       \  i, 

_:^i,  f  -«j  «-^«««^i  «  w^^^^^oi  ^/  ♦!.«  *^^*,r  [MuTaton  (Rerum  Itnlicarum  Scnptores)  has 

nek  I,,  and  proposed  a  renewal  of  the  treaty  ^^^^  ^^^^  ^^^  ^^l^i,^„  jy    ^„^  1      BernarduH 

made  m  llo3  between  the  emperor  and  his  ^^.^^^^.^  ^^  132o),  ^ol.  iii.  pt.  i.  440:  a  second 

predecessor.  Frederick  answered  that  he  had  |  .     Cardinal  NicolaK  of  Ara^n^n  (fl.  1360),  ibid. 

been  true  to  that  treaty,  but  Adrian  I\  had  441  &c.:  athinlhvAmalricusr/?.  1360),  vol.  iii. 


broken  it  by  his  alliance  with  Sicily.  He 
proposed  that  the  differences  between  him 
and  the  pope  should  be  submitted  to  arbi- 
trators. The  pope  replied  by  proposing  con- 

YOL.  I. 


441,  &c. :  a  thinl  by  Amalricus  (fl.  1360),  vol.  iii. 
pt.  ii.  372.  Otto,  Bishop  of  Frising,  De  Gestis 
Frederici  I,  in  Muraton,  vi.  720,  &c.,  and  his 
friend  Rmlevicus,  ibid.  745,  &c..  tell  of  Adrian 
IV's  dealings  with  the  emperor.    John  of  Salis- 

L 


Adrian                  146  Adrian 

hxiry  (Polycraticiw,  lib.  ri.  and  viii.)  gives  some  Henry  despatched  a  commission  to  Rome  to 

details  of  hin  own  intercourae  with  Adrian  IV.  certain  persons  to  take  his  fealty  and  irive 

Of  modern  wri^".»««  Baronius,  Annales  Eo-  him  the  temporalities  of  his  see.     On  the 

cleeiastici,  Bub  annis  1164-9;  Ciaconius    Vita  gOth  of  the  same  month  he  was  enthroned 

der  Stadt  Rom;    Milman,  iatin  Christianity;  ^L^^^Sf^^t,?^^  r  IS     VV'^^'S  ?'' 

Gioeebrecht,  Ge^chichte  der  deutschen  KaiseVl  P«>^ybeinflr  the  accompbshea  Mjholar,  Poly- 

2eit,1                                                     M.  C.  ^^^  Vergil,  his  sub-collector  of  Peter  pence. 

Between  the  dates  of  these  two  Englisn  pre- 
ADRIAN  DB  Castbllo  (1460  P-1521  P),  ferments  he  was  created  bjr  Alexander  VL 
called  also  db  Ck)RNET0,  from  his  birth-  cardinal  priest,  with  the  title  of  St.  Chn*- 
place,  a  small  town  in  Tuscany,  was  dis-  sogonus.  This  was  on  31  May  1503.  It 
tinguished  both  as  a  statesman  and  as  a  re-  was  rather  more  than  two  months  later  that 
viver  of  learning.  His  family  was  obscure,  — if  the  received  story  may  be  trusted — ^Pope 
and  the  date  of  his  birth  is  uncertain ;  but  Alexander  was  poisoned  at  an  entertainment 
as  he  speaks  of  himself  in  the  preface  to  his  given  by  him,  owing  to  the  miscarriafle  of  a 
treatise  *De  Vera  Philosophia*  as  havinjg  plotof  the  pope's  own  son  Caesar  Borgia,  who 
been  still  a  young  man  on  his  second  visit  nad  intendea  Adrian  to  be  the  victim.  There 
to  England,  when  sent  thither  as  collector  is  no  doubt  that  the  pope's  mortal  illness 
by  Innocent  VIII,  we  may  assume  that  he  was  attributed  at  the  time  to  a  supper  in 
is  not  likely  to  have  been  bom  before  the  Cardinal  Adrian's  garden  near  the  \  atican, 
year  1460.  He  was  first  sent  by  that  pope  from  which  other  guests  were  also  sufferers, 
as  nuncio  to  Scotland  in  1488,  to  compose  including  Caesar  Borgia,  and  that  Cardinal 
the  dissensions  between  James  III  ana  his  !  Adrian  himself  fell  into  a  violent  fever.  Pope 
nobles ;  but  as  King  James  was  killed  before  i  Alexander  survived  the  banquet  more  than 
his  arrival,  he  was  recalled.  He  had,  how-  I  a  week,  and  we  do  not  hear  of  anv  other 
ever,  reached  England,  and  was  very  well  i  death  resulting  from  it.  But  (Jardinal 
received  bv  Henry  VII,  who,  by  the  advice  Adrian,  according  to  his  own  account — for 
of  Archbishop  (afterwards  Cardinal)  Morton,  the  historian  Paulus  Jovius  ( Fite  Ilhut. 
employed  him  as  his  agent  at  Rome  on  his  Viror.  i.  260,  ed.  Basil,  1678)  tells  us  he 
return.  It  was  apparently  next  year  that  heard  it  directly  from  himself — was  suddenly 
he  came  back  to  England  as  collector  of  the  seized  with  a  buminff  sensation  in  the  in- 
papal  tribute  called  Peter  pence.  He  had  testines  which  brou^t  on  giddiness  and 
also  been  appointed  by  Innocent  one  of  the  stupor,  and  was  driven  to  seek  relief  in  a 
seven  papal  prothonotaries.  On  10  May  cold  bath;  and  though  he  in  time  recovered 
1492  he  obtained  from  the  king  the  prebend  his  health,  it  was  not  before  his  outer  skin 
of  Ealdland  in  St.  PauFs  Cathedral,  and  had  peeled  off  from  the  whole  surface  of  his 
seven  days  later,  from  Archbishop  Morton,  body.  The  strictly  contemporary  diary  of 
the  rectory  of  St.  Dunstan-in-the-East.  On  Antonio  Giustiniau  states  that  Adrian's 
29  June  following  he  received  a  grant  of  de-  attack  returned  on  at  least  three  successive 
nisat  ion  by  letters  patent  (GAiRDNER'sZ^f^^r*  days,  the  first  seizure  having  been,  ap- 
of  Ric.  Ill  and  Ilenry  VII y  vol.  ii.  p.  373,  parently,  not  on  the  very  day  of  the  ban- 
Rolls  Ser.).  Innocent  VIII.  died  the  same  quet,  but  shortly  after.  Altogether  there  is 
year,  and  Adrian  n»tumed  to  Rome,  *  thrown'  nothing  in  the  recorded  symptoms  which 
as  he  himself  expresses  it,  '  into  the  mill  goes  very  far  to  confirm  the  story  of  the 
of  affairs  by  Pope  Alexander  VI.'    He  was  poisoned  fiagon. 

made  clerk  of  tiie  papal  treasury,  while  at  i  After  the  death  of  Alexander  \'l  Adrian 

the  same  time  he  was  Ilenry  Vll's  ambas-  seems  to  have  lost  all  his  influence  at  the 

sador  at  Rome.     In  1498  he  was  sent  to  papal  court.     Under  Julius  II,  in  1509,  he 

France  with  a  message  of  condolence  on  the  quitted  Rome    for  fear  of  the  pope's  dis- 

death  of  Charles  VIII,  but  did  not  go  on  pleasure,  and  fled  to  Venice,  from  which  he 

to  Phigland.     In  a  contemporary  letter  it  is  afteni'ards  proceeded  to  Trent,  and  seems  to 

hinted  that  Ilenry  A'll  was  not  at  this  time  !  have  remained  in  that  neighbourhood  till  he 

quite   satisfied  with  the  manner  in  which  heard  that  Julius  was  dead  (1511).     He  at 

he  had  disbursed  some  moneys  in  his  behalf  '  once  repaired  to  Rome,  and  was  admitted 

at  Rome.    If  so,  it  was  but  a  passing  cloud ;  |  into  the  conclave,  though  it  is  said  to  have 


for  though  Adrian  apparently  never  revisited 
England,  he  was  promoted  during  his  absence 
first  (1502)  to  the  bishopric  of  Hereford,  and 
two  years  later  to  that  of  Bath  and  Wells. 
The  bull  for  this  second  promotion  was  ob- 


been  already  closed  before  his  arrival.  But 
he  did  not  remain  on  much  better  terms  with 
the  new  pope,  Leo  X,  than  with  his  prede- 
cessor, and  m  1517  he  was  implicated  in  the 
conspiracy  of  Cardinals  Petrucci,  De  Sauli 


taincd  on  2  Aug.  1504 ;    and  on   13  Oct.    and  Riario,  who  had  suborned  a  surgeon  to 


Adrian 


147 


Ady 


^pply  poison  to  a  fistula  from  which  the 
pope  was  suffering.  The  plot  was  discovered, 
and  on  the  trial  of  the  three  principal  con- 
spirators, two    other    cardinals,  of  whom 
Adrian  was  one,  were  named  as  privy  to  it. 
On  hearing  the  charge  against  himself  it  is 
stated  in  a  contemporary  letter    that    he 
ahrugffed  his  shoulders,  and  burst  out  laugh- 
ing.    His  complicity,  according  to  the  same 
writer,  consisted  merely  in  the  fact  that 
Cardinal  Petrucci,  being  in  company  with 
\am  when  the  sur^^n  happened  to  pass  by, 
had  said  to  him  significantly,  '  That  fellow 
will  get  the  college  out  of  trouble,'  and  he 
Kad  neglected  to  give  the  pope  warning.   But 
the  accusation  did  not  take  nim  by  surprise; 
and  when  the  matter  was  investigated  in 
consistory  he  and  the  other  cardinal  fell  at 
the  pope  s  feet,  confessing  their  guilt  with 
tetn  in  their  eyes,  and  imploring  his  forgi ve- 
nm.  The  pope  seems  to  have  taken  a  lenient 
view  of  their  offence,  and  reduced  the  fine  by 
which  it  was  visited  by  the  consistory  from 
^000  to  25,000  ducats.    But  Adrian  appa- 
rently felt  that  he  was  no  longer  safe  in 
Rome.    He  fled  to  Venice  in  the  disguise 
of  a  fool,  and  was  never  again  seen  in  the 
imiierial  city. 

It  is  possible,  indeed,  that  he  might  have 
retupned,  for  the  Venetians  were  his  friends 
and  the  pope  inclined  to  be  conciliatory ; 
hat  he  had  also  given  great  ofience  to  Henry 
^HI  and  Wolsey.  Three  years  before 
HeniT  had  persuaded  the  pope  to  deprive 
him  of  his  office  of  collector  of  Peter  pence, 
^  give  it  to  the  king's  Latin  secretary, 
Andreas  Ammonius  (see  brief  of  Leo  X, 
81  Oct.  1514,  in  Rymbb,  Fcedera,  xiii.  467). 
*nw  arrangement,  however,  does  not  seem  to 
^ve  been  completed,  and  Polvdore  Vergil, 
Adrian's  sub-collector,  urged  liim  strongly 
^^  get  it  set  aside.  A  letter  addressed  to 
"itt  h?  Polydore  on  this  subject  was  inter- 
J^teo,  and  the  writer  thrown  into  prison. 
The  lub-coUectorship  was  then  given  to  Am-  ] 
.  monius,  Adrian  being  for  the  time  allowed 
to  retain  the  office  of  collector.  But  when  ! 
tUfl  new  scandal  arose  the  King  of  England  ' 
^  particularly  anxious  that  Adrian  should 
^  go  unpunished ;  and  he  sent  repeated 
^^eflttges  to  Home  urging  that  he  should  be 
deprived  not  only  of  the  collectorship,  but 
•&  of  the  cardinalate.  The  former  request 
J'w  easily  conceded,  and  his  rival,  Silvester 
Je  Gigli,  bishop  of  Worcester,  was  made  col- 
I  *^or  in  his  room.  But  deprivation  of  the 
^rdinalate  could  only  take  place  after  length- 
^^  judicial  process,  and  tne  court  of  Rome  , 
*  J'aa  slow  to  move.  Sentence  of  deprivation,  ' 
™^ever,  was  at  last  pronounced  on  5  July  '. 
^^18.    The  bishopric  of  Bath  was  at  the 


,  same  time  taken  from  liim   and   given   to 
'  Cardinal  Wolsey,  who  had  previously  farmed 
it  of  him. 

I      It  is  characteristic  of  the  times  that  his 
,  complicitv  in  the  plot  against  Leo  should  be 
accounted  for  by  Paulus  Jovius  as  due  to  a 
I  foolish  prophecy  by  a  fortune-telling  woman 
that  Pope  Leo  was  to  meet  with  a  prema- 
ture death,  and  be  succeeded  by  an  old  man, 
named  Adrian,  whose  place  of  birth  was 
obscure,  but  whose  great  learning  and  abili- 
ties had    gradually  advanced   nim  to  the 
highest  honours.    Of  course  it  is  shown  that 
the  prophecy  was  fulfilled  by  the  election  of 
I  Adrian  VI  on  Leo's  death,  though  Adrian 
:  de  Castello   not   unnaturally  applied  it  to 
:  himself  (  Vita  III,  Viror,  ii.  t7).     From  this 
time  nothing  more  is  known  of  Adrian's  his- 
tory.   By  one  account  it  is  supposed  that  he 
I  took  refuge  among  the  Turks  in  Asia.    But 
I  a  more  probable  rumour  is  mentioned  in 
Sanuto's  diaries,  that  he  remained  in  great 
secrecy  at  Venice  till  the  death  of  Leo  A  in 
1621,  on  hearing  of  which  he  at  once  left 
for  Home,  but  was  believed  to  have  been 
murdered  on  the  way.     The  writings  of 
Adrian  de  Castello  are:     1.    A  poem  en- 
titled *  Venatio,'  printed  by  Aldus  in  1505. 
2.  A  treatise,  *De  Vera  Philosophia,'  Bo- 
logna,  1507.     3.    Another,    *De    Sermone 
Latino    et  modo   Latine    loquendi,'  Basil, 
1513.    There  is  also  preserved  an  elegant 
Latin  inscription  which  he  wrote  on  a  young 
man,  named  Polydorus  Casamicus,  who  was 
the  pope's  usher,  and  died  at  the  early  age 
of  twenty-four.    He  was  a  man  of  high  taste 
in  art  as  well  as  in  letters.     He  was  known 
at  Rome  as  '  the  rich  cardinal,'  and  built  a 
fine  palace  there,  in  front  of  which  he  in- 
scribed the  name  of  his  patron,  Henry  VII, 
willing  that  it  should  go  after  his  own  de- 
cease to  that  king  and  uis  successors. 

[Polyd.  Vergil,  Hist.  Anglic. ;  Aubiry,  His- 
toire  G^n^mle  des  Curdinaux  (citcti  in  Biog. 
Brit.) ;  Wharton's  Anglia  Sacni,  i.  676  ;  liymer  s 
Fowlera ;  Calendar  of  State  Papers,  Henry  VIU, 
vols.  i.  and  ii. ;  Calendar  of  Venetian  State 
Papers,  vols,  i.-iv. ;  PaiiU  Jovii  Vit8e  Illustrium 
Virorum  ;  Dispacci  di  Antonio  Giustinian,  ii. 
107-8 ;  Gairdner's  Letters  of  Kichard  III.  and 
Henry  VII,  Rolls  Ser.]  J.  G. 

ADY,  JOSEPH  (1770-1852),  a  notorious 
impostor,  was  at  one  time  a  hatter  in  Lon- 
don, but  failing  in  that  business  he  hit  upon 
the  device  of  raising  funds  bv  means  of  cir- 
cular letters,  promising,  on  tlie  receipt  of  a 
suitable  fee,  to  inform  those  whom  he  ad- 
dressed of  *  something  to  their  advantage.' 
This  remarkable  individual,  who  in  nume- 
rous instances  battled  the  magistrates  and 
post-ofiice  authorities,  was,  some  months  \}re- 


Adye  148  ^Elfgar 

vious  to  his  death  in  1852,  removed  from  accused  of  treason,  and  was  outlawed '  for 
prison  to  his  brother's  residence  in  Fenchurch  |  little  or  no  fault  at  all/  according  to  all  the 
Street,  in  consequence  of  a  rapid  decline  of  Chronicle  writers,  save  one.  The  Uanterbun- 
health,  a  memorial  to  that  effect  having  been  '  writer,  however,  who  was  a  strong  partisan 
presented  to  the  home  secretary.  '  of  Harold,  says  that  ^Ifgar  owned  his  guilty 

[Grent.  Mag.  Oct.  1862,  p.  437 ;  Be  Quince/s  |  though  he  did  so  unawares.  He  fled  to  Ireland 
Works,  vi.  258,  327.]  T.  C.       and  engaged  eighteen  ships  of  the  Northmen. 

He  crossed  to  Wales  and  made  alliance  with 


brevi 

the 

cadet,  m  175/,  and  was  appointed  a«  second-  ^^^   ^j,    ^     .    ^  ^        ^^^  ^j  ^f  t^^ 

lieutenant  m  the  royal  artOlery  m  1<  62.    He  ^^^  '^^^  ^^^  P  ^^j^^  ^'^^  ^^            ^^ 

served  some  time  as  bngade-majorof  art.llerv  i  ^^^  ^f  Frenchmen  and  Englisfi.    He 

.n>orthAmenca,  where  hepreparedhiswell-  ^UgUy  compeUed  his  English  fo^  to  go  to 

kno^'nbcK)koncmirt8-mart.al,ent.tled'Trea- ;  ^^^^^^ 

tise  on  Courts-Martial,  to  which  '«  added  an  jj^  ^^^  ^^  Frenchmen  fdd  first,  and  the 

Ea^tyonMilitoryPumshmentsand  Rewards.  i^ttie^agi„gt.  ^ifgar  and  his  allies  entered 

(,P"°f2^-f*  '^tT  V*^*^"^  rT""'^'"  ^°";  Hereford.    They  sacled  and  burnt  the  min- 

u"  ^'  ®^^  Jl-"  ^^  '*■''"'    ,    "^    '^'"™  8ter  and  the  city,  slaving  some  and  taking 

subsequent  editions,  the  second  appearing  m  ;         ^'   ^    ,» ^^    j^^^      ^^ 

London  m  1778,  and   modified  at  the  han^  whole  force  of  the  kingdom  was  gathered 

of  later  editors^  18  still  a  recognised  work.  ^^     g^^j  jj^^j^  and  War  an§  his  al- 

Maior  Adye  died  in  command  of  a  company  j;^^  ^^^  ^^^^  .^'^  g^^^^  ^.^j^^    j^  ^q^ 

of  invalid  artillerj',  in  Jersey,  in  1.94.    He  ^j^      ^  ^             ^j^^  H^^y  ^^  ,^„. 

w«^  the  first  of  a  name  distinguished  in  the  y  J     ^^   y^^^j  ^^^^  t„  ^^  ^,y„„ 

Bntish  artillery  annals  for  more  than  a  can-  q^  ^^^  ^^^^  „^  ^eoj^i    j^  jog.  ^j,;!^^  ^ 

tury.     Ofthreesonsm  thereginient,  the  ceived  his  father's  earldom  of  MerciaT    The 

'^tr:.''^'^''J^tZ^':^.t'>%J^^.  positionof  hisnewearldom  asr^rdsWale* 


--,.<L-           4.1.              J    nc  •      n          1  ward  the  Confessor  made  rebellion  no  serious 

manv  iKlitions  ;    the  second,  Major-General  It  was  probablv  while  the  only  force 

Sfphen  Adye,  ser^^d  in  the  Penmsula  and  j,,^  ^j  maintaining  order  in  the  kingdom 

at  W  aterloo,  and  died  director  of  the  royal  J          ^  ^  ^  ^    ^^    pilgrimage  of  nlrold, 

laboratones  in  ia38;  the  third,  Major  James  ,^^^   ^.^j^       ^^    -^  ^'q^  outlawed  for  the 

A.^e,  died  in  1831      A  sun^yingson  of  the  ,^^  ^f^,^     uj,  ^j^  ^^^-^  ^^^  ^^^  ^^ 

vl'^o^n            r             Sir  John  Adye,  helphim.  Gruffvdd  and  a  fleet  of  the  North- 

U.A.,  G.U.IJ.,  now  Governor  of  Gibraltar.  ^       i  •  i.       *    „    .,,   i.«,.^   "u««„   ««.,:o;«^ 

_,,      ,     T.         ^    /^«,          -r»      ,     »    Ml  men,  whicli   seems  to   have   been  cruising 

[Kanos    Li8t    of    Officere    Royal    Artille^  a ])Out  on  the  look-out  for  employment,  en- 

revised  e<lit.  Woolwich,  1869);    ^ote  to  Off.  abled  him  to  set  his  outlawr>' at  defiance  and 

Cat.  Royal  Artillery  Museum.]           H.  M.  C.  ^^  ^^^^.^  ^.^  ^^^^^^^  ^,.^^  ^^  ^^^^^  l^^^ 

.^LFGAR,  Earl  (<7. 1062  ?),  wasthe  son  In  one  good  deed  yElfgar  and  Harold  acted 
of  Leofric  of  Mercia  and  his  wife  Godgifu,  the  i  together.  On  the  surrender  of  the  see  of 
*  Lady  Godiva  *  of  legend.  Bitter  jealousy  Worcester  by  Archbishop  Aldred  in  1062, 
existed  between  the  ancient  Mercian  house  both  the  earls  joined  in  recommending  Wulf- 
and  the  new  and  successful  family  of  God-  '  stan  for  the  bishopric  (Will.  Malm.,  Vita 
wine.  WTien,  in  lOol,  Godwine  and  his  /S".  H^M/^^flrm',  lib.  i.  c.  11 ;  ap.  Wharton's  ./4ii- 
sons  gathered  their  forces  against  the  king  f/lia  Sacra^  ii.  251).  Soon  afterwards,  pro- 
and  his  foreign  favourites,  -^lillfgar  and  Leof-  bablv  in  the  same  year,  .Elfgar  died.  His 
ric  were  among  the  party  which  stocxl  by  '  wifes  name  was  ^'Elfgifu.  He  left  two  sons, 
Ea<lward  at  Gloucester,  and  on  the  outlawry  Eadwine  and  Morkere,  who  played  a  con- 
of  Harold  his  earldom  of  East  Anglia  was  spicuous  part  in  English  history.  A  charter 
given  to  -lElfgar.  The  new  earl  ruled  well,  of  the  abbey  of  St.  Remigius  at  Kheims  re- 
and  the  next  year,  on  the  restoration  of  '  cords  that  /Elfgar  gave  I^pley  to  that  house 
Gorlwine's  house,  cheerfully  surrendered  the  |  for  the  good  of  the  soul  of  a  son  of  his  named 
government  to  Harold.  On  the  death  of  Burchard,  who  was  buried  there  (DueDALE, 
Godwine  in  1053,  the  West  Saxon  earldom  |  Manasticon,  vi.  1042;  Alien  Priory  of  Lap- 
was  given  to  Harold,  and  East  Anglia  was  ,  pele).  His  daughter,  Aldgyth,  married  her 
again  committed  to  ^tafgar.  In  1055,  at  the  |  father's  ally  Gruffydd,  and,  after  the  deatlis 
Witenagemot  held  in  I^ndon,  -.^^Ilfgar  was  ^  of  -.'Elfgar  and  Gruffydd,  married  as  her  se* 


^Ifgifu  149  ^Ifgifu 

cond  husband  Harold,  her  father's  old  enemy    story  is  assigned  to  her  daughter.   Osbem  in 
£8ee  Aldotth].  his  '  Life  of  Dunstan,'  written  in  the  time  of 


•L '  . 

" .  H.        king,  that  they  hamstrung  her  and  so  slew 
-MLFGIFU  [Lat.  Elgiva]  (fl,  956),  wife    her.    The  same  writer,  in  his  *  Life  of  Oda,' 
of  King  Eadwig,  has  been  made  the  subject    says  that  the  archbishop,  finding  it  impos- 
<«f  monastic  legend,  and  it  should  be  remem-    si^le  to  keep  the  king  apart  from  the  woman 
bered  that  she  was  the  enemy  of  Dunstan,    ^^  loved,  seized  her,  carried  her  from  the 
-and  that  her  fall  marked  the  triumph  of    court,  and,  having  had  her  branded  in  the 
the  party  which  he  upheld.     Signatures  to    ^ace,  sent  her  to  Ireland.      After  a  while 
a  charter  make  it  certain  that  she  was  the  '  she  came  back  with  her  scars  healed,  and 
wife  of  Eadwig,  and  that  her  mother's  name  i  then  the  *  men  of  the  servant  of  God  *  seized 
was  uEthelgifu.     Her  father's  name  is  not    her  at  Gloucester,  and  put  her  to  death  in 
known,      fiiie  *  Chronicle '  says  that  Arch-  !  the  way  described  in  the  *  Life  of  Dunstan.' 
biflhop  Oda  parted  Eadwig  and  ^Ifgifu  be-    This  is  the  latest  form  of  the  story.  That  the 
cause  they  were  too  near  akin.     A  contem-  '  young  king,  who  was  then  probably  not  more 
porary '  I^e  of  Dunstan,'  written  some  forty    than  fifteen  years  old,  should  have  left  the 
vears  later  by  a  foreigner  from  Liittich,  who  1  coronation  feast  for  the  society  of  his  wife 
describes  himself  as  B.,  and  attributed,  thouffh    and  her  mother  is  natural  enough,  and  the 
without  good  reason,  to  Brihtferth,  speais    fact   that   their  marriage  was   uncanonical 
of  an  unlawful  connection  between  the  king    would  give  double  bitterness  to  the  words 
and  ^^Ifgifu,  and  makes  the  monstrous  as-    withwhichDunstan  executed  his  commission. 
«ertion  that  ^Ethelgifu  encouraged  this  con-        What  the  relationsliip  between  the  king 
nection  both  with  herself  and  her  daughter    and  -.Elfgifu  was  cannot  be  made  out  with 
in  the  hope  that  Eadwig  would  marry  one    certainty.  Mr.  Robertson  has  suggested  with 
or  other    of   them.     The  writer  says  that    considerable  probability  that  -^thelffifu  was 
on  the  day  of  his  coronation,  956,  Eadwig    foster-mother  of  Eadwig.     This  spiritual  re- 
left   the  feast,   at  which  the  bishops   and    lationship  would  render  his  marriage  with 
nobles  of  his  kingdom  were  sitting,  for  the    her  daughter  unlawful.     No  weight  need  be 
company  of  these  women.   Indignant  at  this    given  to  the  vile  accusations  of  immorality 
insult,  Archbishop  Oda  proposed  that   he    which  the  monastic  writers  make  against  the 
should  be  brought  back,  and  Dunstan  and    boy-kin^  and  his  wife  and  her  mother.     If, 
Bishop  Kinesige  were  sent  to  seek  him.  They    as  William  of  Malmesbury  believed,  Dun- 
found  the  kinff  in  the  company  of  -'Ethelgifu    stan  urged  Oda  to  force  the  king  to  repudiate 
jind  her  daugnter  with   his  crown  thrown    -cElfgifu,  her  mother  had  good  reason  to  hate 
carelessly  on  the  floor.  The  abbot  reproached    him.     Leaving,  however,  this  late  statement 
^£thelgifu,  and  led  the  king  back  to  the  feast    out  of  the  Question,  the  fact  that  the  abbot 
by  force,     -^thelgifu  did  not  forget  the  in-    was  chargied  by  the  assembled  nobles  with 
suit.     She  prevailed  on  Eadwig  to  banish    the  insulting  mission  which  he  executed  on 
Dunstan,  and  to  give  her  leave  to  seize  his  1  the  day  of  Ladwig's  coronation  was  enough 
gooNds.      The   biographer  refers  to  a  belief    to  insure  her  evil  will ;  and  she  was  upheld 
which  he  evidently  discredits,  that  she  sent ,  in  her  designs  against  Dunstan  by  enemies 
messengers  to  tear  out  the  eyes  of  the  abbot,    within  the  walls  of  his  own  abbey.     If  we 
but  that  he  embarked  before  they  could  take  '  may  trust   the   *  Life  of  St.   Oswald,*  the 
liim.    A  '  Life  of  St.  Oswald,'  written  about    banishment  of  JElfgifu  was  connected  with 
the  same  time  as  the  *  Life  of  Dunstan '  by    the  revolt  of  the  north  in  958.    For  the  per- 
B.,  and  copied  by  Eadmer,  says  that  Eadwig    sonal  cruelties  inflicted  on  her  there  is  not 
left  his  lawful  wife  for  yElfgifu,  that  Oda    one  scrap  of  evidence,  for  they  are  not  men- 
iised  armed  force  against  him,  a  statement  1  tioned  until  150  years  after  they  are  said  to 
w^hich  refers  to  the  insurrection  of  the  North-  ,  have  been  practised.     Even  if  they  had  ever 
lunbrians  and  Mercians,  and  that  the  arch-    been  inflicted  on  ^Elfgifu  or  ^thelgifu — for 
bishop  seized  the  lady  and  banished  her  to  I  the  mother  and   daughter  are  confoimded 
Ireland.  Florence  of  Worcester  repeats  both  1  together — Dunstan  could  have  had  nothing 
the  statement  of  the  *  Chronicle    and  the    to  do  with  them ;  for  they  would  belong  to 
account  which  adds  adultery  to  Eadwig's  of-  I  the  period  of  the  war  which  preceded  tlie 
fence,  and  makes  no  decision  between  them,  i  election  of  Eadgar  when  the  abbot  was  still 

The  story  of  ^Elfgifu  grew  rapidly,  -^thel-    in  exile. 
gifu  figures  more  prominently  in  older  ac-  !      [S.    Dunstani  Vita,    auetore    B. ;     Epistola 
counts;  by  later  writers  the  firat  place  in  the  1  Adelardi  de  Vita    S.  Dunstani ;    Vita,  auetore 


^Ifgifu 


ISO 


^Ifheah 


Onberno ;  Vito,  auctore  Eadmero,  all  in  Memo- 
rials of  St.  Dunstan,  ed.  Dr.  Stubbs,  Bolls  Ser.,  see 
Introd. ;  Osbemus  de  Vita  Odonis ;  A.S.  Chron. 
sub  ann. ;  Florence  of  Worcester ;  Inquiry  into 
the  Life  of  King  Eadwig,  by  J.  Allen,  1849; 
Robertson's  Historical  Essays,  1872.]     W.  H. 

^LPGIFU  ifi.  1030),  called  *of  North- 
ampton/ to  distinguish  her  firom  ^Ifgifu- 
Emma,  wife  of  ^thelred  and  of  Cnut,  was  the 
daughter  of  yElfmwr,  the  Northumbrian  earl 
who  was  slain  by  Eadric  Streona  in  1006.  Her 
mother  was  a  noble  lady  named  Wulfruna. 
yElfgifu  is  said  by  Saxo  to  have  been  the  mis- 
tress of  Olaf,  king  of  Norway,  *  the  Saint,'  and 
to  have  been  taken  from  him  by  Cnut.  If  Olaf 
really  fought  on  the  side  of  .^thelred  against 
the  Danes,  as  his  saga  alleges,  he  may  have 
met  ^Elfgifu  while  he  was  engaged  in  de- 
fending her  country.  But  his  connection 
with  her  and  his  presence  in  England  are 
both  doubtful.  It  is  certain,  however,  that 
^£l%ifu  became  the  mistress  of  Cnut,  and 
that  she  bore  him  Harold  and  Swend.  A 
scandalous  tale  was  accepted  in  England 
that  iElfgifu,  being  unable  to  bear  children, 
pretended  that  these  two  were  her  sons,  but 
that  really  Swend  was  the  son  of  a  priest 
and  Harold  was  the  son  of  a  shoemaker.  In 
order  to  exclude  these  sons  of  Cnut  and 
^Ifgifu  from  the  succession  to  the  English 
throne,  /Elfgifu-Emma  made  Cnut  promise, 
when  he  sought  to  marry  her,  that  the  crown 
should  descend  onlv  on  such  children  as  he 
might  have  of  her.  The  position  held  by 
-^Ifgifu  of  Northampton  was  not  regarded 
as  necessarily  dishonourable,  save  in  the  eyes 
of  the  church,  and,  like  that  of  a  wife  mar- 
ried wiortf  Danicoy  depended  on  the  way  in 
which  she  was  treated.  Cnut  made  Swend 
ruler  over  his  Wendish  subjects  dwelling 
about  the  Oder,  and  ^Elfgifu  went  with  her 
son  to  Jomsburg  and  governed  in  his  name. 
In  accordance  with  Cnut's  policy  of  esta- 
blishing his  sons  in  subordinate  kingdoms,  he 
sent  Swend  and  his  mother  -^Elfgifu,  in  1030, 
to  take  charge  of  his  newly  acquired  king- 
dom of  Norway.  Swend  was  a  child  both 
in  years  and  in  understanding,  and  was  com- 

?letely  under  the  influence  of  his  mother, 
le  soon  made  the  Norwegians  hate  him. 
Many  Danes  came  over  with  him,  and  the 
young  king  and  his  mother  showed  an  un- 
due partiality  for  them.  Heavy  burdens 
were  laid  upon  the  people.  The  natives  were 
treated  as  an  inferior  race,  and  the  oath  of  a 
single  Dane  was  held  to  be  of  equal  value  in 
judicial  proceedings  to  the  oaths  of  ten  Nor- 
wegians. All  these  evils  were  held  to  be 
the  work  of  ^Ifgifii.  The  Norwegians  did 
not  dare  to  revolt,  because  Cnut  held  many 
hostages  for  their  obedience.    The  transla- 


tion of  the  bodjr  of  Olaf  stren^hened  the 
sentiment  of  nationality.  JEl£gi£a  and  her 
son  were  present  at  the  ceremony.  She  vainly 
tried  to  sneer  down  the  alleged  miracle  of  the 
incorruntibility  of  the  saint's  body.  Bishop 
Grimkel  and  Einar  Tambarskelver,  two  of 
the  foremost  men  of  the  national  party,  chid 
her  for  her  unbelief,  which  she  mainti^ned 
in  spite  of  miracles.  In  1036,  the  year  after 
the  death  of  Cnut,  the  Norwegians  recovered 
their  freedom  under  Magnus,  the  son  of  Olaf, 
and  Swend  was  forced  to  flee  to  Denmark. 
The  date  of  the  death  of  .^Elfgifu  is  not 
known.  Her  name  is  not  mentioned  in  the 
record  of  her  son's  flight. 

[Anglo-Saxon  Chron.  sub  an.  1036 ;  Florence 
of  Worcester,  sub  an.  1006, 1036 ;  Snorre,  Heims- 
kringla,  Saga  vii.  c.  251,  252, 257 ;  Anon.  Roskild. 
in  Lan^ebek,  i.  376  ;  Saxo  Gramm.  x.  192,  196 ; 
Encomium  Emmse,  ii.  16.]  W.  H, 

JELPHEAH  (954-1012),  Archbishop  (St. 
Alphege),  also  called  Oodwine,  was  bom 
of  noble  parents.  Against  the  wishes  of  his 
widowed  mother,  he  left  her  and  his  father's 
estate,  and  entered  the  monastery  of  Deer- 
hurst  in  Oloucestershire,  and  there  made 
himself  the  ser>'ant  of  all.  Aiter  a  while  he 
longed  for  a  stricter  life.  He  left  Deerhurst, 
and,  building  himself  a  hut  at  Bath,  lived 
there  as  an  anchorite.  Many  great  people 
came  to  him  for  advice ;  some  of  them  be- 
came monks  and  lived  under  his  rule,  and 
others  gave  him  the  means  of  supporting  the 
new  brotherhood.  Florence  of  Worcester  says 
that  he  became  abbot  of  Bath.  If  it  is  true 
that  Eadgar  in  970  refounded  the  church  of 
Bath  as  a  convent  of  regulars,  the  new  so- 
ciety probably  owed  to  -^If  heah  a  consider- 
able increase  in  its  numbers.  In  984  .fflf  heali 
was  made  bishop  of  Winchester.  His  pre- 
decessor ^'Ethelwold  had  violently  driven  out 
the  canons  from  his  church,  and  had  put  in 
monks  in  their  stead.  When  ^ilthelwola  died, 
the  dispossessed  clergy  and  the  monks  each 
tried  to  get  a  bishop  appointed  fix)m  their 
own  order.  Considerable  difficulty  arose, 
which  was  solved  by  a  dream  of  Archbishop 
Dunstan,  and  by  his  influence  ^Ifheah  was 
appointed  to  the  bishopric.  His  sanctity  and 
self-devotion  as  bishop  are  celebrated  6v  his 
biographer  Osbem.  Dunstan  seems  to  liave 
had  a  warm  regard  for  him. 

Some  of  the  efforts  of  -^If  heah  for  the 
conversion  of  the  heathen  Northmen,  re- 
corded by  Osbem  as  made  during  his  archi- 
episcopate,  may  be  assigned  to  this  period  of 
his  me.  In  994,  the  Northmen,  under  Olaf 
Tryggwesson  of  Nor>vay  and  Swend  of  Den- 
mark, wintered  at  Southampton.  AfNTiile  they 
were  there,  King  .^thelred  sent  yElf  heah,  the 


^Ifheah 


151 


^Ifheah 


bishop  of  the  diocese,  and  the  ealdorman 
^thelward  as  ambassadors  to  Olaf.  The 
Norweffian  kin^  had,  it  seems,  already  re- 
ceived baptism  m  his  own  land  from  English 
missionaries.  He  went  with  the  ambassadors 
to  meet  the  English  king  at  Andover,  and 
there  he  received  the  rite  of  confirmation 
from  Bishop  .^fheah.  Another  and  less 
trustworthy  account  savs  that  Olaf  first  em- 
braced Christianity  in  England  (for  both  ver- 
sions of  the  story  see  Adam  of  Bremen,  lib. 
ii.  cap.  34, 36;  ap.  Pbrtz,  Mon,  Germ.  Script, 
vii.).  ^£lf  heah  may  at  least  be  said  to  have 
C4iused  this  famous  convert  to  make  a  decided 
choice,  and  it  is  certain  that  the  result  of  the 
embassy  was  a  promise,  which  the  Norwegian 
kept,  that  he  would  never  invade  England 
again.  Osbem  is  therefore  j>robably  right  in 
speaking  of  the  hatred  which  the  preaching 
of  ^If  heah  stirred  up  against  him  among  the 
heathen  Northmen,  and  this  religious  ani- 
mosity may  have  been  to  some  extent  the 
cause  of  his  death. 

In  1006  he  was  made  archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury, and  at  once  journeyed  to  Kome  and 
obtained  the  pall.  The  one  act  of  his  primacy 
of  which  we  nave  evidence,  besides  the  cir- 
cumstances of  his  death,  shows  that  he  pro- 
bably had  something  of  the  statesmanlike 
spirit  of  Dunstan.  The  undated  council  of 
Lnham  was,  to  some  extent  at  least,  his  work. 
It  was  held  at  a  time  when  the  Danish  in- 
vasion had  brought  the  people  very  low.  A 
desire  of  grappling  with  the  spiritual  and 
material  evils  of  tne  time  is  evident  in  the 
decrees  of  this  council,  which  the  two  arch- 
bishops are  said  to  have  persuaded  the  king 
to  hold.  It«  provisions  against  heathenism, 
lawlessness,  and  the  sale  of  slaves,  especially 
to  heathen  men,  and  the  solemn  pledge  of 
loyalty  with  which  the  record  ends,  mark  the 
ways  ^n  which  the  demoralisation  of  society 
was  making  itself  felt.  A  kindred  spirit  to 
that  of  Dunstan  appears  in  the  ecclesiastical 
legislation  of  the  council.  Men  were  to  live 
according  to  their  profession;  the  stricter  life 
was  recommended,  but  not  enforced.  With 
these  provisions  are  directions  for  the  organi- 
sation and  meeting  of  a  fleet,  and  of  the 
national  land  force,  ^liile,  however,  Dun- 
stan had  Ead^r  to  follow  his  counsels, 
i£lfheah  had  ^thelred  for  his  king,  and  so 
the  decrees  of  Enham  were  fruitless,  and  the 
state  of  the  country  grew  ever  worse. 

In  1011  the  large  sum  of  48,000  pounds  was 

Sromised  to  the  Danes  to  buy  them  off.  They 
id  not  cease  their  ravages  while  the  money 
was  being  raised.  On  8  Sept.  they  appeared 
before  Canterbury,  and  on  tne  twentieth  day 
of  the  siege  the  city  was  betrayed  by  an  ec- 
clesiastiCy  was  taken,  and  burnt.    The  arch- 


bishop with  many  others  was  made  captive, 
and  was  bound,  half-starved,  and  otherwise 
ill-used.  In  the  hope  of  gaining  a  large  ran- 
som the  Danes  took  ^Iflieah  to  their  ships 
and  kept  him  prisoner  for  seven  months. 
Meanwhile  the  great  men  of  the  kingdom 
remained  inactive  in  I^)nd()u,  fearing,  as  it 
seems,  to  come  forth  until  the  promised  bribe 
was  collected  and  paid  to  the  invaders.  At 
first  wiElf heah  agreed  to  ransom  himself;  but 
he  remembered  the  people  who  would  have 
to  suffer  to  raise  the  money.  He  repented 
and  determined  that  no  one  should  have  to 
pay  anything  for  his  life.  During  his  cap- 
tivity he  evidently  spoke  often  on  religious 
matters  to  his  captors,  and  his  words  had 
good  effect.  At  length,  on  19  April,  1012,  the 
day  had  come  on  which  the  archbishop  had 
promised  to  pay  his  ransom.  The  fleet  lay 
off  Greenwich.  On  that  day  the  Danes  held 
a  ^at  feast,  drinking  themselves  drunk  with 
wine  which  they  had  obtained  from  the  South. 
They  demanded  the  promised  ransom.  -^If- 
hean  took  back  his  word ;  he  was  ready  to 
die,  and  he  would  not  make  others  pay  for 
him.  The  Danes  in  wrath  dragged  him  into 
their  busting,  and  gathered  round  him  ready 
to  slay  him.  Thurkill,  their  famous  leader, 
saw  what  was  about  to  happen.  He  was 
probably  one  of  those  who  nad  heard  the 
archbishop  speak  of  the  christian  faith  and 
who  had  heneved  his  words,  for  soon  after 
this  he  became  a  christian  and  joined  him- 
self to  the  English.  He  hastened  to  the  spot, 
and  offered  to  give  gold  and  silver  and  all 
that  he  had,  save  his  ship,  if  they  would  spare 
the  life  of  the  archbishop.  Tliey  would  not 
hearken,  and  threw  at  -/Elf  heah  the  skulls  of 
oxen,  the  remnants  of  their  savage  feast,  and 
stones  and  wood,  until  he  sank  dying.  Then 
one  Thrum,  whom  ^Elf  heah  had  confirmed 
the  day  before,  seeing  that  he  still  lived,  to 
put  him  out  of  his  agony  struck  him  on  the 
nead  with  his  axe  and  slew  him.  The  deed 
was  done  in  drunken  frenzy,  and  was  pro- 
bably quickly  regretted.  l*or  this  reason, 
and  because  there  were  many  in  the  host 
who  were  converts,  the  archbishop's  body  was 
allowed  to  be  reverently  taken  to  London, 
and  was  there  buried  in  St.  Paul's.  Eleven 
years  after  his  death,  Cnut  caused  his  body 
to  be  translated  with  great  pomp  to  his 
church  at  Canterbury.  This  translation,  in 
which  the  king  tooK  part  in  person,  was  a 
national  act,  and  is  of  some  interest  as  illus- 
trating the  policy  of  Cnut  towards  his  new 
subjects.  Tiie  circumstances  of  the  death  of 
^If  heah  invested  him  with  sanctity,  and  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicler,  writing  before  the 
translation,  speaks  of  the  mighty  works  done 
at  his  tomb.    His  name  was  associated  in 


yElfhere  152  Alfred 


later  years  with  a  CTeat  question  affecting  the  j  [see  -^lfric,  ^.  950-1016].  The  name  of 
national  church.  When  Anselm  visited  £ng<-  '  .^Elf  here  is  subscribed  to  most  of  the  charters 
land  in  1078,  Archbishop  I^ianfranc  consulted  of  the  time.  Latin  writers  have  blackened 
him  about  those  whom  the  English  had  set  the  character  of  this  enemy  of  the  monks, 
up  for  themselves  as  saints,  and  took  ^tBlf-  William  of  Malmesbury  accuses  him  in  one 
heah,  who  was  looked  upon  by  his  country-  '  passage  of  the  murder  of  King  Eadward. 
men  as  a  saint  and  a  martyr,  as  an  example.  \  The  charge  is  of  course  untrue,  as  it  implies 
Lanfranc  denied  the  right  of  ^Ifheah  to  these  ;  an  action  wholly  contrary  to  his  policy.  lie 
honours.  Anselm,  however,  asserted  that  he  also  tells  an  idle  tale  of  the  repentance  of 
was  worthy  of  them,  because  he  died  in  the  ^Ifhere,  and  the  loathsome  death  which 
cause  of  justice.  Lanfranc  was  convinced,  marked  the  divine  vengeance  for  his  misdeeds, 
and  did  devout  honour  to  his  predecessor.  [Anglo-Saxon  Chron.  sub  an.  976;  Florence 
At  his  conmiand  Osbern,  a  monk  of  Canter-  of  Worcester,  sub  an.  976  ;  Henry  of  Huntings 
bury,  wrote  lives  of  ^Ifheah  in  prose  and  don,  lib.  v. ;  William  of  Malmesbury.  Qesta  Re- 
in verse.  These  compositions  were  used  in  g^™.  l»^-  "•  c.  162,  166;  Chrtm.  Monas^  de 
the  8er^'ice  on  the  day  of  the  martvrdom  of  Abingdon,  Kolls  Ser.  i,  pawim;  IreemM.  Nor- 
St.  Alphege,  the  name  bv  which  the  arch-    ™*°  Conquest,  i.  c.  o,  ^  1.]  W.  H. 

bishop  appears  in  the  Calendar.  The  prose  JSLFRED  {d,  1036),  sethelin^,  was  the 
life  remains.  It  is  a  piece  of  hagiology  rather  ;  younger  of  the  two  sons  of  Kinf  iEthel- 
than  an  historical  biography.  Osbern  also  red  and  Emma,  daughter  of  Ricnard  the 
wrote  an  account  of  the  translation  of  the  Fearless.  On  the  conquest  of  England  by 
saint,  which  was  read  on  the  anniversary  of  Swend  in  1013,  -'Elfred  and  his  brother  Ead- 
that  event.  A  plain  and  trustworthy  account  ward  were  sent  over  to  Normandy  under  the 
of  the  death  of  ^Elfheah  is  contained  in  the  care  of  -/Elf hun,  bishop  of  London.  The 
contemporary  chronicle  of  Thietmar,  bishop  sethelings  were  received  at  the  court  of 
of  Merseburg,  who  states  that  he  had  his  in-  their  uncle  Richard  the  Good,  whither  their 
formation  from  an  Englisman  named  Sewald.  mother  had  fled  not  long  before  tliey  came. 
Osbern  and  Florence  of  W'orcester  give  many  A  promise  obtained  by  Emma  from  Cnut  as 
particulars  of  the  death  with  the  evident  a  condition  of  her  marriage  to  him,  that  the 
object  of  heightening  the  effect  and  pro\'ing  succession  to  the  English  throne  should  be 
the  voluntary  character  of  the  martyrdom,  limited  to  such  children  as  she  might  bear 
They  apparently  depended  on  some  common  him,  shows  that  she  was  careless  of  the 
source.  claims  of  her  sons  by  her  former  marriage. 

[Anglo-Saxon  Chron. ;  Thietmari  Ep.  Merso-  ■  The  English  R'thelings  were,  however,  held 
burg.  Chron.  lib.  vii.,  Portz,  Scriptores,  iii.  849,  in  honour  at  Roueii,  and  their  cousin  Duke 
or  Migne,  Patrologia,  vol.  cxxxix.  p.  1384  ;  Flo-  Robert  attempted  to  enforce  their  rights  by 
ronce  of  Worcester  ;  Spehnan,  i.  625  ;  Osbern,  do  an  invasion  of  England.  His  fleet  was  kept 
Vita  S.  Elphegi,  and  Historift  de  Translatione  awav  from  our  shores  by  a  contrary  wind, 
S.  Elphegi ;  up.  Wharton's  Anglia  Sjicni,ii.  122-  and^hc  attempt  failed.  '  The  story  told  bv 
147;  P::admer,S.AnselmiVita,  i.e. 5;  Freeman,  AVilliam  of  Jumieges  that,  in  spite  of  this 
Norman  Conquest,  i.  cliap.  5.]  W.  H.        failure,  Cnut,  feeling  his  end  near,  offered 

iELFETERE  {d.  983),  ealdorman  of  the  that  half  his  kingdom  should  go  tx)  the  SBthel- 
Mercians,  was  a  kinsman  of  King  Eadgar.  ings,  may  }ye  rejected  as  wholly  improbable. 
He  was  the  head  of  the  anti-monastic  party,  i  At  the  death  of  Cnut,  in  1035,  their  rights 
which,  on  the  death  of  Eadgar  in  975,  at-  were  disregarded  by  the  English  witan,  for 
tempted  to  overthrow  the  ecclesiastical  policy  the  remembrance  of  the  ill  conduct  of  their 
he  had  pursued.  yElfhere  and  the  great  father  set  men  against  them.  The  kingdom 
men  who  held  with  him  turned  the  monks  v^s  divided.  Harold  reigned  at  London 
out  of  the  churches  in  which  Eadgar  and  '  over  the  land  north  of  the  Thames,  and 
IMshopfEthelwold  had  established  them.  In  i  Emma,  at  AVincliester,  ruled  Wessex  in  the 
recording  the  *  unrighteous  and  unlawful  ,  name  of  her  son  Ilarthacnut,  whose  caust> 
doings^of-cElfherein  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chro-  was  upheld  by  Earl  Godwine.  The  next 
nicle,  the  writer  makes  his  lament  in  verse,  year  ^^Ifred,  with  tlie  consent  of  his  brother 
There  were  two  sides  to  tlie  question,  and  the  i  Eadward,  and  perhaps  in  concert  with  him, 
secular  clergy  and  many  of  the  land  owners  had  '  made  an  attemj)t  on  England.  He  landed 
reason  to  complain  of  the  aggressions  of  the  I  at  Dover,  with  some  force  which  muBt  hav« 


monks.  After  the  murder  of  Eadward,  -'Elf- 
here  joined  with  Bunstan  in  bringing  the  body 
of  the  king,  with  great  pomp,  from  vVareham 
to  Shaftesbury.  He  died  in  983,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded in  his  ealdormanship  by  his  son  ^Elfric 


been  composed  of  Normans,  and  marchiHl 
westward,  intending  to  have  an  inter\'iew 
with  his  mother  at  Winchester.  Owing  to 
the  absence  of  Ilarthacnut,  English  feeling 
had  begun  even  in  Wessex  to  turn  towards 


Alfred  153  Alfred 

a  union  of  the  kingdom  under  Harold.  His  national  being ;  he  has  become  the  model 
accession  in  Wessex  would  have  entailed  ^  English  king,  indeed  the  model  Englishman, 
the  downfall  of  Emma,  and  ^Elfred  had  As  usual,  popular  belief  has  got  hold  of  a 
reason  to  believe  that  his  mother  would  half  truth.  It  has  picked  out  for  remem- 
favour  his  enterprise.  Earl  Godwine  met  brance  the  man  most  worthy  of  remembrance, 
him  at  Quildford.  Convinced  of  the  weak-  |  and,  as  far  as  his  personal  character  is  con- 
ness  of  the  party  of  Harthacnut,  the  earl  cemed,  its  conception  of  him  has  not  gone 
was  now  on  the  side  of  Harold.  He  set  on  ;  far  astray.  But  his  historical  position  is 
the  company  of  yElfred,  some  he  slew  out-  strangely  misconceived.  As  the  one  Old- 
right,  some  were  sold  as  slaves,  others  were  English  name  thot  is  remem])ered,  -/Elfred 
blinded,  scalped,  or  otherwise  cruelly  used,  has  drawn  to  himself  the  credit  that  belongs 
^Elfred  was  taken  alive  and  sent  to  Ely.  to  many  men  both  earlier  and  later,  and  often 
As  he  was  in  the  ship  which  broiwrht  liim  '  to  the  nation  itself.  Tlie  king  of  the  AVest- 
to  the  island,  he  was  blinded.  lie  dwelt  Saxons  grows  into  a  king  ot  all  England, 
awhile  with  the  monks,  and  when  he  died  and  he  is  made  the  founder  of  all  our  institu- 
of  the  hurts  which  he  liad  received  they  tions.  He  invents  trial  by  jury,  the  rude 
buried  him  in  their  church.  Miracles  were  '  principle  of  which  is  as  old  as  the  Teutonic 
tfaid  to  have  been  wrought  at  his  tomb.  Of  race  itself,  while  the  first  glimmerings  of  its 
no  fact  in  our  history  have  so  many  different  actual  existing  shape  cannot  be  seen  till 
accounts  been  given  as  of  the  death  of  ages  after  yElfred's  (lay.  So  he  divides  Eng- 
-Elfred.  It  forms  the  subject  of  a  poem  in  land  into  shires,  hundreds,  tithings,  and  in- 
the  Abin^on  and  Worcester  versions  of '  stitutes  the  so-called  law  of  frankpledge, 
*  the  Chronicle.  This  poem,  with  one  or  two  In  all  this  we  see  the  natural  gro\i'th  of 
additions  from  other  writers,  which  do  not  legend,  always  ready  to  find  a  ])er8onal 
contradict  its  statements,  is  the  authoritv  author  for  national  customs  which  really 
for  the  story  here  given.  Mr.  Freeman,  I  grew  of  themselves.  It  is  by  a  woi^se  process, 
by  an  ingenious  course  of  argument,  comes  by  deliberate  and  interested  falsehood,  that 
to  the  conclusion  that  in  this  matter  *  the  '  he  has  been  represented  as  the  foimder  of 
CT^at  earl  is  at  least  entitled  to  a  verdict  of  ,  the  university  of  (.)xford  and  of  one  of  its 
Not  Proven,  if  not  of  Not  Guilty.*     Setting  '  colleges. 

aside  all  vague  conjectures  ana  considera-  [  Yet  even  the  legendary  re])utation  of 
tions  of  possible  motives,  it  is  impossible  ^Elfred  is  hardly  too  great  for  his  real  merits. 
to  deny  that  the  weight  of  written  evidence  '  No  man  recorded  in  history  seems  ever  to 
is  distmctly  on  the  side  of  those  who  believe  j  have  united  so  many  gn^at  and  good  qualities. 
tliat  Earl  Godwine  took  Alfred  captive  and  At  once  captain,  lawgiver,  saint,  and  scholar, 
slew  his  companions  in  a  fearfully  cmel  j  he  devoted  himself  with  a  single  mind  to 
manner,  though  it  cannot  be  ascertained  .  the  welfare  of  his  people  in  every  way.  He 
whether  he  acted  treacherously  towards  the  |  showed  himself  alike  their  deliverer,  their 
sethelin^.  The  murder  of  ^Elfred  was  made  i  ruler,  and  their  teacher.  He  came  to  the 
the  subject  of  accusation  against  the  earl  in  crown  at  a  moment  of  extreme  national 
the  feigns  of  his  brothers  Harthacnut  and  |  danger ;  a  great  part  of  his  reign  was  taken 
£adwara  the  Confessor,  and  was  used  as  an  .  up  with  warfare  with  an  enemy  who  tlireat- 


acciisstion  against  England  and  as  a  plea  for 
the  Norman  conquest. 

[AS.  Chron.  Abingdon  and  Worcester;  Flo- 


ent»d  the  national  being ;  yet  he  found  means 
wrsonally  to  do  mon?  for  the  general  en- 
lightenment of  his  people  than  any  other 


rence  of  Worcester ;  Will.  Gemm.  vi.  11,  12,  \ni.  |  king  in  English  historv.  JOlfred  is  great, 
11 ;  Will.  Pict.ed.  Giles,  78, 79;  Encomium  Emm.  .  not  by  the  si>ecittl  devefopment  of  some  one 
iii.2-6;  Vit.Ead.ed.Luard,  400;  Will,  of  Malm.  '  or  two  powers  or  virtues,  but  bv  the  eciual 


lib.  ii.  cap.  188 ;  Henry  of  Hunt.  Mon.  Hist.  Brit. 
758,  781 ;  Freeman,  Norman  Conquest,  i.  542~ 
569.]  W.  H. 

.SLFRED  (849-901),  king  of  the  West- 
Saxons,  is  the  one  great  character  of  our 


balance  of  all.  Appearing  in  many  characters, 
he  avoids  the  special  vices  and  temptations 
of  each.  In  a  reign  of  singular  alternations 
of  overthrow  and  success,  he  is  never  cast 
doA^Ti  by  ill  luck  or  puft'ed  un  by  good.     In 


Saxons,  IB  tne  one  great  ciiaracter  oi  our  ao^^-n  by  ill  luck  or  putted  un  oy  good,  in 
early  history  whose  name  still  lives  in  popu-  I  any  case  of  war  or  or  peace,  ^f  good  luck  or 
lar  memory,  and  round  whose  well-known  of  bad,  he  is  readv  to  act  with  a  single  mind, 
historical  career  a  vast  mass  of  legend  has  '  as  the  needs  of  tlie  moment  most  call  upon 
gathered.    The  name  of  ^Hfred  is  familiar    him  to  act. 

to  many  who  perhaps  do  not  know  the  name  For  the  title  of  Great,  often  given  to 
of  any  other  king  or  other  worthy  Ix'fore  the  >  Alfred  in  modem  t  imes,  there  is  no  ancient 
Korman  Conquest.  And  popular  belief  has  |  authority.  Its  use  seems  to  go  back  no  later 
made  him  into  a  kind  of  embodiment  of  the    than  the  seventeenth  ceuturv*     There  is  in 


Alfred  IS4  Alfred 

truth  no  need  for  it.  Alexander,  Charles,  |  Charles  the  Bald,  king  of  the  West-Franks^ 
William^  needed  it  to  mark  them  off  from  and  afterwards  emperor.  And  we  are  driven, 
many  smaller  bearers  of  their  several  names ;  however  unwillingly,  to  suppoee  that  Os- 
/Klfred  practically  has  liis  name  to  himself,  burh,  the  mother  of  ^thelwulf 's  children, 
It  is  a  name  which  has  always  been  in  use  I  was  put  away  to  make  room  for  her  (see 
without  ever  being  very  common,  but  it  has  '  Wright,  Biographia  Britannica  Literaria^ 
never  been  borne  by  any  one  who  could  Anglo-Saxon  Period,  jj^.  385),  a  step  which, 
possibly  be  confounded  with  the  West-Saxon  |  among  the  Franks  at  least,  would  oe  in  no 
king.  In  the  West-Saxon  kingly  house  it  is  ^  way  wonderful.  In  no  other  way  can  we 
never  found  before  him  and  only  once  after  '  understand  the  well-known  story  told  by 
him,  nor  has  it  been  borne  by  any  king  of  I  Asser,  how  Alfred's  i;nother  showed  him  and 
the  enlarged  English  kingdom.  In  his  own  '.  his  brothers  a  book  of  poems  with  a  beautiful 
age  the  single  male  ySTZ-uame  in  the  family  '  initial  letter,  and  promised  to  give  it  to  the 
stands  out  in  a  marked  way  among  the  I  one  who  shoidd  first  learn  to  read  it.  .^fred 
yEthels  and  Eads.  Alfred  is  jElf-redj  the  j  found  a  master,  and  was  soon  able  to  read, 
rede  of  the  elves ;  it  can  hardly  be  needful  <  This  stonr  is  placed  in  Alfred's  twelfth  year, 
to  point  out  the  mistake  of  those  who  fancied  about  861,  wnen  the  mention  of  his  brothers 
that  its  meaning  was  all-peace.  Nor  can  it  I  is  in  any  case  a  difficulty.  But  in  no  case 
be  necessarj'  to  distinguish  the  name  A^Hf-red  j  could  we  put  the  story  before  the  return  of 
from  the  utterly  distinct  name  Ealh^rithy  ^thelwulf  in  866.  It  follows  therefore  that 
borne  by  a  Northumbrian  king  who,  owing  '  Osburh  must  have  outlived  her  husband's 
to  a  likeness  in  the  corrupt  I^tin  forms  of  i  second  marriage.  The  notion  that  by  .^f-  / 
the  two  names,  has  been  sometimes  con-  red's  mother  is  meant,  not  his  own  mother, 
founded  with  the  great  West-Saxon,  (see  Sir  ,  but  the  Frankish  girl,  younger  than  some  of 
T.  D.  Hardy's  note.  Will.  Malh.  Gest.  his  brothers,  whom  their  father  had  put  in 
Reyg.  ii.  123).  The  copiate  names  are  ^if-  herplace,  is  too  wild  to  be  discussed* 
icinej  JElfthryth,  Ailfgifti,  and  others  of  the  i  Whatever  mav  have  been*^designed  by 
same  class.  Unlike  so  many  of  the  Old-  '  ^^fred's  childisn  hallowing  at  Home,  no 
English  names  which  are  purely  insular,  it  '  attempt  was  made  to  set  him  up  as  the  im- 


mediate successor  of  his  father.  And  when 
^thelwulf  tried  to  fix  the  succession  be- 
forehand, by  a  will  confirmed  by  the  Witan, 
^Elfred  was  put  in  the  line  of  succession 
after  those  ol  his  brothers  who  were  put 


seems  to  have  had,  like  Ecgberht  and  a  few 
others,  a  slight  currency  on  the  continent 
(see  Normun  Conquest,  i.  779),  perhaps  owing 
to  some  kindred  Lombard  form,  as  in  the 
case  of  some  other  English  names. 

-Elfred  was  the  fifth  and  youngest  son  of  .  in  the  line  of  succession  at  all.  We  hear 
yEthelwulf,  king  of  the  West-Saxons,  and  I  nothing  of  him  directly  during  the  reigns  of 
of  his  wife  Osburh,  dau^ht^ir  of  his  cup-  I  his  brothers  -:Ethelbald  and  ^thelberht; 
bt^arer  Oslac,  of  the  old  kingly  house  of  the  ,  but  on  the  accession  of  ^^thelred  in  866 
Jutes  of  Wight  (Assek).  lie  was  bom  at  j  he  at  once  comes  into  prominence.  During 
Wantage  in  Berkshire  in  849.  In  853  he  /Ethelred's  reign  Asser  pves  .^£lfred  the 
was  sent  to  Home  by  his  father,  where  the  title  of  secundarius — possibly  equivalent  to 
pope,  Leo  IV,  took  him  to  his  *  bishopson '  |  subregulus — but  he  seems  rather  to  look  on 
and  hallowed  him  to  king.  It  seems  im- i  him  as  a  general  helper  to  his  brother  than  as 
possible  to  gainsay  this  last  statement  of  the  local  under-kinp  of  any  particular  land* 
Asser  and  the  Chronicles,  strange  as  it  is  ;  He  also  (871)  implies  that  he  had  held  that 
and  it  may  help  to  explain  some  things  that  title  during  the  time  of  his  elder  brothers, 
follow.  If  we  literally  follow  the  words  of  This  is  very  puzzling,  and  might  almost  seem 
Asser,  we  must  believe  that  the  child  was    to  suggest  that  something  of  special  king^ 


brought  back,  and  that  he  went  again  with 
his  father  two  years  later,  when  -cEthelwulf 
made  his  own  pilgrimage  to  Rome  in  855. 
But  it  is  perhaps  easier  to  suppose  that  he 
stayed  at  Rome  for  three  years  and  came 
])ack  with  his  father  in  856.  He  was  yEthel- 
wulf's  best-beloved  son,  and  his  hallowiu 
at  Rome,  an  act  so  contrary  to  all  En 


wmc: 

(TlisE 


ship,  beyond  the  common  kingliness  of  the 
kin,  was  held  to  attach  to  ^In^  from  the 
Roman  hallowing.  Anyhow,  under  -^thel- 
red,  -'Elfred,  young  as  he  still  was,  was  clearly 
the  second  man  in  the  kingdom.  In  868  he 
married  Ealhswith,  daughter  of  ^thelred 
sumamed  the  Mickle,  ealdorman  of  the 
Gainas  (a   people  whose  name  8ur\uve^  in 


prect^dent  and  English  law,  no  doubt\helped  i  Gainsborough),  and  his  wife  £adburh.f  In 
with  other  causes  to  set  the  elder  sons  of  869  he  shared  the  expedition  of  his  brotlrer  to 
^Ethelwulf  against  their  father.   On  his  way  \  Nottingham  for  the  relief  of  their  brother- 


home  -'Ethelwulf  married  and  brought  bacK 
with  him  Judith,   the   young  daughter  of 


in-law  Burhred,  king  of  the  Mercians,  against 
the  Danes  who  haa  settled  in  Northumber- 


Alfred  iss  .Alfred 

land.  In  871  the  Banes  iirst  invaded  Wessex,  I  kingdom  we  hear  nothing;  in  Devonshire 
and  .-Klfred  appears  as  the  leading  spirit  of  '  there  was  fighting,  for  a  Danish  leader  was 
that  great  year  of  battles.  He  shared  in  the  killed,  and  the  banner,  the  famous  llaven, 
great  victory  on -^£w<»*rfttw  (not  the  place  now  was  taken.  Snm'erset  seems  to  have  been 
specially  called  A^hdotnt^  but  the  whole  long  overrun  without  a  battle,  and  there  is  no  sign 
lull  with  the  battle-field  on  the  ton)  and  in  |  of  general  resistance  till  about  Easter,  when 
the  following  battles  of  Basing  and  Meiton.  the  king,  with  a  small  company,  raised  a 
"VN'hen  /Ethelred  died  soon  after  Easter  in  '  fort  at  Athelney  (.lEthelinga  ige)  among  the 
that  year,  -Alfred  succeeded  to  the  AVest-  marshes.  This  acted  as  a  centr*?  for  winning 
Saxon  crown.  lie  succeeded,  as  Asser  as-  back  what  was  lost.  The  king  s  force  grew, 
sures  us  and  as  we  certainly  have  no  reason  '  and  seven  weeks  after  Easter  he  marched  to 
to  doubt,  with  the  general  good  will.  But  Brixton  (Ecgbrihtes  stan)  on  the  ^Wiltshire 
it  is  to  be  noticed  that  neither  Asser  nor  the  border.  There,  at  the  head  of  the  whole 
Chronicles  contain  any  formal  notice  of  his  force  of  Somerset  and  Wiltshire  and  part 
election  and  coronation.  Neither  do  they  in  of  that  of  Hampshire,  he  defeated  the  Danes 
the  case  of  his  brothers  or  in  tliat  of  many  in  the  battle  of  Ethandiin  (seemingly  Eding- 
other  kin^.  But  the  fulness  of  the  narra-  i  ton  in  Wiltshire),  and  took  their  stronghold, 
tive  at  this  point  makes  the  omission  in'  this  The  Danes  and  their  king  Guthrum  now 
case  more  remarkable,  and  we  are  again  ledi  again  agreed,  with  oaths  and  hostages,  to 
to  think  what  may  have  been  the  effect  of  .leave  A\  essex,  and  further  engaged  that  the 
the  will  of /Ethelwulf  and  the  hallowing  by  king  should  receive  baptism.  Guthrum  was 
Pope  Leo.  But  that  yElfred  should  succeed  accordingly  baptized  at  Aller  in  Somerset. 
his  brother  in  preference  to  his  brother's  His  *  chnsom-loosing  *  at  Wedmore  followed, . 
yoiing  sons  was  only  according  to  the  uni-  and  this  last  seems  to  have  been  the  occasion ! 
versal  custom  of  the  nation  then  and  down    of  the  ])eace  between  ^Elfred  and  Guthrum, 

_to  the  election  of  John.  '  which  oecame  the  modt'l  for  several  later 

'    ^   yElfred*8  accession  to  the  crown  came  in    agreements  of  the  same  kind. 

the  very  thick  of  the  fighting  with  the  Danes.  Such  is  the  historical  account,  from  the 
A  month  afterwards  the  new  king  fought  ,  Chronicles  and  from  the  genuine  text  of 
with  the  Danes  at  Wilton,  the  ninth  and  Asser,  of  the  momentary  fall  and  recovery 
last  battle  of  the  year.  It  is  one  of  those  of  the  West-Saxon  kingdom  under  -Alfred. 
fights  in  which  we  read  that  the  English  It  is  an  affair  of  a  few  months  of  one  year, 
drove  the  Danes  to  flight,  and  yet  that  the  The  shire  in  which  the  king  seems  to  have 
Danes  kept  possession  of  the  place  of  slaugh-  been  at  the  time  is  overrun  by  a  sudden  in- 
ter. In  battles  between  irregular  levies  and  road,  and  a  short  lime  passes  before  any 
a  smaller  but  better  disciplined  band  of  in-  military  operations  can  be  set  on  foot  in  this 
vaders,  this  result  is  not  so  unlikely  as  it    district.     But  fighting  still  goes  on  to  the 

^  seems  at  first  sight.  But  in  any  case  the  west.  The  only  difficulty  is  that  we  hear 
W^est-Saxon  kin^om  was  so  weakened  by  nothing  of  anything  that  happened  in  any 
the  warfare  of  this  year  that  vElfred  was    part  of  the  West-Saxon   kingdom   Ix^sides 

?^lad  to  make  peace  with  the  Danes,  doubt-  Somerset  and  Devonshire.  But  so  striking 
ess  on  the  usual  terms  of  payment  of  money.  '  an  event  has  naturally  been  seized  on  as 
They  then  left  Wessex,  and  the  immediate  material  for  legend.  Thus  one  version,  form- 
kingdom  of  yElfred  had  rest  for  a  season.  '  ing  part  of  the  legend  of  Saint  Neot,  and 
N  The  second  invasion  of  Wessex  by  the  devised  for  his  exaltation  (see  John  of 
Danes  who  remained  in  England  is  the  event  '  WALLiyoFOKi),  G.vle,  i.  5^35,  et  seqq. ;  Asser, 
which  has  made  yElfreds  name  famous.  iVa;i.//i>f./ynV.481:  andseeLiNOAKD,i.  189), 
Some  smaller  attacks  went  before  the  main  tells  us  that  ^IClfred  in  the  early  part  of  his 
blow.  Thus  in  876  the  king  met  and  drove  reign  rules  harshly,  and  he  is  n'buKed  by  the 
away  some  pirate  ships.  In  876  tlie  host  |  saint  and  punished  by  being  forsaken  by  his 
*  stole '  into  \Ves8ex  and  attacked  Wareham.  people  when  the  Danes  invadtj  the  kingdom. 
The  king  now  made  peace  with  them,  and  j  lie  iiides  in  various  lurking-places,  and  now 
they  swore  on  the  hoiy  bracelet,  their  most  com(*s  in  the  famous  story  of  the  cakes.  But 
solemn  oath,  that  they  would  leave  his  do-  there  is  no  trace  of  all  this  in  the  genuine 
minions.  The  land-lorce,  however,  *  stole  *  |  work  of  Asser.  Here  is  no  forsaking  and 
away  to  Exeter ;  there,  in  877,  they  renewed  no  hiding;  .^Elfred  is  reduced  to  extreme 
their  oaths,  and  left  Wessjac  for  Cfloucester.  '  distress,  but  he  never  lays  down  his  arms. 
It  was  in  the  next  year,  87^just  after  Christ-  '  Another  legend  is  preserved  by  William  of 
mas,  that  the  wnole  Danish  power  burst  Malmesbury  (Ge^t.  Bei;,  lib.  ii.  cap.  1:21),  f 
upon  Wessex.  They  entered  the  land  at  which  cannot  be  said  to  contradict  the  his- 
dnippenham;   of  the  eastern  part  of  the  j  torical  account,  except  the  strange  statement 


Alfred  156  Alfred 

that  Hampshire,  Wiltshire,  and  Somerset  ,  part  of  Mercia  which  ^Afred  won  back  he 
were  the  only  shires  that  remained  faithful,  put  into  the  hands  of  ^lilthelied,  a  man  of 
The  king  while  in  Athelney  has  a  vision  of  the  old  kindly  house  of  Mercia,  and  who 
8aint  Cuthberht,  and  he  afterwards  goes  into  held  under  tlie  West-Saxon  king  a  position 
the  Danish  camp  disguised  as  a  harper.  In  more  like  that  of  an  under-king  than  of  an 
a  story  preserved  in  the  so-called  clironicle  ordinary  ealdorman.  To  him  he  gave  in 
«>f  Brompton  (TwYSDEN,  DfCffTTi  iScr*/><.  811)  marriage  his  daughter  .EthelflaEnl,  the  re- 
we  get  the  tale  of  his  giving  the  loaf  to  the  nownea  Lady  of  the  Mercians,  ^thelred 
poor  man  who  turned  out  to  be  Saint  Cuth-  and  -.Ethelflajd  proved  the  most  loyal  of 
berht.  In  a  northern  version  (see  Simeon  of  helpers  both  to  iElfred  and  to  his  successor 
Durham,  Hist.  Eccl.  Dun,  lib.  i.  cup.  10,  and    Eadward. 

the  History  of  Saint  Cuthbert,  Twysden^  Tlie  question  now  suggests  itself  whether 
Decern  Script.  7 1 )  the  few  weeks*  sojourn  at  it  is  not  in  this  extension  of  the  West-Saxon 
Athelney  grows  into  a  three  years'  sojourn  kingdom  that  we  are  to  look  for  the  oriffin 
at  Glastonbury,  a  name  doubtless  better  of  the  legend  which  makes -^Elfred  the  author 
known  at  Durham.  It  is  i)ossible  that  some  of  the  division  of  England  into  shires  and 
small  kernel  of  truth  may  be  found  in  these  hundreds.  As  far  as  regards  the  himdreds, 
tales,  but,  as  accounts  of  the  events  of  tlie  this  notion  is  as  old  as  William  of  Malmes-j 
year  878,  they  are  altogether  fabulous.  bury.     It  is  not  at  all  unlikely  that  iElfred 

By  the  treaty  now  made  between  .Elfred  may  have  done  in  his  new  dominion  what 
and  Guthrum,  a  frontier,  answering  in  the  his  son  Eadward  clearly  did  in  the  much 
main  to  the  Watling  Strt^t,  was  drawn  be-  larger  territory  which  he  recovered  from  the 
tween  the  immediate  dominions  of  the  two  '  Danes.  That  territory  Eadward  clearly 
kings.  That  is  to  say,  the  West-Saxon  king  mapped  out  into  new  shires  without  regard 
kept  the  whole  of  his  own  kingdom  and  to  the  boundaries  of  the  older  settlements, 
added  to  it  all  south-western  Mercia,  esta-  It  may  be  that  ^Elfre<l  had  already  begun 
blishing  also  an  overlordship,  however  no-  |  the  work  in  his  Mercian  acquisitions,  and 
minal,  over  the  land  wliich  was  yielded  to  that  some  of  the  shires  in  that  quarter  may 
the  Danes.     By  this  arrangement,  yElfred,    be  of  his  formation. 

as  compared  with  his  predecessors  before  ;  In  879  Guthrum  and  his  Danes  leA 
the  Danish  invasions,  lost  as  an  overlord,  Wessex  for  Cirencester,  where  they  were 
but  gained  as  an  immediate  sovereign.  |  in  the  part,  of  Mercia  ceded  to  JElired. 
Ecgberht  and  -.Ethelwidf  had  lH?eu  kings  ■  The  next  year  they  altogether  left  Alfred's 
only  of  the  later  Wessex  and  its  eastern  de-  ,  dominions,  and  settled  in  East-Anglia.  For 
]>endencie8,  the  land  south  of  the  Timings,  a  few  years  there  was  quiet,  but  in  884  w«' 
with  such  supremacy  as  they  miglit  bt?  able  ,'  have  the  marked  entrj-  in  the  Chronicles 
to  enforce  over  the  other  English  kingdoms,  that  the  hosts  in  East-Anglia  broke  the 
And  this  supremacy  was  undoubtedly  more  '  peace.  Tliis  was  seemingly  bv  failing  to  re- 
real  than  any  that  ^Elfred  could  for  some  ,  new  their  hostages,  and  oy  giving  help  to  a 
while  enforce  anywhere  beyond  his  own  king-  '  Scandinavian  host  which,  after  much  ravag- 
dora.  But  his  own  kingdom  was  greatly  en-  ,  ing  on  the  continent,  landed  in  Kent  and  at- 
larged,  and  that  to  a  considerable  ext«»nt  by  tacked  Rochester.  -Elfred  drove  them  back 
lands  which  had  been  lost  by  earlier  West-  to  their  ships,  and  then  sent  a  fleet  against 
Saxon  kings.  And  this  immediate  enlargtv  East  Anglia  which  came  in  for  both  a  victory 
ment  of  the  West-Saxon  kingdom  was  not  and  a  deleat  (see  the  ChronicUsy  sub  an.  884, 
all.  W'essex  and  her  king  now  stood  forth  885,  and  ^Ethel ward  as  explained  by  Lappen- 
as  the  only  English  power  in  Britain,  the  I  berg).  In  886  yElfred  took  an  important  step 
one  which  had  lived  through  the  Danish  in-  for  the  defence  of  his  kingdom  by  occupying 
roads  and  had  come  out  stronger  from  them.  '  and  fortifving  London,  which  he  put  into  the 
From  this  time  the  recovery  of  the  ]>art  of  |  handsof.'Ethelred  of  Mercia  (see  the  collation 
England  held  by  the  Danes,  and  the  union  of  of  the  authorities  in  Ku<L£*s  Parallel  Chro- 
the  whole  into  one  kingdom,  was  only  9k\  nicies).  This  .seems  to  have  been  accompanied 
question  of  time.  The  English  peoj)le  every-  by  a  general  submission  to  ^-Elfivd  of  the 
wln-re  now  learned  to  look  to  the  ^  est^Saxon  Angles  and  Saxons  throughout  Britain,  exce])t 
kinff  as  their  champion  and  deliverer,  j  i  so  far  as  they  were  hindered  by  Danish  masters. 

-Klfred  did  not  however  at  once  bring  This  is  not  very  clear,  as  the  only  separate 
the  recovered  part  of  Mercia  under  his  own  1  English  state  left  was  that  of  Bomicia  or' 
immediate  government.  The  Mercian  king-  .  aBmburgh.  Its  prince  Eadwulf  is  said  in 
dom  had  come  to  an  end  by  the  flight  of  its  another  account  (Twysden,  Decern  Script, 
king  Burhred,  ^Elfred's  brother-in-law,  and  ,  1073)  to  have  been  on  friendly  terms  with 
the  Danish  occupation  of  the  country.    Tlie    -Elfi«d,  which  most  likely  impbes  somemea- 


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